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cide is commonest among lawyers and oppressors, but they will use them in rarest among newspaper editors. Even disguised forms. They get a new technic the proverbial poverty of the editor of tyranny through accumulated wealth, seems not to lessen his love of life. cliques, parties, secret societies, banks, Analysis of the ages of the suicides shows and newspapers. The so-called free the oldest suicide of the year to have nations have escaped the sufferings inbeen one hundred years of age, the flicted by one open oppressor, but instead youngest a child of four. Peculiar they are suffering “from a hundred oppathos is added to the record by the pressors, milder perhaps when taken fact that 477 children took their lives separately, but when put all together during the year. Many of these child weighing upon their shoulders with just suicides were the result of neglect, mis- the same weight." Throughout his treatment, or misunderstanding in home analysis, Bishop Velimirović rings the and school. The statistics of the report changes upon the universal tendency of substantiate the conclusions of the the oppressed to imitate their former psychiatrist that suicides, paradoxical oppressors as soon as technical freedom as it may seem, are more frequent in

is won. For this reason most wars of summer than in winter, in fair weather emancipation do not result in freedom; than in foul, in peace than in war, in tyranny simply changes its disguise and prosperity than in penury.

adopts new methods. The fruits of Suicides have doubled in Vienna since freedom turn bitter, and deep despair the signing of the armistice, and the follows high hope. All this is true, he suicide statistics of Germany, Russia, asserts, not of the newly liberated counand the near East have mounted high. tries only, but more or less of all the In the liberated countries on the Con- nations on the Continent. For keen intinent, suicide has become alarmingly sight, it would be difficult to improve common. It is this strangely coincident upon this comment: increase of suicide, with the increase of

Of nothing is so much talked in Europe as freedom in these countries, that leads the

of freedom and organization. A free man Serbian bishop to his inquiry into the

does not talk much of freedom, just as a welldeeper meanings of the discontent and

fed person does not talk of food. But the despair that drive free men to self

unfree man talks constantly of freedom, as a destruction. “It is now a year since the

hungry man talks of bread, and the divided, enslaved nations of Europe got their

the divorced, the dismembered, talk most of freedom. Are not they happy now?

what they are not-organism, organization. he asks, and goes on to say, “Some ob

The want of real freedom has made freedom servers might say yes, but the frightful

the principal object of talk, writing, and increase in the number of suicides in the liberated countries is the loudest proof

struggle in Europe during the past century.

.. Whenever on the European continent of the contrary, and besides suicides

there is talk of organization, of emancipation, there have been endless troubles rooted

go to the root of it and you will see that what in deep dissatisfaction.” In an effort to

is meant is partly self-assertion and partly determine why those who were before dissatisfied with their oppressors are now

tyranny over others less organized and less dissatisfied with their own people and

emancipated. Whenever selfish motives lie with themselves, he makes an interesting

at the root of a "struggle for freedom," and illuminating analysis of the reality brings disappointment and delusion. And

freedom comes as disguised tyranny, and and delusions of freedom. His diag

honest but ignorant men, in their bewildernosis of delusions is particularly incisive.

ment and disappointment, turn to ideas of He points out that the oppressed in

suicide. variably proceed under the fatal misconception that their oppressors are free After thus pricking the hollow bauble men, and that consequently when they of supposed freedom, he proceeds with themselves get freedom they tend to ape a trenchant analysis of the reality of their former oppressors. Newly lib- freedom which Europe must attain if erated peoples may not use exactly the she is to achieve sanity, health, and same oppressive methods as their former happiness. He says:

There are three kinds of freedom: Freedom from the brute forces of nature, freedom from oppressive men, and freedom from one's self. The first freedom is achieved through science and force, the second through politics and force, the third through religion without force.

In defeating nature men feel disappointed with the freedom they gain. For in struggling against the brute forces of nature, men themselves imbibe Nature's unscrupulous methods. ... Endless wars and mutual struggles ensue. For the liberated men ... dealt with each other in their victorious state as they saw Nature dealing with them before it was subdued.

The second kind of freedom is the freedom of nations from the oppressive nations, of men from the oppressive men. What the struggle for this kind of freedom means is well-known from the recent experiences of the world war.

Its results ... are similar to the results following the struggle of men against the tyranny of natural forces. In this stage men feel disappointed, just as in the first stage of freedom. Freedom is making them neither free nor happy. Hence-suicide!

