Puslapio vaizdai

was concocting for the return of the Moslem peasantry to their homes in Kissamos without coming to a peaceable understanding with the Christians, a movement which, though supported by troops, could not fail to have led to sanguinary conflicts. A similar movement was set afoot in Rethymo, and it had indeed begun to be carried out, when Costaki Pasha telegraphed to the Mutessarif to arrest it, which was immediately done. Without the presence of the fleet, which has greatly strengthened his power as against that of the military authorities, his Excellency intimated to me that he could not have ventured on this step, for it is well known that Her Majesty's Government is desirous that an understanding should be brought about between the Porte and its Christian subjects in Crete without a further effusion of blood. The cordon of troops round Rethymo was so weak that in many places single, and even half companies, were separated from each other, in a broken and wooded country, by distances of three and four miles; and, had the insurgents been so minded, they might have fallen upon and annihilated one or more of them without any considerable risk. That they did not do so may be partly due to my urgent recommendations that they should abstain from any step which might tempt the enemy to interrupt the suspension of arms which the Porte had agreed to, but had failed to carry into effect. I remarked to Costaki Pasha that it was most unlikely that the Christian population in that part of the country, however peacefully inclined, should have invited the advance of the troops, seeing that their approach had hitherto been marked, both there and in this neighbourhood, by a line of desolated villages, and his Excellency acknowledged that the movement had been insisted on by the Mussulmans.

Tidings have now come that further east, in the district of Lassethe, the insurgents have fired the late Mutessarif's konak and the barracks, while the “Panhellenion " has landed yet another cargo of arms at a place on this side of Candia.

By the steamer which carries this despatch to Syra, five Mussulman notables proceed to Constantinople, in order to protest before their Government against the principle, contended for by the Christians, of the latter being allowed more weight in the Local Administration than the Mussulmans, by reason of their numerical superiority. It is suspected that these gentlemen, who have been elected for their mission by the Moslem inhabitants of Candia, Rethymo, and Canea, have also in view the removal of Costaki Pasha from his post of Governor-General, and that it is Salih Pasha who has instigated the movement.

I have, &c. (Signed)


No. 38.

My Lord,

Consul Sandwith to the Marquis of Salisbury.-(Received June 21.)

Canea, Crete, June 11, 1878.

I HAVE the honour to inclose, for your Lordship's information, copies of two despatches which I have written to his Excellency Mr. Layard, the former reporting the advance of the Turkish troops near Rethymo into the territory held by the insurgents, in spite of the suspension of hostilities ordered by the Porte, and the latter acknowledging the receipt of his Excellency's telegrams respecting his negotiations with the Porte.

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Canea, Crete, June 6, 1878.

Sir, ON the afternoon of the 5th instant I had the honour to receive your Excellency's telegram of the same date, in which you state that in consequence of the changes in the Turkish Ministry you had not yet been able to obtain from the Porte the conditions recommended by me in a recent despatch, but that the present Grand Vizier seemed disposed to accept them, and that your Excellency entertained the hope that before long you would be able to acquaint me with his having done so.

I am much encouraged to learn that the conditions I had ventured to submit to

your Excellency have met with approval, and that the Grand Vizier is inclined to concede them.

At the same time with your Excellency's telegram, I received another from Mr. Trifilli, Consular Agent at Rethymo, which stated that on the 4th instant the troops had pushed further forward the military cordon in that neighbourhood, and that he had received a letter from some Christian Chiefs, alleging that they looked on this movement as an act of treachery, and that they saw themselves obliged to renew hostilities in order to defend their positions. They begged Mr. Trifilli to communicate this news to me, that I might make the requisite observations to the authorities.

