Puslapio vaizdai

ciency, and that this earth was found to be nutritious. at every leisure hour; it affords quiet and never-ending Now it had long been an acknowledged fact that animal amusement, and not amusement only, but the most import life cannot be sustained by inorganic matter; but how, ant of all instruction, for it affords us visible proof that God then, in this case could such be employed as nutriment? not only clothes the "lilies of the field," and the grass Many microscopes were speedily directed to this inquiry, which to-day is, and to-morrow is cast into the oven, but and on examination, to the astonishment of an admiring that He perpetually cares for these myriad of creatures, world, this earth was found entirely to consist of shells of so small that they are invisible to the unaided sight; microscopic creatures, shells as perfect in their construc- and how, then, shall we, so much more highly favoured, tion as they were varied in their beauty. Such a circum-ever fail to rely upon His fatherly Providence and His stance as this was eminently calculated to attract the unwearying care? attention of the curious, and subsequent investigations were not long in proving the startling fact that whole tracts of country in different parts of the world-nay, solid rocksare a together formed of similar materials.

A coin shows by the impress upon it the name and date of the sovereign in whose reign it was issued, so do these "medals of creation" bear testimony to the eternal power and sovereignty of the Great Ruler of the world. Nearly 6000 years passed away before the invention of the microscope. Poetry had sought to pourtray the "flammantia moenia mundi,"-it remained for the microscope to bring them before our view. Looking with the ordinary powers of the microscope into a drop of water, we perceive minute globes rolling round and round, having within them smaller globules revolving like satellites, not around, but within their parent planet. Multitudes of various forms have been found; and Ehrenberg, who had given much time and profound attention to the examination of these forms of being, has supposed them to be possessed of numerous stomachs, an eye, and a system of bloodvessels; but sober reflection and more recent investigation have assured us that these do not exist. The interior globules, supposed by him to be stomachs, at the touch of the magic wand of a sister science, have revealed their real nature; tested by iodine, they have shown themselves to be starch granules; and these infusoria, so long claimed as part of the animal creation, are now given up to the botanist as belonging to the vegetable world.

FRIDAY, JULY 21st, at 5 p.m.



The object of this discourse was to prove that the study of the physical sciences is well adapted to become part of every general education, and to show the position it would occupy in a general plan of education. The expression 'general education," was used to denote the education of all classes of society, and especially of the poorest, which stand most in need of it. The lecturer referred to the acknowledged importance of giving education to the people, and the impossibility of raising and improving their condition without doing so. The objects of education were described as twofold. 1st. To direct the thoughts and feelings into good and useful channels, by developing a sense of duty at the expense of egotism, and teaching to sympathise with the best aspirations of humanity. 2nd. It should teach to judge correctly of such questions as occupy the attention, and to apply the conclusions to the benefit of one's fellow-men. After alluding to the insufi ciency of word-learning for these purposes, the lecturer mentioned an idea which has gained ground among some persons in this country, that education of the people should impart practical proficiency in the mechanical arts; in opposition to which he argued that no preparatory exercise in any art could be equal to the practice of it in the workshop, but that education should give such general training as would be useful for any pursuit, and develope those faculties and habits of the mind which are useful in any career. He argued that it is necessary to teach the duties to society as well as the duties of private life; for even the humblest individuals will occupy themselves with a consideration of the rights of masters and servants, and often arrive at very erroneous conclusions on the subject, and even try to put them in practice, all for want of a little sound knowledge of the subject.

A consideration of the history of the sciences shows, that the human mind, in its most successful exertions, has followed a certain definite law of progression, beginning with the systematization of the simplest of notions, such as those contained in arithmetic and geometry, and rising gradually to more complex and difficult subjects, each step serving to prepare for the next. The same principle must be observed in education, which must be so planned that each step may be perfectly understood at the time it is taught, involving only a knowledge of those which have gone before it in the series. A deviation from this principle will generally entail evil consequences, by giving the habit of remaining satisfied with mere parrot knowledge.