The last kind of freedom is yet to be achieved. It is the freedom from one's self. Very few have climbed to this freedom. ... To get rid of self means to stop an inward war, a war of contradictory desires, which are crying for an outward expression-for an outward war. For whatever we have in ourselves, be it war or peace, be it despotism or freedom, we are pushed irresistibly to project it into the outer world. . . . Real freedom is not a thing to be made or constructed by external means, but it is a thing to be slowly cultivated and painfully grown. ... This inner freedom ... is supernatural, supernational, supereconomic, superpolitical, superartistic; but it illumines nature, makes nationalism nobler, settles easily economic strife, gives solidity to politics, and sweetness and harmony to art.

He concludes with the warning that a Europe set free geographically, politically, and economically, will be a technical delusion, a castle in the air, as before the war, unless through a genuine spiritual rebirth Europe gains a new vision and a new realization of freedom. Only by such rebirth, he contends, can Europe avoid being plunged into the

greatest misery known in history, as a result either of new invaders or internal disintegration. He asserts that Europe is now attempting the impossible task of combining materialism in science, epicureanism in conduct, and freedom. These will not blend.

Certain readers may dismiss all this emphasis upon the "intangibles" of the present world situation because it comes from a bishop; it may be set down as the involuntary emphasis of the ecclesiastical mind upon the spiritual factor in affairs. It is, of course, a religionist's appeal to the politicians and economists, And, frankly, had it appeared in a church paper, it probably would not have compelled comment in these columns as it has. To the writer, the significant thing was that it appeared not in the religious press, but as the leading article in a recent issue of “The New Europe,” an English journal devoted to Realpolitik. Its appearance in this secular journal is evidence of the fact that students of world politics realize that the war has brought about in Europe a dangerous chaos of spiritual, moral, and intellectual values. In fact, the plea of the bishop could be paralleled from many secular pens. Listen, for instance, to these lines from the London “Saturday Review."

The coming years will be bleak, in respect of all the generous and gracious things which are the products of leisure and of minds not wholly taken up by the necessity to live by bread alone. For a generation the world will have to concentrate upon material problems. ... The tragedy of the great war ... is that it should have killed almost everything which the best of our soldiers died to preserve, and that it should have raised more problems than it has solved. ... We would sacrifice a dozen cathedrals (as Rheims the loss of which has been so much lamented) to preserve what the war has destroyed in England. ... we would readily surrender our ten best cathedrals to be battered by the artillery of Hindenburg as ransom. Surely it would be better to lose Westminster Abbey than never again to have anybody worthy to be buried there.

Our own secular press has likewise seconded the bishop's appeal. Lothrop Stoddard, whose realistic studies of world


politics appear frequently in THE CEN- propose to the Allied premiers recogniTURY, surely a student little given to the tion of soviet Russia. These rumors, it sentimentalities, has reminded us that is true, run side by side with official and "at the beginning of the late war we semi-official statements that maintain heard much of its morally regenerative the drastic disapproval of Bolshevism effects, but as the terrible holocaust went that has all along informed Allied policy on, year after year, far-sighted moralists or lack of policy. It is a favorite trick warned against a fatal drain of Europe's of governments, however, to release idealistic forces akin to that suffered by rumors in advance of a statement of the Greek world during the Pelopon- policy in order to feel out public sentinesian War, and which might break the ment, and while this sounding of sentithin crust of European civilization built ment is going on, the government mainup since the Middle Ages.” The rela- tains its old policy with the accustomed tion of suicide to freedom, it seems, takes gestures. This may be the case in on a wider aspect than that revealed England. in the total number of men and women It seems that by a process of eliminawho take their own lives. The suicide tion of successive policies toward Russia, of civilization may be brought about by the Allies are drifting toward peace with a persistent travesty of freedom on the Lenine. At the outset, the Allied govpart of “liberated” peoples who do little ernments faced a hopeless puzzle in the more than deck despotism in a new determination of Russian policy. garb.

