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and the plate, with a sheet of paper laid over it, is made to travel between the two rollers of a copperplate press. The great pressure draws the ink out of the lines bitten into the copper and transfers it to
"Nocturne Salute," by Whistler
the paper. The ink thus lies on the surface of the paper in ridges that, where the lines have been very deeply bitten, -as in Haden's "Calais Pier" or in some plates of Turner's "Liber Studiorum,"-are of a very appreciable thickness.
Now, in the process itself are to be found the reasons why etching has served preeminently as a means for original expression as a painter art. We speak of "painter" or "original" etching, the direct product of the artist's intent, as distinguished from reproductive etching, in which the works of other artists are reproduced by the etcher. The needle in
the hand of the etcher plays freely over the plate, and to the resultant freedom and spontaneity is added the effect of the irregular action of the acid, which adds a further quivering vivacity to the line. But the artist's possibilities extend even to the inking. Before attempting to print, the ink that has been applied to a plate must obviously be removed from the surface, leaving only that which has lodged in the bitten lines that form the printing medium. There is a difference, however, in the manner of removing the ink. It may be taken off cleanly, so that the lines print almost as sharply as those of a name
"Le repos," by Charles Jacque. Fifth state Between the first and the fifth states the herdsman has wandered about on the plate, and the sheep have been changed into cattle
etchers to be their own printers. Whistler was photographed at the press, and many of his prints bear in pencil, after the signature, the letters "imp."
The texture, quality, and color of the paper used are also factors in printing. Note, for example, the difference in effect
between an etching by Meryon printed on white paper and one on the greenish paper that he favored, or run through some portfolios of the work of Buhot and mark how he experimented with various kinds. of paper. Happy is the etcher who lights on a supply of old hand-made paper, or