« AnkstesnisTęsti »
longer say that we have not a Jewish
$4 question in America. We have. Before the war broke out, we were begin- This clannishness would eventually ning to ask ourselves how we were going break down were it not for the delibto deal with the mass of unassimilated erate efforts of Jewish leaders who are eastern European Jews who were tak- determined that Israel shall remain an ing possession of Manhattan Island. imperium in imperio.
imperium in imperio. If the Jews None in America was worried about persist in maintaining a distinct ethnic more Jews coming into the United consciousness and an exclusive comStates, but their continued and in- munity life, anti-Semitism will thrive definite concentration in New York in America as it has thrived in Europe. and a few other large American cities, The American nation, itself the result where they became shopkeepers and of fusion, will not tolerate without promiddlemen, brokers and bankers, law- test a foreign element in it. For the yers and newspaper men in overwhelm- Jew it is either into the melting-pot or ing numbers, began to create the back to the Ghetto. strong prejudice that undoubtedly The twofold pity of it is that the exists against the Jews in our great cen- leaders of Jewish nationalism, as it is ters of population. Had the Jews scat
Had the Jews scat- expounded to us in America, are creattered all over the United States, and ing a difficult and embarrassing situahad they gone into the producing end of tion for coreligionists whom they do business, they would have been treated not represent and who are unqualijust as any other group from Europe fiedly opposed to Jewish nationalism, which came to contribute its varied and that the ideals for the sake of part to the development of the United which they are stirring up animosStates.
ity against the Jews are wholly irrealOur 300,000 Jews, representing the izable. earlier immigration and its descendants, I have read through, with minute are to be found in all the States of the attention to every argument advanced Union, as thoroughly Americanized as and fact adduced, the articles of the any element of our population, and Dearborn "Independent." The case have rendered services to the building against the Jews has three counts: up of our country far out of proportion that they are unassimilated and canto their numbers. Our 3,000,000 Jews not be assimilated; that their first representing the later immigration and allegiance is to Jewry and not to the its children, have already given many country in which they live; and that outstanding figures to community and they are using their unique position as national life. But the 3,000,000 are an "internation" to dominate the bunched and clannish.
world. But the case rests upon the The student of Jewish life in Europe false hypothesis of Jewish racial or has grave misgivings that the old story national and cultural solidarity. It is of putting the Jew within the pale is absurd to consider the Jews as a sepagoing to repeat itself in America. But rate nation, linked together throughif this occurs, it will be, as it has not out the world by a national self-conbeen in the past, only the fault of the sciousness. It is the same mistake Jew himself.
that misinformed writers make when
they speak of the menace of Islam. tionalism, as it is being taught in the The Jews and Mohammedans have as United States by men who do not radical differences of culture and ideals understand American institutions and as Christians.
the spirit of American life, they have Just because they are Christians, let silence give consent. Many Amerone does not assume a community of ican non-Jews have thus been led spirit and a common culture to the to believe that the Jewish element as French and Germans. And yet there a whole does not intend to become is an equally wide, if not wider, gulf Americanized. Every day we read between Spanish-speaking Jews and about the interest of the Jews in ZionYiddish-speaking Jews. They hate ism, and their eagerness to be citizens one another like poison even in Jeru- of a reconstituted Palestine. Why do salem. Nor does Dr. Chaim Weiss- we not hear the other side? The best mann represent the Jews of Europe, way for the Jews to check the growth as he said he did when he was in this of anti-Semitism in America at the country recently. At Cleveland, at present moment is for every Jew who the Zionist convention in June, Dr. does not want to become a Palestinian Weissmann neglected to admit frankly to say so openly. The time has come that he was having the same trouble in for the Jews of America to refuse to Europe over Palestine funds and of- tolerate the assumption of certain ficial representation that developed in European Jews to act as spokesmen America. Most American Jews, who for the aspirations of the Jewish "race" have been swept off their feet by the or "nation.” Zionist propaganda, do not know about If Zionism were purely religious, no the meeting of leading rabbis who form American would say a word against it. the central council of "Agudas Yis. But those of us who have read Ahad roel.” The orthodox Eastern Jews Ha'Am's "Al Parashat Derachim" adopted at Vienna a protest against know that Zionism, based on this inArticle IV of the draft of the mandate fluential writer's interpretation of it, for Palestine prepared by the British is subversive to American citizenship. Government. These Jews refused to No Jew can be a follower of Asher recognize the right of Dr. Weissmann's Ginsberg (Ahad Ha'Am), and be a organization to be considered as the good American. Ginsberg in his es
. Jewish agency for coöperating and say considers Zionism as a means for advising with the administration of deepening the cultural rather than Palestine. I know personally strictly the religious life of Jewry, and he orthodox rabbis in many European believes that, while the majority of countries to whom Dr. Weissmann and the Jews must remain outside Palesall his works are as much anathema tine, their attachment to Zion will as they are to the Reform Jews in enable them to be an international America.
