Puslapio vaizdai

bus and, seizing his caravel, to brave anew the die! Ah! Martin Alonso fell a victim to his now explored sea, and to set upon the islands failure to realize the greatness of his share in discovered for Castile the standard of Portu- the work, and to his having coveted the glory gal. But some remnant of conscience in the king, ofit for himself. How splendid were Lucifer had and some lingering fear of the Catholic Sov- he not fallen! How great Martin Alonso had he ereigns, led him to allow Columbus to depart not aspired to be Columbus! He had amassed whither he would, and so he bade him a cour- the wherewithal to complete the equipment of teous and ceremonious farewell, charging him the voyage; assembled by his authority the three with congratulations to the Castilian rulers for caravels and their crews; accomplished the task the new and marvelous empire they had won. of organization when even the deputed pow

The delicate sensitiveness of his nature was ers of the sovereigns had been in vain; subdued displayed by Columbus now, as often before, the disaffected sailors; restored order when all by his turning first to the spot whence he had seemed lost, dispelled moral tempests more terset sail, thronged though it was with sad mem- rible than those of ocean; shown amid all diffiories of his former obscurity and poverty, rather culties exceptional qualities worthy from their than to the court whence the first aid toward very dissimilarity of being ranked with the suhis undertaking had come and where dazzling perhuman endowments of his prescient rival; rewards awaited its success. True it is that the but all his shrewd foresight, his firmness of will, pains and trials whereby success is won en- his patience, his heroic valor, his faculties of hance beyond measure its material and moral administration and command, were comminvalue. The humble stranger-pilot; the wander- gled with such mad jealousy, such poignant ing Genoese; the obscure sojourner in a petty envy, such hostile rivalry, as to drag him to village of the coast; the plebeian kinsman of an this shameful end and forever to tarnish his glounknown family; the unhappy father for whom rious life. His quitting Columbus to go in quest his elder son was become a grievous burden of the wealth which the Indians of San Salvathrough his inability to maintain him as his dor reported to lie hidden in the heart of Haïti deep heart's love prompted; the sorcerer, com- was an act of insubordination, unpardonable prehended only by the wisdom of Garci-Fer- anywhere, but most so upon the seas when ruin nandez the physician, and the intuition of Fray impends if all yield not the most passive obediJuan Perez the penitent, doubtless found in the ence. Neither should he, upon his return, have remembrance of the trials that had so hardly coveted the high laurels due to the greater oribeset him the motives of a higher satisfaction ginator, for even in his subordinate place peerat the fame he had won, and a deeper apprecia- less fame and benefits awaited him. The puntion of his rank of admiral and viceroy achieved ishment befitted the deed. When he reached by the heroic force of his will and his inspira- Bayona, in Galicia, near the mouth of the tion. What countless vigils! What bitter jeers Miño, Columbus was already in the Tagus ; remembered in the solitude of the cloister! when he arrived at the harbor of Saltes, CoWhat yearnings as he beheld life and hope lumbus had already landed long before him, waning! What of those long days of Juan and received his merited welcome. Naught Perez's mission to Granada? What of his lack was left Pinzon but to die. Even in that traof means, even after so favorable a compact gical and obscure ending of his woes and his as that with the sovereigns at Santa Fé? What despair, is seen the high resolve of the sailor of the desertion of his crews, his parting from who faces death as all things else. Columbus his child, his last look upon the cliff-set mon- perchance might not be overpaid by all that astery when the unknown wastes were yawn- Castile could bestow; but the fault of Pinzon ing before him, the daring discoverer? Contrast was requited beyond measure. Some, neverthe penitential procession before his setting forth theless, would excuse the pilot's error by the with the triumphal pageantry of his return; that greed of the admiral, who could not brook that requiem-like mass celebrated by the solitary Pa- any of his sailors might share in the benefits of dre Juan with the glad "Te Deum" of the crowds an enterprisewhich so conspicuously obeyed the that now awaited him; the heart-rending wail- instincts of barter and the lust of gain. From ings of farewell at his departure with the joyous the time of sighting the first island until the last acclaim of triumph; the scoffs heaped upon his reefs of Española sank from sight, Columbus mad schemes with the benedictions attending thought of naught save amassing gold, and his assured success; the lamentations of the by- spoke of naught save gold. How scanty his gone time with the present rejoicings,- the one inquiries of the Indians in regard to their reliis as the day of Calvary, the other as the day gion, laws, and customs; how endless conof the paschal resurrection! He who had most cerning gold-mines! He himself confesses that contributed to the success of the Columbian Pinzon, when they parted company, had gathplans, Pinzon, reached Puerto sadly and alone, ered much gold by barter with the natives, and like a hunted felon slunk to his home, to and had distributed it in proportionate shares


