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of the best minds of both races. These side by side. The churches that mincouncils should be permanent bodies ister to the colored populations of and should meet regularly for sustained America should studiously avoid the study and treatment of the race prob- highly emotional type of preaching frelem in their respective cities. Such quently indulged in by those who bodies could anticipate and discount the preach to negroes. These great desort of crises that have hitherto broken nominations should emphasize the ethiupon cities as out of a clear sky as far cal at the expense of the emotional. as the rank and file of black and white Every time a preacher plays recklessly citizens have been concerned. These upon the emotions of a negro audience councils should reckon at the outset he is further cultivating a racial weakwith the fact that during the last three ness and defeating, or at least delaying, or four years multitudes of black men the ultimate ethical purpose of Chrishave come into absolutely new civic, tianity among our colored folk. The social, and industrial environment. The white denominations should carry out sudden lifting of men out of the re- an extensive program, beyond anything straints of old relations into a new yet undertaken, for the selection and environment is always attended by education of negro preachers. The danger. The negro has been released emotional type that displays an uncerfrom repressive conditions in the South tain perception of ethical values should and transferred into an atmosphere of. be ruthlessly weeded out. Better that freedom in Northern cities. If many colored districts be less churched for a have regarded liberty as license, it is while than that this type predominate. no strange happening, and should be The negro clergyman's
clergyman's preparation treated with sympathetic insight. Joint should include a good industrial educacouncils of white and black leaders tion as well as classical and theological would tend to introduce elements of instruction, so that he may be a leader sympathy and understanding into the of the total life of his people. situation. These councils should undertake exhaustive surveys of their THE NEGRO AT THE BALLOT BOX local conditions and draw up a municipal program for better housing, sani- The question of the negro and the tary, and living conditions for their ballot is a matter we shall be forced to colored populations, programs for bet- consider, and concerning which we must ter recreation facilities, better educa- come to some common understanding. tional advantages, better economic and Most students of the problem are industrial conditions, better traveling agreed that the adoption of the fiffacilities. These councils should see to teenth amendment to our Constitution it that the negro has access to adequate was a blunder. As John R. Commons legal aid and advice that will insure wrote several years ago: his getting a square deal in our courts.
The very qualities of intelligence and MORE ETHICS, LESS EMOTION
manliness which are essential for citizen
ship in a democracy were systematically The churches that minister to the expunged from the negro race through two negro have a great responsibility and hundred years of slavery. And then, by a great opportunity in this time of the cataclysm of a war of emancipation in vexed race relations. Benjamin Braw- which it took no part, this race, after ley, in his “The Negro in Literature many thousand year of savagery and two and Art,” speaking of the negro's sus- centuries of slavery, was suddenly let loose ceptibility to religious ecstasy, says into the liberty of citizenship and the electhat “the negro is thrilled not so much toral suffrage. The world never before had by the moral as by the artistic and pic- seen such a triumph of dogmatism and partorial elements in religion.” In the tisanship. It was dogmatism because a average negro susceptibility to religi- theory of abstract equality and inalienable ous emotion and blindness to moral rights of man took the place of education obligations may frequently be found and the slow evolution of moral character.
It was partisanship because a political wise. As in so many cases, unwise party, taking advantage of its triumph in legislation made inevitable practices civil war, sought to perpetuate itself that were in the abstract unjust and through amendments to the constitution. even criminal.