community linked together by the Unfortunately, the Jews who are closest of ties. indifferent to or opposed to the unAmerican propaganda of the Zionists
$ 5 have until now kept quiet. By not Call it by whatever name you will actively working against Jewish na- and explain it as you will, the Zionist
movement tends to emphasize in the try of which they are citizens. The immigrant what makes him unfit for time is poorly chosen to preach American citizenship. Jew or Gentile, Zionism. the man who comes to this country This is especially true in the United and who casts in his lot with this States, where we are a thousand times country must make it his business to more sensitive about divided loyalty learn and to express in his life Ameri- than we were before the war. can ideals and to work for American overdid the stamping out of German interests. Our colonists and our ear- and Bolshevist propaganda, fancying lier immigrants never hesitated to that it existed where it did not, it sever the ties that bound them to the must be remembered that the provocountry or the people of their origin. cation was great. When it comes to Otherwise, the United States would the rank and file of Americans, the never have become a nation. What it Americanization issue is not cheap means to be an American is taught in jingoism or left-over war hysteria. one of the books of the Hebrew Bible. It is a means of preserving the unity The story of Ruth is an epic of Ameri- of the United States, just as abolicanization. Whoever comes to us in tion, sixty years ago, was a means of the spirit of Ruth need not feel an preserving the Union. alien. Whoever comes to us in the The sponsors of the Jewish-nation spirit of Ahad Ha'Am will always be idea are, in my opinion, enemies of an alien, and will breed aliens.
American unity, and give journals like Confronted with anti-Semitism, the Dearborn "Independent” weekly what are American Jews going to do? texts to use against their coreligionWill they allow the newer element of ists. We Americans cannot afford their coreligionists to crystallize them- to have any nationalist propaganda selves into a community apart, worked spread among our fellow-citizens, esupon to give their loyalty to Palestine pecially among those recently or not and their money to Keren Hayesod, yet naturalized. Zionists will cry out
. or will they fight the Zionist propa- that a man can be a good American ganda by dissociating themselves pub- and at the same time a fervent Zionist,
a licly from the movement and all its but no involved and confused line of implications, and by enlightening the explanation and reasoning about the immigrants from eastern Europe con- spirit and purpose of Zionism will concerning the duties and privileges of vince American public opinion that a American citizenship?
man who has two countries is a good The nineteenth century gave to the citizen, or that a man can belong to Jews full rights of citizenship in west- two nations at the same time. ern Europe. In eastern Europe the Here is the test for the American Russian Revolution and the treaties who professes the Jewish religion. Is after the World War brought sudden he an American first or a Jew first? emancipation. Whether the gains are If he answers that he is an American illusory or real depends in large meas- first, is he prepared to accept the fact ure upon the Jews themselves. They that his obligations to other Amerimust choose between attachment to cans, irrespective of religion, transcend Palestine and attachment to the coun- his obligations to others of his own
faith who may be nationals of another can ideals and interests. The Keren country? With the rise of nationality Hayesod (Palestine Fund) was conin Europe this question was threshed ceived by the majority at the last Lonout between different sects of Chris- don Zionist conference as a tax or levy tendom. The Catholics of England and not as a free-will offering. That were loyal to Protestant Elizabeth. was the revelation of 1920. And now The Catholics of France rallied to in 1921 we learn that this money, a Protestant Henry IV, and then the large portion of which is to be conProtestants of France rallied to Catho- tributed by Americans, it is proposed lic Henry IV. Those who did not to administer through an agency in place country above religion were per- which the contributors have little secuted, and finally driven into exile. voice and no control at all. The American Christian is willing to The worst feature of Zionism is that say to the American Jew that in case its teachings make difficult of refutaof a difference with any foreigner, he tion the charges that the Jews are an would place the American Jew before international community, and that the Christian foreigner. The tie is their presence as an unassimilated not religion, but nationality.