I went the same evening to the Vali to ask for an explanation of this aggressive movement of the troops, which his Excellency thus explained. He said that for some time past the Christian inhabitants of the Cazas of Milopotamos, Amarion, and Haghios Basilios, all three extending in a radius round Rethymo, had been petition ing the authorities to occupy their districts by troops, that his Excellency had long neglected their solicitations, but that when, a few days ago, the Mutessarif of Rethymo again reported that the same petitions had been renewed, he sent the Mutessarif's letter to the Commander-in-chief, unaccompanied by any comment of his own, and that Salih Pasha had, in consequence, ordered Osman Bey, the officer commanding the troops at Rethymo, to act according to his judgment. After receiving such an instruction, Colonel Osman Bey naturally led his troops forward. I inquired of the Vali how such an order could be reconciled with the suspension of hostilities enjoined by the Porte, to which his Excellency replied that he had no knowledge of the suspension of hostilities. This answer induced me to send your Excellency my telegram of this morning, in which, after acknowledging your telegram of yesterday, I stated that the Turkish troops at Rethymo were advancing into the interior, and that the insurgents were preparing to resist them, the Vali declaring that no orders for a suspension of hostilities had been received.

When on a previous occasion I had mentioned to Costaki Pasha that your Excellency had obtained an order for a suspension of arms, the Vali had appeared to be aware of it, and to concur in its fitness for the present crisis, but after his categorical statement of yesterday it would seem either that the order had miscarried or had not been given. The present unsettled state of affairs at the Porte is perhaps a sufficient explanation of a circumstance which will breed suspicion among the Chiefs, and make them hesitate to repose full confidence in my statements, but the discrepancy between facts and statements they will attribute to the true cause, the failure of the Porte to fulfil its promises, or of the local authorities to obey its orders.

June 7.-Mr. Trifilli has just informed me by telegraph that it is not true that the Christians of the districts round Rethymo have invited the Turkish troops to advance, but that it is only the Mussulman refugees congregated in the town who are urging the authorities to widen the military cordon in order that they might reap their harvest. This appears to me a more natural explanation of the movement. The insurgents have not attacked the advancing troops. The "Panhellenion" landed arms at Sphakia a few days ago.

I have, &c. (Signed)


Inclosure 2 in No. 38.

Consul Sandwith to Mr. Layard.

Canea, Crete, June 10, 1878.

Sir, ON the 8th instant I had the honour to receive your Excellency's telegram of the previous day, in which you state that the conditions mentioned by me in a recent despatch had been sent to Costaki Pasha, with instructions that his Excellency should come to some understanding with me for giving effect to them, as the Vali is constantly appealing to the Porte. Your Excellency adds that certain objections have been raised against the return of Nikolaki Pasha, which you have not been able to overcome, and you trust that I may be successful in bringing about an arrangement.

Your Excellency has also demanded that Salih Pasha be immediately recalled, recommending that Salim Pasha be appointed in his stead, and that Stamid Bey and Hassan Bey Kavouraki be removed from the island, and you have reason to believe

that these demands will be complied with. I will carry out the final instruction contained in your Excellency's telegram in case I find it necessary.

The same evening I waited upon Costaki Pasha, and asked his Excellency if he had received instructions from the Porte that he should come to an understanding with me as to the carrying out of certain conditions which I had submitted to your Excellency, and which had met with your approval. The Vali replied that no instructions of the kind had yet reached him.

I then explained what the conditions were which I had proposed, and his Excellency appeared to consider that they were suited for the emergency, and expressed himself as perfectly ready to carry them out as soon as the Porte authorized him to do He was also well satisfied with the other measures taken by your Excellency relative to the recall of Salih Pasha and the substitution of Salim Pasha in his place, no less than with the removal of the two local magnates.


Finding that no instructions had yet been sent to the Vali, I thought it advisable to inform your Excellency thereof by my telegram of yesterday morning, in which I stated that I could not appoint a meeting with the Chiefs until I had come to a previous understanding with the Vali.

June 11.-The steamer having been delayed by bad weather, the opportunity is afforded me of acknowledging the receipt of your Excellency's telegram dated yesterday, which I had the honour to receive last night, and was to this effect, viz.: that your Excellency has been assured by the Grand Vizier that the instructions referred to in your telegram of the 7th instant had been at length transmitted to the GovernorGeneral, and that Salih Pasha was to be recalled without delay; and your Excellency desires me to inform you whether these instructions had been carried out.