Until the negro as a
race is equipped to use wisely the sufIn those Southern States where the frage, white men will, wherever there blacks outnumbered the whites the are large colored populations, find ways threat of black ascendancy was met by to circumvent any legislative enactment an actual nullification of the fifteenth granting unrestricted suffrage to all amendment by intimidation, murder, negroes. The way out lies through the ballot-box stuffing, and false counting. frank acceptance of this fact and a This is frankly admitted. The negro sustained coöperative effort by the vote virtually disappeared in many re- leaders of both races to equip the negro gions. Then the white ascendancy that for a wise and safe use of the ballot. had been regained by force was fortified by legal enactments. Educational A NEW CHAPTER IN ANTHROPOLOGY tests were introduced and interpreted in a manner that would enable the most So far as I know, history records but illiterate white man to vote and prevent three results when inferior and superthe negro regardless of his intelligence ior races have lived together in the from voting. The "grandfather” and same country: (1) Amalgamation; (2) "understanding" clauses other Slavery; (3) Extinction. Is America legal quibbles used to defeat the fif- shut up to a choice of one of these teenth amendment, counting out the three? Who dares propose the first? negro without technically discriminat- Even though race prejudice did not ing against him on grounds of race, stand in the way, biology lifts its color, or previous condition of servi- warning finger. When an inferior and tude. The negro is to-day clamoring superior race inter-breed, the inferior with renewed vigor for the unrestricted pulls the superior down to its level. The right of suffrage. What are we to do quality of the race, like water, seeks about it? Shall we take as our plat- the lowest level in the process of amalform the conception that “the cost of gamation. We fought a civil war in liberty is less than the price of repres- vindication of the negro's right to sion" and attempt by federal action to emancipation from physical slavery. sweep away every state restriction upon We are taking the first steps toward the negro ballot? Or shall we honestly his industrial freedom. Let us hope accept as our platform the principle that we can put through an educational that “the suffrage must be earned, and program that will mean an end to his not merely conferred, if it is to be an political servitude. And the third outinstrument of self-protection" and start come-small we permit congestion, disover again the education of the negro ease, vice, and lynching to kill off the for citizenship, making that education race in America ? contribute toward that mastery of tools It is true, as I stated earlier, that and industrial processes, that self- there is no royal, easy, and quick solucontrol, and that coöperative capacity tion to this race problem. As in the which must underlie an intelligent use practice of medicine, our best effort of the privileges of citizenship? We will be the removal of every artificial white men have no moral right to adopt and unjust restriction that impedes the educational tests for negro suffrage evolution of the race, so that the biounless we make a genuine effort to logical and educational forces of our equip every negro in the United States civilization may do their just and perto pass those tests.
fect work. White men must abjure the It is the height of folly, however, to picturesque charlatanry of a Vardaman criticize the white men of the South as the black folk must reject the poetic for their circumvention of the fifteenth frenzy of a Du Bois, and join in the amendment. Any man of us placed in effort to write new chapter in the same position ould have done like- anthropology.
“My grandfather rode to his shop in a buggy. He wore a Prince Albert coat and a high hat. : : : During the noon-hour he went out into the yard with his men, sat on a pile of pig-iron, and ate his dinner out of a tin dinner-pail just like the rest.
Capital and labor in that plant came together around a tin dinner-pail.'”
T is a step in industrial evo- other departments. They did not un
lution, and I am confident derstand the interdependence of the va-
"Our first idea is to give everybody These are the words in the concern an all-around view of the of Henry Č. Osborn, president of the business. We want the man at the bench American Multigraph Company, Cleve- to get our point of view and we want to land, Ohio. His company recently in- get his point of view. With that idea in stituted a plan of self-government in mind we decided to let them govern the plant by which the employees have themselves. They like it, and so do we. been given a voice and vote in decid- Through the congress to which deleing many details pertaining to the con- gates are elected they take care of a ditions under which they work and in great mass of details and differences making suggestions for the general im- that have heretofore burdened the foreprovement of factory operations. Mr. man and heads of departments. The Osborn is a keen-looking man of the new responsibility has sobered the men younger generation of industrial execu- and made them think. Members of the tives. He continued :
congress know that their shopmates "Industry simply cannot endure if will hold them accountable for whatever there is to be constant irritation and they may do, and that there will be a discontent among the workers. With- quick reckoning if they are ‘not on the out attempting to dictate to others, I level.' It is the best way in the world shall tell you what we are trying to do to transform a radical into a conservato solve our own problems. Our force tive. ranges from a thousand to twenty-three “An incident occurred in this plant hundred. It it not a large factory, but during the war which shows how imit has gone beyond the small-shop stage portant it is for the men to have an in which the men can meet their em- exact knowledge of an industry. It is ployer face to face, and talk over and not enough to give them the right to adjust issues as they arise. For a long legislate. They must be given the facts time the men in one department in our about the entire business. In the infactory did not know their relation to stance I refer to one of the men out in the shop had occasion to look over some have been told that they are being papers in the front office in the course ‘robbed of the fruits of their toil,' and of his work, and among them he came that they should rise and seize what across a cost-sheet. This sheet showed rightly belongs to them. Bolshevism, that we were charging the government sabotage, strikes, and other wild outtwenty cents an hour more than we breaks among working-men can be were paying the men for making fuses. traced right back to this false teaching. Of course this chap thought he had "I believe in fighting these halfmade a great discovery, and he went truths by giving the whole truth. It about denouncing us as 'profiteers who may sound like a joke to advocate the were robbing labor.'