In his younger days he was told of a mill to grind old people young again, and laughed heartily at so absurd a story, little thinking that a greater number of years, more knowledge and mature reflection, would convince him of the truth of the tale as regards these infusoria, in whom division is multiplication; looking at one of these you will perceive a transparent line crossing it; sometimes longitudinally, sometimes transversely, sometimes obliquely, according to the different species. At each extremity of the line an indentation may next be observed, which gradually lengthens till the two halves resemble the two continents of America connected by a slender isthmus; by the continued efforts of both portions they become finally divided, and each swims off to find for itself a separate maintenance. In 24 hours a transparent line appears across each of these divided beings, and a similar division again takes place. We have heard of the calculation of the nail in a horseshoe and the squares on a chess-board, but these are trifles compared with the computation of the descendants of a single monad, which in one month would equal the number of the human inhabitants of this globe. A grain of sand appears of little importance, but the shores which say to the ocean "hither shalt thou go and no further, and here shall thy proud waves be stayed," are but composed of multitudes of these grains; so these myriads of simple forms oppose a barrier to chaos and to Brief allusion was made to the difference between a death, and retain within appointed bounds all that may science and a mere collection of facts, which was compared contribute to organic existence. These infusoria form to the difference between education and mere instruction. the base of that pyramid of animal life at the apex of The general object of the physical sciences was described, which man has proudly stood for 6000 years without dis- and it was shown that whereas physics treat of the procerning that foundation to which it owed its strength and perties of matter, chemistry has to explain the changes its security. The microscope is a most valuable instrument which those properties undergo by the mutual action of for education and for amusement; costly apparatus is not different substances. Chemistry is, therefore, physical needful, nor is great advance in science necessary to the dynamics. Inasmuch as the physical sciences combine person who uses it; the most important observations have the exercise of the reasoning faculties and the faculty of been made by the most simple means. Many of the dis-observation, their study must be preceded by that of some coveries of Ehrenberg himself were made by means of a science in which one alone of these faculties will be simple pocket-instrument. The microscope is available called into play. Now we can reason without observing,

but we cannot observe without some exertion, however small, of the reasoning faculties. Mathematics exercise and require the reasoning powers alone, and the study of at least their most elementary notions must accordingly precede that of the physical sciences. But mathematical, or any other purely formal science, does not teach the inves. tigation of truth; like logic, it shows how to find the consequences of propositions whether true or false. Every practical application of human reason involves no doubt some exercise of the deductive faculties, but it involves also the power of estimating at their true value facts for which no deductive evidence can be obtained.

It is quite as important, and probably quite as difficult, for the decision of a given question, to select judiciously the facts on which to reason, as to reason upon them when once selected, and the formal sciences (mathematics and logic) cannot help one in the selection.


the fields or woods; and suggested that the Society of
Arts might advantageously promote the production of a
cheap educational microscope, of a far better kind than
any of the low-priced instruments at present in use.
then showed that the powers of comparison, abstraction,
generalization, in fact all the reasoning faculties, find their
appropriate exercise in the various departments of this
study, which has occupied some of the greatest minds in
every age; and he urged that it possesses this great ad-
vantage, when pursued in connection with more exact
sciences, or with branches of knowledge which are essen-
tially non-progressive, that, from its very nature and con-
dition, its facts being continually multiplied and made
more precise, and its doctrines being continually modified
and rendered more comprehensive, the study of it tends
to prevent the intellect from placing too much reliance on
its own beliefs, and to foster that candid and discri-
minating appreciation of what is new to it, which is the
basis of all sound progress.

SATURDAY, JULY 22nd, at 5 p.m.