Early this morning I went to see Costaki Pasha, and learnt from his lips that no instructions on the subject had yet been received by him, nor did he know anything of the recall of Salih Pasha. I accordingly transmitted to your Excellency another telegram this morning, stating that the Vali had not yet received the instructions expected, and that I would telegraph the moment he did receive them.

I hope to be able to give more welcome intelligence to your Excellency to-morrow, as I hear that the insurgent leaders are waiting for an answer to their demands with extreme impatience.

My Lord,

I have, &c.

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Consul Sandwith to the Marquis of Salisbury.—(Received June 21.)

Canea, Crete, June 13, 1878. ABOUT a month ago it was decided by the authorities in Candia, with the sanction of his Excellency the Vali, that the Mussulman inhabitants of the fertile plain of Messara, lying on the south side of the island and opposite that town, should be allowed to return to their homes in order to reap the harvest. Accordingly, about 600 of these men were armed with Martini rifles, and went forth on their peaceful errand under the protection of half a battalion of regular troops. Mr. Vice-Consul Calocherinos reported to me shortly afterwards that they had "committed many atrocities," as evidence of which he cited the murder of two old men and a boy. The energetic Commandant in Candia, Salim Pasha, had some twenty of these Bashi-Bazouks sent back under arrest, and they were made to undergo their trial. As was to be foreseen, the murders were followed by reprisals, for the Vice-Consul informed me by the last post that the Christians had murdered two of the Bashi-Bazouks.

The news has also just come that the insurgents in Mirabello, in the east end of the island, had collected a force on some heights commanding the Turkish fortress of Spina Longa, whence they directed a galling fire on the artillerymen and on the crew of the Ottoman corvette "Sinope" stationed there. One sergeant in the fortress was killed, and, on board the "Sinope," two seamen were killed and three wounded. The guns of Spina Longa being of an old pattern, could not reach the insurgents in their elevated position, and accordingly a Krupp gun and 200 Martini rifles were dispatched last night from Suda to strengthen the defence.

This attack, coupled with the landing of arms near Candia, and the burning of the barracks and konak in Mirabello, mentioned in my despatch of the 10th instant, would seem to show that an effort is now making to resuscitate the insurrec

tion in the east of the island. The Vali also informs me that sixty volunteers from Greece had landed from the steamer, bringing arms.

I have, &c.

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Mr. Cross to Sir A. H. Layard and the Marquis of Salisbury.

Foreign Office, June 25, 1878, 6 P.M.
THE following telegram from Canea in Crete has been communicated to-day by
Mr. Pender:-

"Monday evening.-Hard fighting continues to-day at Vamos, Stylo, Vesborio. Turks burning, pillaging, sacking everything. Large number of people lost. Thirteen women massacred. Turkish fleet took part in the action."

No. 41.

Sir A. H. Layard to the Marquis of Salisbury.—(Received June 26.)


Therapia, June 26, 1878. I HAVE received a telegram this morning, which states, on authority of Mr. Pender, that massacres have been committed by Turks in Crete. Such reports must be received with caution. Greeks are doing their utmost to foment insurrection in the island, and in Thessaly and Epirus, in order to produce a state of things favourable to pretensions which may be submitted to the Congress. If it had not been for this interference, the arrangement which we had proposed for pacification of Crete would have been accepted. I have heard nothing yet from Consul Sandwith to confirm above report.


No. 42.

Mr. Cross to Consul Sandwith.

Foreign Office, June 27, 1878.

I HAVE received your despatch of the 2nd instant, forwarding copies of despatches which you have addressed to Her Majesty's Ambassador at Constantinople; and with reference to your despatch to his Excellency of the 1st instant, I have requested Mr. Layard to call the attention of the Porte to the circumstance of your having been fired upon by the Turkish troops, and to express the hope of Her Majesty's Government that all possible precautions may be taken to prevent such an occurrence from happening again. I have, at the same time, to express to you my satisfaction that you have escaped without receiving any injury.

I am, &c. (Signed)


No. 43.

Consul Sandwith to the Marquis of Salisbury.—(Received June 27.)