among his sailors, reserving a goodly part for prise, must at the last have become vexed at the himself. But Columbus kept for himself all covetousness of the admiral, and convinced that he found. Every prospect of profit in his that he would endeavor to turn everything to pathway tempted him and called forth his im- his own personal advantage and lasting renown. perious resolve, when he deemed the occasion But they who so persistently charge this vice propitious, to grasp it. He had well nigh lost upon Columbus ignore the main characteristics all at Santa Fe, by his inordinate demands for of a nature and temperament such as his, and more profitable conditions. His failure at the shut their eyes to the exceptional end wherecourt of Lisbon, so propitious a field for all to he was born and reared. The New World discoveries, is attributed by some to his tena- would never have been discovered if to the cious and overweening claims for his own bene- divine impulses springing from the warmth of fit in comparison with the share to fall to the a self-contained semi-religious ideal had not crown. He could not even relinquish the pal- been joined the paltry but continuous incentry prize and slender pittance offered to him tives of more sordid motives, serving to spur the who should earliest sight land. There is no will to vigilant effort and tireless activity. Providoubt whatever that the first man actually to dence and nature joined in guiding alike the behold the celebrated Lucayan shore, discov- nobler and higher part of Columbus and the ered in the morning hours of the 12th of Oc- lower and more animal part, in order that he tober, was Rodrigo de Triana; yet, because the might realize an almost fabulous ideal, in obediadmiral saw a faint gleam of light in the dis- ence to all the impelling mainsprings of the tance, a fact not even well attested, he appro- human will. If any one thing be lacking, the priated the pension, to the grievous discontent totality of the work is marred. These strangely of the good Rodrigo, who, wounded by this composite men, so lofty, yet so contradictory. attack upon his fame and his pocket, quitted while possessing in the higher attributes of the service of his sovereigns, and went over their being more of the angel than other morto the Moors. As the curious volume of tals, have likewise in their lower traits much his Prophecies 1 shows, Columbus persistently more of the animal. These mixed traits were dreamed of buying back Jerusalem from the congenital to the men of that time, when the Grand Turk, but only in the event of his find- ancient feudal chivalry was expiring and moding seas of pearls, cities of gold, streets paved ern mercantile self-interest springing up; to the with sapphires, mountains of emeralds, rivers natives of such a city as Genoa, alike artistic of diamonds, wealth such as had never fallen and commercial; to the calling of a sailor, which to Cresus or Solomon, the treasures of all the by its dual aspects looks upon the sea as a temIndies far beyond aught that philosopher could ple and a mart, and upon life as a truceless compute or even poet feign. The sovereigns combat and a business transaction; to the artthemselves discerned these failings in Colum- ists and learned men of the Renaissance in whom bus, when, in writing him the solemn epistle imagination, poetic impulse, the intuitive faculwhereby they congratulated him upon his dis- ties, sovereign inspirations, esthetic motives, the covery, they first speak of the service done to revelations of philosophy, profound thought, suGod and his king, and again of the things he perhuman art, and the worship of the true and had accomplished for religion and his coun- the beautiful attained vast proportions, at the try, and conclude by referring at considerable expense of morality and conscience,-if I may length to the profits reaped by the discoverer, venture to hint such a thing in regard to a suthis several titles, his numerous benefits, and his lime revealer who has even been very generally enormous share in the revenues to his own be- proposed for canonization. hoof. More fittingly should this first letter after the splendid achievement have been a hymn of From memory-haunted Palos, Columbus praise, and not a business reckoning. But it was went to Seville and thence by land to Barce a reckoning, and not a hymn, because the sov- lona, where the sovereigns awaited him. It be ereigns well knew the greed of the discoverering his good hap to journey through the fairas and his disposition to grasp even the uttermost and richest region of the peninsula, there is no scrap of his bargained privileges. Pinzon, nat- need of telling how he was received by Andaurally more liberal than Columbus, more gen- lusians, Murcians, Levantines, and Catalans :D erous by national traits and domestic training, his triumphal progress. One who has not hai free-handed to give, as is shown by the fact of the good fortune to witness a Levantine fet. his not having asked even a receipt for the large val can scarce form a conception of the joy o: contributions he brought to the common enter- the populace. April having already opened