group in every country is in accordance We are sure of the answer the with a plan to dominate the world. 300,000 will give. Are we sure of the In an eloquent speech at the Buffalo 3,000,000? The reason we are not convention of Reform Congregations sure is our fear of what the Zionist in May, Mr. Marcus Aaron said that propaganda is accomplishing in pre- Jewishness was a spiritual value, and venting the Americanization of immi- could not be less than that. He was grants and in undermining the loyalty fortunate in his phraseology. Living, of others to American ideals and vital faith needs only symbols. When interests. We do not hold in abhor- the Jews are dependent upon a mate rence the Jews, but we do hold in ab- rial Zion for the preservation of their horrence the Jewish nation. The exist- religion, the religion will have ceased ence of a Jewish nation, whatever to exist. The cultural Zion of Ahad connotation one gives to the term, Ha'Am demands what an American means the existence of anti-Semitism, citizen cannot give. Every element and as the Jewish nation flourishes, so in the United States must make its will anti-Semitism flourish.
cultural contribution to the United
States, holding nothing back, and no $7
exception is made for the Jews. The The split in the Zionist organization religious Zion is within the heart of the in the recent Cleveland convention worshiper. The cultural Zion is in the confirmed our belief that a serious at- home of the American Jew, and what tempt was being made by Europeans he gives and does outside must be a to bring together the Jews of America contribution to American life. There into a formidable organization, imbued remains the political Zion. American with a separate national conscious- Jews can have nothing to do with that. ness, for purposes which, while we may If they do, they are members of an not understand them clearly, are cer- international group and rightly subtainly not for the benefit of Ameri- ject to suspicion.
The Tide of Affairs
By Glenn FRANK
IS OUR RELIGIOUS LEADERSHIP BREAKING Down?
s the ministry losing its appeal as a further studies. There were about an
career for men of mind and leader- equal number of men and women ship? Is the pulpit to be deserted? graduated from such institutions as Is Christianity—at least Protestant the Moody Bible Institute of Chicago Christianity-to become voiceless in and Los Angeles, but the graduates of the United States?
such institutions are, in the main, men Some weeks ago the "New York and women of negligible educational Evening Post” conducted an investi- equipment, sincere, but ill-equipped, gation that disclosed the fact that servants of the church. Many of them to-day there are at least five thousand have had only a brief training after vacant Protestant pulpits in this coun- high school. Many of them will enter try, while Protestant theological sem- special forms of work in city missions inaries as a whole continue to show a and in itinerant evangelism. They decreasing registration. This cannot will contribute little toward a solution be dismissed as merely part of a post of the problem of the vacant pulpit. war educational slump in view of the Their theological training has been of fact that our colleges and universities the ultra-conservative sort that is turned out record-breaking graduation likely to prevent their effective minisclasses this year. These facts are, as try to the mind of the modern man. the "Post” well says, of great social In June, 1920, the Protestant semisignificance to the nation.
naries graduated eighteen hundred stuCertain facts brought out by this dents. That was far below normal, investigation should be summarized but this year the total dropped to sixbefore any independent comment is teen hundred, as just noted. Dr. made.
Robert L. Kelley, secretary of the In the face of five thousand va- Council of Church Boards of Educacant Protestant pulpits, only about tion in the United States, is quoted as sixteen hundred prospective clergy saying:
were graduated from accredited Protestant seminaries last June.
There are scarcely 5,500 students in all
Protestant seminaries to-day. This It cannot be said that all these will
should represent merely the graduation enter the pulpit. Some of them will total, while four times that number enter foreign mission fields, take up should be in undergraduate attendance various forms of social work, or pursue if the supply were to equal the demand.