My Lord, Canea, Crete, June 16, 1878. I HAVE the honour to transmit, for your Lordship's information, a copy of a despatch which I have addressed to his Excellency Sir A. H. Layard, explaining the arrangement I had come to with the Governor-General of Crete for the purpose of pacifying this island, and the reasons which have induced the insurgents to reject the terms of Her Majesty's Government, and to appeal to the Great Powers for the realization of their desires; and, secondly, a copy of a despatch which I have written to Vice-Admiral Lord John Hay, conveying the request of the Vali that a gun-vessel be sent to anchor off the coast of Kissamos.


I have, &c.



Inclosure 1 in No. 43.

Consul Sandwith to Sir A. H. Layard.

Canea, Crete, June 16, 1878. I HAVE the honour to inform your Excellency that late on the evening of the 13th instant, Costaki Pasha informed me that the long expected instructions which were to give his Excellency the necessary authority to treat with me on the question pending between the Cretan insurgents and the Porte had at length arrived, and, accordingly, the following morning I went to learn from his Excellency the nature of his instructions. They reproduced pretty accurately the proposals which I had the honour to submit to your Excellency in my despatch of the 26th ultimo,* which had been forwarded by your Excellency to the Porte in the form of a note, and the telegram ended by the request that Costaki Pasha would acquaint his Government with his opinion thereon. His Excellency said that the proposals appeared to him at first sight to be acceptable, but there were so many consequences which might result from their application in practice which could not be immediately foreseen, that he required at least twenty-four hours for a more attentive study of them, and that he could not properly discuss them till the morrow. Although I urged immediate action, his Excellency insisted on the delay. He also intimated that before granting such concessions to the insurgents, the concluding paragraph of his instructions required him to refer the matter again to the Porte. Against this proceeding I took a firm stand, telling his Excellency that my instructions admitted of no delay, and that instead of the two or three days which his Excellency seemed to think sufficient for an answer to arrive from his Government, experience led me to suppose that a week would be wasted before the desired reply would be forthcoming. After some difficulty Costaki Pasha consented to allow me to act without a further reference to the Porte, if I would take on myself the responsibility of insisting on immediate action, which I did without hesitation. After this interview I had the honour to send your Excellency the following telegram:

"The Porte has sent Costaki Pasha his instructions and his Excellency will give a final answer to-morrow."

The following morning I again waited on the Vali, whom I found quite disposed to accede to all my proposals with a few exceptions. In the first place his Excellency declined, for reasons which it is not necessary to explain, to be placed in official relations with Nikolaki Pasha, who I suggested should be the channel of communication between the insurgents and the Vali, between whom he declared no other mediation was required than myself. This did not appear to me to mar the scheme of pacification, though Nikolaki Pasha would, under other circumstances, have been eminently useful. His Excellency also feebly demurred to the banishment of Hamid Bey and Hassan Bey Kavouraki, suggesting that a solemn warning might serve the end in view; but I felt that their influence had been so potent for evil during many years, that nothing but their removal from the scene of their tyranny would have the desired effect. His Excellency owned that I was right in the main, and I have the fullest conviction that in deprecating their removal he was only loath to create dangerous enemies in the event of their banishment not being carried into effect. I would therefore urge on your Excellency the importance of insisting on the exile of these men. The most important modification desired by his Excellency consisted in the method of collecting the tithes. These, he thought, ought to be collected by special agents of the Government sent for that purpose to each district, as the Kaïmakams would have neither the time nor the experience required for the work. The only objection to this plan which I might have raised was one which would not redound to the honour of the insurgents, if once they are induced to give in their submission, viz., that they would not have the same facility for defrauding the Government, and I could not, out of respect to them, advance such a plea. I accordingly agreed to this change, especially as in carrying out their work, the collectors would have to depend on the local police put at their disposal by the Kaïmakams, who would thus see that no injustice was committed. The rest of the plan which your Excellency did me the honour of sanctioning, the Vali accepted in its entirety, and it was agreed that all employés should be selected from the dominant creed inhabiting each Caza, the composition of the police force bearing a relation to their respective numbers. On the return of the Mussulman peasantry to their homes, it appeared to us as necessary to insist on both communities going about unarmed, their arms being deposited in their houses.

*Inclosure 2 in No. 27.

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