teaching of industrial economics to un“Now, there were two ways to dis- educated working-men, but that is part pose of this trouble-maker. One was to of our system, and I believe such teachdischarge him, and the other was to edu- ing is just as necessary as to give them cate him, and we decided to try the lat- a voice and a vote in factory manageter method first. Step by step we ex- ment. plained to him the mysteries of over- "Ignorance and prejudice are the soil head expense. Finally we made him see in which agitators sow the seed of disthat labor is only a part of the cost of content and revolution, and our chief making anything. We prepared a state- weapon is to give the men complete inment showing the factors of cost in formation." turning out our product, such as raw “Tell me what started you in this dimaterial, supervision, spoiled work, rection," I asked. “Was it the result of light, heat, taxes, insurance, stenog- an expensive strike?" raphers, bookkeepers, clerks, as well as “It is the outcome of long-continued labor. He had never seen it quite that thinking," was the reply. “My grandway before. We won him over by giv- father gave me the original idea, aling him the whole truth, and now he is though he was not aware of it. He was one of the most loyal men in the plant. the organizer of a rolling-mill, a Scotch
"Radical labor leaders and others man, and a close friend of Andrew who are causing trouble in industry Carnegie. Although he was very strict are men with little education, but with with his men, they liked him. That more than average ability, who are was something I could not understand dominated by wrong ideas derived until I talked with some of the men who from wrong or erroneous information. had worked for him in their early days. The only effective weapon to use in That was when American industry dealing with such men is to attack was in its infancy. My grandfather their wrong ideas with right ideas rode to his shop in a buggy. He based on all the facts, just as we set the wore a Prince Albert coat and man right who thought we were rob- high hat, as was the fashion in those bing labor.
days. It was said of him that when“It is alarming how many working- ever he was in bad humor he would men are being fed on half-truths about set his hat on the back of his head, economics. Taking these half-truths which was the signal that everybody as a premise, it is natural for them to must keep away from him. He was reason to a wrong conclusion. Millions stern, but just, and if a man could not of pages of printed matter are circu- do a piece of work, my grandfather lated among wage-earners, and thou- would pull off his coat and show him sands of speeches are made each year how. During the noon-hour he went based on the affirmation that labor pro- out into the yard with his men, sat on duces all wealth; therefore labor should a pile of pig-iron, and ate his dinner control all wealth. It is an alluring and a out of a tin dinner-pail just like the very dangerous doctrine, and should not rest. While they ate together they exbe allowed to go unchallenged. Thou- changed views about the work in the sands of wage-earners, just like the shop. The men had a chance to express man in our shop, are nursing resent- themselves, and they got information ment against employers because they from headquarters on the spot. Capi
tal and labor in that plant came together around a dinner-pail.
"My purpose is to bring capital and labor together through our factory organization. We have established a method for quick action right up the line from the least employee to the president."
The method of giving instruction to the employees in this plant is one that could be adapted to any factory. It consists of moving-pictures visualizing manufacturing processes, lectures by experts on production problems, and lectures on the general aspects of industry and finance. The president of the concern gives the talks on industrial economics.
No. 1-First step in founding an industry, symbolizing the fundamental idea and management. No. 2 Department for buying raw material, indicated by circle marked "RM. No. 3-Sales department, indicated by the circle marked "C" for customer. No. 4-Financial department, symbolized by the circle marked "F." No. 5- Production department, shown by the circle marked "L." No. 6-This drawing shows a present-day corporation, in which labor has no voice in the management. Mr. Osborn proposes to
a plant to make the nails he must do several new things not necessary so long as he confines himself to shoeing horses, which is really a form of personal service. To make the nails he must have special machinery, a factory, material, labor, and a way of selling his product, all of which requires capital. Brown has a little money, but not enough. So he must borrow. He can do this by giving notes, taking in a partner, or forming a company and issuing bonds or selling stock. The moment a company is formed, directors are chosen by the stockholders to manage the business."
Diagrams used by
give labor a voice and a vote through a factory organization. The outer circle in No. 6 represents the board of directors, with connecting line to the source of capital on the right. No. 7-This is an enlargement of the circle on the right of No. 6, representing the source of capital. In this chart "C" stands for credits at the bank or with the dealer in raw material; "B" for bonds; "N" for notes; "PS" for preferred stock-holders, and "CS" for common stock-holders.