Their liberal, labor, and radical elements were against war on Russia; their con

servative elements were against peace TWO IDEAS ABOUT RUSSIA

with Russia. With their hands tied by

these two elements, unable either to He would be a brave man indeed who make peace or to wage war decisively, would prophesy anything respecting the Allied governments muddled along Russia. Mr. Wells may remind us that with an indecisive policy, aiding border prophecy is no longer the trick of the states against the Bolshevists and abetsoothsayer, but rather the result of ting Kolchack, Denikin, and Yudenitch. careful reasoning from cause to effect, There was much whistling in the dark but there has certainly been more of the over this policy, to keep up Allied coursoothsayer than of the scientist in the

age. We were treated to doctored news bulk of discussion about Russia. This of fictitious successes of these leaders. editorial purposes no prophecy; simply But that policy has played out. Kolan interpretation of two points of view chack, Denikin, and Yudenitch have respecting the attitude of the rest of the been clearly beaten by Lenine, and the world toward soviet Russia. At the Allied governments can no longer wage moment of writing there are numerous war against Russia under the euphoniindications that diplomatic recognition ous name of a cordon sanitaire; they face of soviet Russia may become a reality the plain alternatives of peace or war. before these comments reach the reader, If it is to be war, they face the possibilbut at this distance it is impossible to ity of hopelessly splitting their own write with a conviction of certainty. countries over the matter. The Allied

It is perhaps unnecessary to go into premiers know the little enthusiasm, detail regarding these indications, be- indeed the great antagonism, that any cause they will doubtless either become attempt to wage war against Russia on accomplished fact or the Russian situa- a big scale would evoke. tion will again prove its fertility in If England does not make peace with surprises before this statement reaches Lenine, she must fight him in the open. the newsstands. It is necessary, how- In the event of such a war, England ever, as background for an examination would be obliged to provide against the of the two points of view to be discussed, ultimate possibility of Bolshevist atto state these items.

tacks upon her outlying empire, Persia, In England, just now, there are per- Afghanistan, Mesopotamia, Egypt, sistent rumors that Lloyd George will India. The possibilities of such a war

would run so far that England's de- collaborate in a peace policy, although fensive preparations would be arduous she will probably take little noticeable and costly. Lloyd George, unless all part in its formulation and display signs fail, will not go to the country slight enthusiasm over it. Millerand with any proposal involving war against will probably with generous gesture let the Bolshevists now.

If the next gov- Lloyd George do it, and incidentally ernment in England is a Labor govern- allow the mercurial Welshman to shoulment, which is not at all unlikely, the der the blame in the event the policy probability of war against Russia is even later goes on the rocks. But this edimore remote. Plainly, the drift is torial promised not to prophesy. toward peace with soviet Russia as far This drift toward peace with Lenine as England is concerned. England has, has once more brought into clear relief from the beginning, played for a weak- two primary ideas about Russia. Beened and disintegrated Russia. She cause so much is at stake, for the whole wants no strong and integrated Russia to world, in any Russian policy, an underbecome again a thorn in the side of her standing of these two ideas is of vital imperial politics and purposes. Her importance. One school of political muddling policy to date has failed, how- thought is unalterably opposed to any ever, to split Russia into fragment states recognition of soviet Russia, while an that would never again entertain im- equally assertive school contends that perial dreams. A consistent imperial peace with Russia and her reinstatement policy in England would now decide for in international relations, economic at war against the Bolshevists, but Lloyd least, is the only sane political and George, with his eye on the Labor vote, economic strategy. These two diverhesitates.

gent points of view are held by persons Italy, like England, has all along equally convinced that Bolshevism is hoped for a weakened Russia, a disinte- economic insanity. Let us attempt to grated Russia. Italy wants no bases interpret the basic contentions upon left for a future Pan-slavic movement which these two policies rest. that might thrust its way down to the The anti-peace party begins with the Adriatic. But Italy now shares with belief that any treaty of recognition will England the failure of the Allied lack of be regarded by Lenine as a scrap of policy to bring about a weakened and paper; that all along his foreign policy disintegrated Russia, and also faces the has been, and will continue to be, guided unavoidable alternatives of actual peace by his ambitions for a world revolution; or actual war. She is in no position to that any peace will be to him only a shoulder the consequences of a decision respite, a chance to gather forces for his for war, if her people so desired. The world offensive. Persons of this belief indications are that she will agree with take no stock in the idea that Lenine's England, if England moves toward policy has been altered even in the slightpeace.