1 This Book of Prophecies remains inedited. The Indias.” To Navarrete and Harrisse, only the manuscript is in the Columbian Library at Seville - a leaf seemed to be in Columbus's own handwrn portentous folio, “two fingers thick," entitled “Colec. It was written mainly in 1501. A summary is in om cion de las Profecias de la recuperacion de la Santa varrete's “Coleccion,” II., 289.-TRANSLATUE. Cibdad de Hierusalen y del descubrimiento de las


when the admiral took his way through that gold, the primitive jewelry, and the strings of enchanting Eden, it need scarce be said that seed-pearls given by the caciques, all artfully orange-blossoms showered upon him amid the displayed. Lastly came an attendant escort endless rejoicings, as the applause of innumer- of the ship's officers, and then Columbus, able crowds smote his ear. From every way. adorned with all the insignia of his various side nook he could discern through the gar- offices, a true cavalier upon a spirited charger, landed almonds and pomegranates his own haughtily erect despite his years, and heedful Mediterranean blue stretching beyond the figs of every mark of honor shown him, a smile of and aloes. Upon his stately entry into any gratitude upon his lips, the furrows of deep town, the booming of cannon, the peal of thought upon his brow, and in his eagle glance bells, the strains of sweet music, the acclaim of the reflected splendor of his soul. We need the crowds, the clash of timbrels and the mel- not dilate upon how those Barcelonese, famed ody of lutes, the homage of the civic authori- for urbanity and finished types of the culture ties surrounded by their picturesque alguacils, of their day, vied with one another in proving the joyful halleluiahs chanted by monks and their comprehension of the transcendency of priests in solemn procession, the fragrance of the incredible event. From the pavement of the streets strewn with rosemary and lavender, the streets to the cornices of the houses, a comthe portals wreathed with flowers, the house- pact multitude was gathered, delirious with fronts hung with boughs and the frondage of an enthusiasm finding vent in never-ending acthe cane, the crimson damask and snowy dra- clamations that, rising and echoing through all pery falling from casement and balconyin grace- the air, spread the electric thrill of a common ful folds, the countless streamers and banners yearning in which, as it were, the soul of the that waved above, the stretched awnings soft- whole city was condensed. In this poem of ening the glare with delicate gleams and grate- the discovery of the New World—an epic inful shadows, made such a succession of bright deed, though history must perforce narrate it pictures as art might strive in vain to represent in prose— the choice of Barcelona for the retruly. At length the discoverer drew nigh to ception of Columbus appears intentional and Barcelona. The city in its festal attire was a sight not mere chance, for none of our towns had so to see. All the luxury of the civilization of that good right to usher in the new age of labor day was gathered there in wondrous splendor. and barter as that exceptional city of the toiler