The lecturer argued that for this purpose the best process, and the one practically resorted to by the human mind for judging of stated matters of fact which are be- In conclusion, Dr. Carpenter adverted briefly to the poetic, yond the reach of deductive evidence, is to compare them the moral, and the religious bearings of this study; and exwith others well-known and proved. Hence the import-pressed his strong conviction that, by judicious guidance, ance of storing the mind with simple and well-digested it might be made to act beneficially on a larger proportion facts, which may serve in cases of difficulty as samples of of man's faculties, than any other single object of pursuit. what natural truths are like. These are to be best obtained in the physical sciences, which present explanations of the simplest and best known facts of nature, and those best calculated to serve as a foundation of a sound knowledge of her laws and processes. The physical sciences treat, moreover, of common things, concerning which most persons are liable, in the absence of instruction, to form erroneous notions, which, once stored up in the mind, become guides to error, just as truth is a guide to the discovery of new truths. Various other mental and material advantages were described, which would result from the general dissemination of a knowledge of the principles of the physical sciences, and the lecturer expressed his conviction that they are destined to be taught to some extent even in the most elementary of popular schoolsand that it would not be difficult to do much towards that result in the present state of public instruction.

FRIDAY, JULY 21st, at 8 p.m.

M.D., F.R.S.

After stating it to be his conviction, that all sound education should aim at the formation of a taste for pursuits, which, while wholesome and beneficial in themselves, should also be sources of pleasure, and therefore should attract the individual from tastes and habits of a lower character, Dr. Carpenter showed how deeply-rooted in our stitution is sympathy with Nature, and especially with Animated Nature, and in how great a variety of modes this sympathy may be called out, so as to adapt the study of Natural History to minds of every grade of cultivation and of the most diverse tendencies in other respects.

Taking physiological science in its widest sense, as the equivalent or biology-the science of individual life-the lecturer proposed to consider in succession, 1st. Its position and scope as a branch of knowledge; 2nd. Its value as a means of mental discipline; 3rd. Its worth as practical information; and 4th. At what period it may best be made a branch of education.

1. The subject matter of physiological science differs from that of the mathematical and physico-chemical sciences, inasmuch as rest is the normal state of the objects with which the two latter are concerned, while, on the other hand, incessant cyclical change is the essence of living bodies. Tendency to equilibrium of force and to permanency of form, is the character of that portion of the universe which does not live; tendency to disturbance of existing equilibrium and to the assumption of forms which succeed one another in definite order, is the character of all living beings whatsoever; and for the present we may take this distinction as an ultimate fact.

Now does this difference in subject-matter imply that difference of method which is so often assumed ?

The lecturer said that for his own part he was unable to discover any real difference between the methods of science and those of ordinary life. Science is nothing but trained and organized common sense, and its great results are obtained by methods identical in nature with those by which the most ordinary and trivial business is carried on. But if this be true, it would seem highly improbable that any real difference should exist between the methods of different sciences.

Considering it, then, as an instrument of Intellectual education, he pointed out its great value as a means of The lecturer next considered in detail the points in training the observing powers, and of forming habits of which the methods of physiological science are said to accurate description; more especially dwelling on the im- differ from those of the mathematical and physico-che portance of learning to separate the inferences which the mical sciences. The fallacies involved in the application mind almost unconsciously forms, from the facts actually of the term "inexact" to physiological science; in the observed, which are often misrepresented under the in assertion that it is especially characterised by the use of fluence of preconceived impressions. The disregard of the "comparative" method-comparison being, on the conthis distinction is a most fertile source of error and con- trary, the first step in all sciences-were pointed out. fusion in the ordinary business of life, as well as in almost Particular attention was directed to the extreme incorevery department of science. This education of the ob-rectness of the doctrine that the physiological sciences are serving powers by means of Natural History, may be prosecuted under every variety of condition, different modes being adopted according to circumstances, and it may be advantageously commenced at a very early period of life. Dr.Carpenter particularly referred to the Microscope, as furnishing most efficient aid, especially to the dwellers in large towns, cut off from more than an occasional excursion to

not "experimental," inasmuch as there is not a single fact of any importance in physiology which has been established otherwise than by experiment. And, finally, the supposed distinction between natural history classification and other classification-viz., that biological classes are based on type and not on definition-was shown to be the result of confounding a transitory, imperfect state of

biological classification with its essential condition. The lecturer particularly brought forward illustrative cases to show that all scientific natural history classification is, on the contrary, based on definition, and not on type.