est; they think he is still bent upon BolFrance, as pointed out in these col- shevising the world. They think the umns last month, has from the beginning Allied governments are in danger of wanted a strong and integrated Russia falling victim to an insidious Bolshevist that would restore the balance of power campaign for a premature peace, and in Europe and pay back the Russian that in this matter they are likely to debt to France. France is perhaps permit Russian propaganda to succeed more strenuously anti-Bolshevist than in doing what German propaganda either England or Italy, but there is a failed to do. They fear any policy that grorving restlessness in France over the will give Lenine a chance to thrust out uncertainty and drift that have marked his tentacles of propaganda across the the Allied Russian policy. France is world and to replenish his depleted watching England's moves in the Rus- stores of materials needed for a future sian matter with undisguised care, but if revolutionary offensive. They claim France feels that she has played her last that all of the apparent changes in card in the effort to secure a strong Bolshevism, the apparent compromises republican Russia, she will undoubtedly with the existing social order, such as the hiring of bourgeois experts at high sal- ment to resist. We shall be told that once aries, the granting of private ownership peace is concluded in Russia the Bolshevists of land to peasants, and the reputed will become moderate, and all those who wish moderation of terrorism, are only astute to believe this will readily accept it without shiftings of ground on Lenine's part for further question. the securing of immediate tactical advantages. They are sure that behind This anti-peace party points to the Lenine, the politician, and a clever present world-wide sweep of Bolshevist politician at that, stands Lenine, the propaganda to prove that Lenine's revolutionist, unchanged and unchang

ambition overflows the Russian frontiers. ing. They picture Lenine as sitting in They point out the activities of Bolthe Kremlin chuckling over the present

shevist agents in Asia, Sweden, Finplight of Europe, delighted over its land, Denmark, Germany, Switzerland, economic chaos, gleeful as he observes

France, Great Britain, and the United the European exchanges tumbling about

States. They call attention to Lenine's the ears of impotent governments, as

efforts in Asia aimed at a revolution in he watches national antagonisms grow,

India, how he has been manipulating and sees territorial disputes obscure the

the twenty million Mohammedans in fundamental question of the economic Russia, on the Volga, in the Ural terrirestoration of Europe, without which tories, in Turkestan, and the eastern Europe will lack the economic vitality to Caucasus, in the interest of a revolution resist the germs of his doctrines. They

in the Mohammedan East- -a revolution picture him as happy while Allied policy that could be turned to Bolshevist begets bitterness in Germany. They account against England. They refer are convinced that he is planning to

to the success Lenine has had in almost take advantage of Europe before recon

turning Afghanistan into a Bolshevist ciliation and restoration can be brought outpost. They remind us of the celerity about, that he wants a respite, such as

with which Lenine took advantage of diplomatic recognition would give him, the Anglo-Persian treaty, but recently in order to make quick preparation for signed, to make a revolutionary appeal his world drive before it is too late.

to the Persians. China has not been Some weeks before Lenine signed a

immune to Bolshevist agitation, and peace with Esthonia and proceeded with Japan has officially put up her guards his peace offensive, a leading exponent against Lenine's propaganda. of this point of view thus outlined what The pro-peace party claims to oppose he thought Lenine's strategy would be:

Bolshevism as an economic philosophy

as strenuously as does the anti-peace It is not difficult to picture to oneself

party, but contends that military oppoLenine's political tactics in the present Euro

sition and economic blockade serve pean situation. Having defeated his Rus

simply to make a martyr of Lenine, sian opponents, his first object will be to con

enable him to lay the blame for any clude peace with each of the neighboring practical failures of the Bolshevist sysStates. He is already negotiating with

tem upon Allied persecution, and give Esthonia; when peace with Esthonia has

him ground for terrorism, in that he can been obtained, the turn will come for the

claim it to be a necessary policy of other Baltic States, for Poland and for Fin

defense against counter-revolutionary land. Meanwhile strenuous efforts will be

forces that would restore the czarist made to induce the Western Powers to follow

régime. Those who favor ecoromic the example of the border States. Every intercourse with and diplomatic recogkind of argument will be brought forward to

nition of soviet Russia claim that any make such a peace acceptable to Labor and

government in Russia or anywhere else, Capitalism alike. The former will be told

if left alone, is bound to become modthat Russia has a real working men's Govern- erate. They claim that error thrives ment; the latter will have concessions dangled best when persecuted; that when error before their eyes. This sinister combination is forced to compete in the open market of deluded workmen and greedy capitalists with truth, error fails. They want to will be a formidable force for any Govern- compel Bolshevism to come into the

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