A deputation of nobles had received him and the artisan, whose nautical and mercantile beyond the city's gates, and attended him to renown competes with the greatest fame of the where the civic authorities stood in waiting, cities of Italy and Hellas. each preceded by his mace-bearer. What a Beneath a canopy of rich brocade and upon sublime meeting of the Old World and the a throne of Persian fabrics sat the two soverNew! The procession was headed by the eigns, attended by the most splendid court of crews of the caravels, bronzed by the sun and all Christendom. Gonzalez Oviedo, the chronitanned by the salt waves, exciting popular en- cler, with his minute attention to details, says thusiasm by their brave sailor-like tread and the that, even as at Santa Fé he had witnessed the vigor of their embrowned features; after came, melancholy exile of Boabdil, so now a year borne upon men's shoulders, those strange and a half later he beheld the triumphal enplants so different from any then known among try of Columbus. And rightly did he couple us — the maize with its golden ears, the yet un these memories, for the history of man records named yucca, the cocoa-palms, the broad- few events of such importance. The disleaved plantain, and the farinaceous tubers we coverer dismounted, and advancing, bonnet in now call potatoes. To this Indian flora suc- hand, beneath the standard he had planted ceeded the novel fauna, some living, others for upon the reefs of Salvador in the name of Casthe most part dried and mounted. All were tile, entered the royal audience-hall, with a amazed by the manatees, like huge aquatic deep emotion such as frail human nature could oxen, the iguanas, like gentler crocodiles, and scarce endure. By the royal dais stood the the sirens, fleshy of body and by no means as Prince Don John, in whose honor Columbus lovely as fable tells. Next came the birds, had given to Cuba the name of Juana, and parrakeets of many kinds, with brilliant silken amid the assembled court were doubtless gathplumage, mounted on lofty perches; and after ered the great patrons of Columbus, foremost these, the Indians, on foot, naked and gaily among them the Cardinal of Spain, Pedro de painted with crowns of feathers on their heads Mendoza. A murmur of admiring surprise and breech-clouts on their loins, much startled greeted the discoverer, whose brimming eyes, at the dismay they themselves caused, yet obedi- quick to discern the pathways of the ocean, ent to the glance and smile of the discoverer, could scarce trace his path in that splendid who led them where he would amid the as- hall. Moved by an irresistible impulse, the tonished crowd. After the Indians came the sovereigns cast royal etiquette aside, and stood


up, regardless of the usage of the Aragonese immeasurable vastness of the archipelago he and Castilian courts. When Columbus beheld had found, so he divined not the potent factors this mark of esteem, he sought to kneel, but he had added to interchange and trade. Had Ferdinand forbade him, and, descending from one set before his eyes the new productions so the throne, clasped him to his breast. fraught with blessing to mankind, such as the

febrifuge we call quinine, hidden on the mainA year and a half had passed from the day land he had not reached but was soon to disthe sovereigns overcame Boabdil to their re- cover, his genius, now blinded by the glitter of ception of Columbus. What a contrast between gold, would have foreseen other and incalculathese two historical events and their central ble advantages to flow from his achievement. epic figures! On the Vega of Granada perished He knew naught of the bread made from the the olden world of fatalism, and in that audi- rich ears of the maize, nor the worth of the foodence-hall of Barcelona began the new world bearing but unsightly potato, now so indispenof liberty; there despotism sank away, and here sable to man's life. Who could have foretold the rights of man dawned; beneath Mendoza's him the future of tobacco? He saw it first in cross uplifted on the Vermilion Towers fell the Cuba. Certain Indians carried it, rolled in dry social structure builded upon warfare, while be- leaves and lighted at one end, while they sucked neath the banner set by Columbus on the coral- the other end, and so regaled themselves with reef of Salvador arose another society, which, the smoke. How could he have forecast the despite its birth in armed conquest, was soon part that leaf and its smoke were to play toto be self-converted into an outgrowth of trade ward the enjoyment and the revenues of the and labor. To be scanned aright, social truths civilized world in both hemispheres? With gaze demand the far perspective of infinite time reverted to the past, Columbus believed that and space. Boabdil, setting out with the con- all these lands had fallen under the dominion quered warriors of the Koran for the Libyan of our Spain to revive the crusades of the feusands, closed the ancient era, while Columbus, dal ages, when they were in reality destined, returning from the measureless ocean with the in the plan of divine providence and in the desimple sons of the world revealed by his mighty velopment of human progress, to renew society genius, inaugurated the modern era. Yet they as they had renewed life. But the