ceeded to give a short account of Locke's system of common-place book. He stated that it was a book from the very first, and not, as was the system he himself advocated, a collection of loose papers gradually built up Biology, then, is at one with all other sciences, so far into a book. After describing Locke's mode of entering his as its methods are concerned; and these methods are- quotations in the body of the book, and the mode of conObservation and Experiment; Classification and General-structing and using the index, the lecturer expressed surisation; Deduction and Verification. The lecturer prise that such a man as John Locke should have adopted illustrated their application by going through the process so very artificial a plan,-a plan which held together by which the doctrine of the circulation of the blood is passages referring to the most opposite subjects, by the established, and he took occasion more particularly to artificial tie of a common initial letter, and a common insist upon and illustrate the great importance of verifica- first vowel. Todd's Index Rerum, was open to the same tion. objection, and neither it, nor Locke's common-place book, While, however, insisting thus strongly upon the nor any other analogous method could be said to be of general identity of biological methods with those of other any service in self-education. In using these methods sciences, the lecturer explained that particular portions of there was no necessity for any other exercise of the mind these methods, viz., Observation, Experiment, Comparison, than that which was required to determine the initial and Classification, are much more prominently brought letter and first vowel of some leading word which would into play in biology than elsewhere, and that therefore prove suggestive of the quotation or other entry of which this science affords far more abundant means of training the owner of a common-place book might happen to be the faculties in these directions than any other. Hence in search, and thus enable him to turn to it. Dr. Guy its disciplinal value. then proceeded to describe his own plan. He represented it to be one which required at every stage of the process by which the loose leaves were built up into a book, the exercise of the mind in a useful work of analysis. The loose leaves, which are all of the same size, are ruled with horizontal lines at the top, and a series of vertical lines beginning at the left-hand border. The first vertical line rules off a blank space for the spring by which the loose pages and index are at last to be made up into a book. The second vertical line creates a narrow column in which to write a summary of the contents of the passage to be entered. The third vertical line creates a very narrow column for figures of reference, and the rest of the page is given up to the entries to be made. The horizontal lines are for the following purpose: on the upper line, at the right-hand corner of the page, the subject is written; on the second line, the subdivision of the subject; and on the third line, the very proposition which the entries are Finally, in considering the period at which the teach-intended to illustrate. This page, and, if necessary, others ng of physiological science might best be commenced, the lecturer said, that while no age was too young for the ready and interested reception of the common facts of biology, it was questionable if its systematic teaching could be commenced with advantage before the student was in possession of a considerable amount of physical and chemical information.

After showing the peculiarly central position of biology, midway between the mathematical and physico-chemical sciences on the one hand, and the social and political sciences on the other, the lecturer turned to its practical application, and after pointing out the lamentable results to which their profound ignorance as to the simplest points of the structure and working of their own frames, lead even the most highly-educated classes of this country, he indicated the moral bearings of the science, the influence which a knowledge of the distribution of pleasures and pains among even the most despised of the lower animals, might have upon our conception of the divine government; and then, passing to the aesthetic side of the question, he showed how this ignorance of natural science hinders men from seeking out the most abundant of all sources of those pleasures which are derivable from beauty.


SATURDAY, JULY 22ND, at 8 p.m.; ON THE USE OF COMMON-PLACE BOOKS IN SELF-EDUCABY WILLIAM A. GUY, M.B. CANTAB., F.S.S. The lecturer prefaced his description of his own plan of common-place book by stating that a subject which had engaged the serious attention of John Locke, who had himself invented and described a common-place book, could not but be deserving of the notice of his audience. He went on to observe that his subject was one of universal interest, for there was no man, whatever his calling or profession, who did not find it necessary to commit to writing the knowledge which he obtained by observation, conversation, and reading. The statesman, the lawyer, the physician, the clergyman, and even the literateur and miscellaneous writer, must adopt some orderly plan for committing to writing, and in a form admitting of being readily referred to, the subjects which they found to be important or interesting. Even the author of Hudibras, if we may trust to the statement of Dr. Johnson, made use of a common-place book. The term common-place book" was, perhaps, calculated to mislead; but there was no analogy between a common-place book and a common-place person. The book might contain a rare collection of important facts, ingenious hypotheses, sound theories, happy thoughts, graceful expressions, and brilliant fancies. Dr. Guy then pro

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in succession, are devoted to this one proposition, and to this alone. This loose leaf is placed in a portfolio of folded paper, on the outside of which the subject is written, and so with other leaves containing matter referring to the same subject. When these leaves increase so as to require to be subdivided, they are divided among like portfolios of folded paper, bearing on the outside the subject and subdivision of the subject inscribed on the loose leaves which they are to contain. These portfolios are kept in a drawer. When they have become numerous, they are themselves placed in a portfolio of stiffer paper, with the subject written or printed outside of it; they are then at any time ready to be made up into a book. This is done by taking as many index papers, bearing cach a printed index letter of the alphabet, as there are portfolios, and placing before each index paper, and between it and its predecessor, the contents of one of the portfolios. In this manner the space between one index paper and another becomes virtually a portfolio. All that is now required is a table of contents of the size of the index papers, less the projection bearing the index letter, and inscribed with a table of contents, and a column of small index letters. All these papers having been brought together are placed in a portfolio with a large flexible back, and held together by a spring grasp ing the back. In using the common-place book thus built up, we turn to the table of reference and subdivivision of the subject to which the book is devoted, and the letter opposite to that subdivision refers us to the index page, before which all the entries referring to that subdivision are arranged. Dr. Guy illustrated his lecture by examples, and referred to the "Quarterly Journal of the Statistical Society" for January 1841, for his original account of his plan of Common-Place Book.

MONDAY, JULY 24th, at 5 p.m.


ments as a matter of right. This rule being established, let us further suppose the whole country to be divided into districts, or educational circuits, of such extent as the state of education and the amount of population might

classes. The third-class certificate to be awarded to

The second-class to be conferred

ON THE INFLUENCE OF EXAMINATION AS AN INSTRUMENT OF EDUCATION. BY THE REV. JAMES BOOTH, D.C.L., F.R.S., &c. After expressing the belief that the Educational Exhi-require; and that a Board of Examiners were appointed bition will mark an era in the progress of national education in this country, the lecturer expressed the hope that the collection should not be forced to share the doom of its great predecessor, and be resolved again, a few weeks hence, into its constituent elements. But having said thus much, he added, that educational apparatus, after all, was but the dry bones of education. There are only two ways by which a real advancement can be secured, by providing an adequate supply of well-trained teachers, and by giving to the pupils sufficient motives for exernary examination. tion; of these two the latter is by far the more, important element. Now a system of general examination would be the most powerful instrument we could employ to promote a truly national education, and it would enable us to elude the religious difficulty which on all sides besets and hampers us. This is the principle on which our Universities, without any external supervision or control, continue to provide an admirable training for the minds of those committed to their charge. But it is not in the Universities alone that examination is used as an instrument to promote education. In the learned professions, as they are called, in the East India Company's service, military and civil, in the royal navy, and lately in the army and in our commercial marine, examination has been used as the great instrument for promoting and testing proficiency in the acquisition of knowledge. But by far the most important move in this direction, is the proposal on the part of the government-which was formally recommended in the speech from the throne, at the commencement of the present session,-to throw to public competition the appointments which are now the private patronage of the ministers of the crown, a measure which has been ably advocated by its great promoters, Sir Charles Trevelyan and Sir Stafford Northcote. It is remarkable that this self-denying ordinance of the government, this proposal to denude itself of patronage for the benefit of the public, has been received with coldness by that very public for whose benefit it was proposed. The Duke of Argyll and Earl Granville have ably defended the measure against the attacks of professing friends of education, while a portion of the press, to which the Times is an honourable exception, which boasts itself the friend of progress and the advocate of reform, argues against it on principles which, if admitted, would prove that ignorance is the very best qualification a man can have for the efficient discharge of public duties, Some six or seven years ago the lecturer wrote a pamphlet, which he published under the title "Examination the Province of the State," in which he gave the outline of a system, very similar in principle to that which is now recommended to the Mechanics' Institutions of the country by the Council of the Society of Arts. The plan was somewhat as follows:-Let the Government establish a rule, or let che legislature, if necessary, enact a law, that no person after the yearshall be admitted to any employment under the crown, or be eligible to discharge the duties of any public official appointment, who shall not either have taken a degree in some University of the United Kingdom, or passed through one of the Military Colleges, or obtained a certificate from the Board of Examiners, hereafter referred to. Let such a certificate have the effect of placing the holder in the class from which all official appointments must necessarily be filled, but not to give a claim to such appoint