onlookers of who had wrought these marvels knew not their his time shared not such fancies. Columbus yet full scope or transcendency, and were even un- believed that Cuba was a part of the Asiatic aware that they had in fact found a new world continent and that the second expedition to in the ocean, believing that the discovered be sent to the shores of Cuba and Española, land was but a spur of the old historical con- with more and better-equipped vessels than tinent.1 Setting aside the usages of the tra- the first, would attain to the kingdom of ditional courtly code, the Catholic Sovereigns Cathay, the golden city of Cipango and the bade Columbus be seated in their presence, realms of the Great Khan, all rich with priceand speak as he listed concerning his voyage. less gems. Whatever his inward beliefs, he The discoverer spoke freely and long, repeat- could not for an instant doubt that the Church, ing as though by rote the record of his jour- thanks to his discovery, would win many souls nal and the report he had prepared for his and the State new subjects, while the Spanish sovereigns. A humble recognition of God's aid nation should stretch out beneath new skies and and of the help vouchsafed him by God's royal through new seas to other virgin lands, as vicegerents on earth fitly prefaced his well-ar- though God had willed to reward his faith and ranged discourse. The facts being set forth in constancy by another and immaculate creation. orderly sequence, he gave due prominence to How fitting, therefore, that upon the complethe more important features of his divine Odys- tion of the discoverer's story, a celestial chant sey, and to the emotions aroused in his mind by should arise in mystic cadence, bearing to his sudden meeting with yonder virgin isles of heaven's heights a glorious “ Te Deum,” voicbeauty. Columbus spoke much of the gold he ing the emotion that possessed all hearts in that had obtained, and cast ardent eyes upon it as a marvelous moment, when it seemed as though promise of more to come. But, even as he was God and mankind were reconciled by the resunaware of the true geographical position and toration of the lost paradise.

Emilio Castelar.

1 A belief not even dispelled by the results of the by the notary Fernand Perez de Luna, in which the later voyages. See the interesting document entitled officers and seamen testified, by request of Columbus, “ Informacion y testimonio de cómo el Almirante fue á that Cuba was, indeed, a part of the mainland of India.

у reconocer la Isla de Cuba quedando persuadido de que (Navarrete, “Coleccion," II., 162.) Cuba was first era tierra-firme," drawn up on the Niña, June 12, 1494, mapped as an island by La Cosa, 1500.- TRANSLATOR.



Author of “The Chevalier of Pensieri - Vani."

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BELLAGIO: THE GODDESS MANIFEST. THE HE interval between the reunion at the gateway of Juliet's garden and the ceremony at her tomb was brief, but it had been long enough for Aurelia West to inform Tempo-Rubato that the acrobatic fantasy at Iduelegni had had other witnesses than those to whom it had been especially addressed, and pointedly to intimate to him that it might be proper for him to declare his real status before the present occasion was much older. She had been as peremptory as she dared, and had awaited his explanation with the air of one who has brought up a delinquent with a good round turn. But Tempo-Rubato had been in no wise abashed or embarrassed, or even inconvenienced. He had simply laughed loud and long,-a laugh to flood a shrine with profanation - and had asked them (all three, impartially) what they had thought of it, anyway. There had been no denial, no subterfuge, no palliation, no explanation whatever; and they were simply

left to feel that this erratic person must be allowed the widest claim he cared to make,- must be granted full freedom on the highest plane he chose to occupy,and dumbly wonder under what aspect he would see fit next to present himself. This next aspect was offered at Bellagio, and presented a transition from apple

green fustian to navy-blue serge. Our two young ladies were just ending a morning's loitering stroll on the terrace of their hotel, when a small craft happened to pass by within a hundred feet of the shore. It was one of the kind common to the Lake of Como, but was gilded, curtained, and upholstered to the verge of the operatic. The glorious azure plain of Como might straightway have become a mere muddy puddle, and the towering crest of Crocione but a bald and inconspicuous mound, and the smiling undulations of the Tremezzino simply the flat vacuity of a prairie farm, for all the heed that Aurelia West now

1 Copyright, 1891, by Henry B. Fuller. Vol. XLIV.-121.


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