*Examination the Province of the State, or the Outlines of a Practical System for the Extension of National Education. By the Rev. J. Booth, LL.D., F.R.S., &c., Chaplain to the Marquis of Lansdowne, and President of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Liverpool. London: J. Parker, West Strand. Svo., 74p., 25.

by the crown, who should hold in each circuit an annual examination of candidates, in courses of subjects by them previously appointed. At this examination all persons should be permitted to present themselves, no matter where educated. This Board should be empowered to issue to successful candidates certificates of three those who should show that they had a fair average acquaintance with the subjects set down for the ordionly on those whose answering should be of high order; while the first-class certificate should be reserved for those who, in addition to the knowledge and answering which would qualify them to obtain the second-class certificate, should undergo a voluntary examination in the higher departments of some course of literature or science (to be selected by themselves under certain obvious restrictions,) and who should prove their knowledge to be extensive in a cheap form, or sanction the publication of, an Eduand accurate. The Board of Examiners should publish, cational Gazette, which should contain accounts of their proceedings, of the examinations that had recently been held, and which should give the names of the successful candidates, the class of certifiate adjudged, their residences, the schools at which they had been educated, the number of those who presented themselves for examinIt should be moreover ation, and the number rejected. an established rule, that no examiner inspect or visit officially any school. Their duties should be strictly limited to examine such candidates as should voluntarily present themselves for examination and to award the proper certificates. A sum should be charged for each certificate. To issue them free of charge would be injudicious. Men seldom much value that which costs them nothing. These are the bare outlines of a plan that would require very little preliminary organisation; no capital to be expended in costly structures or in architectural decoraIt would interfere in no way with the present schoolmasters. Treating Churchman and Dissenter alike, it would calm down religious animosity; while it would carefully provide that the duties of religion should be inculcated by all sects, it would not meddle with the doctrines of any. There would be no grounds for the sepaleft in the hands of the people themselves, their union ration of religious from secular instruction. Both being might be secured with the utmost safety. No candidate, however, should be permitted to present himself for examination without producing a certificate from his clergyman or other religious teacher, testifying to his moral character and religious knowledge. This plan would not interfere with any established functionary, nor supplant any local authority, nor deprive any corporate body of dition of the middle and lower classes to a degree of which their rights. Self-supporting, it would elevate the conwe can scarcely form an adequate conception; and, finally, other practicable one which could be devised. It would it seems less open to grave objection than almost any be difficult to propose, for the promotion of education, any scheme, even of the most meagre kind, which would interfere so little with prejudices or with voluntary exertion. The result of such a system would be that in a short time we should see the youth of the middle, and, to a great extent, of the poorer classes too, with minds well stored, and with intellects developed, taught to rely on their own energies, and, diverging from this point as from a common centre, bearing with them into their new pursuits that steadiness of application, that force of will, that facility in turning the well-trained faculties of the mind on an untried subject which previous exercise of the understanding and habits of patient study can alone bestow.


child of air, exercise, and wholesome food, because it was
born into the world with a delicate frame, as to condemn
his ear or his voice, his eye or his head to remain unexer-
cised, because he manifested no genius for music and
drawing. Those who, believing in the possibility, doubt
the propriety of making music an element of education,
generally justify their opposition by one or other of these
two propositions, or, incredible as it may appear, by both
of them.
1. That music is a mere accomplishment.

2. That it is so difficult, as to take from other studies an amount of time and attention which cannot be spared from them.

The lecturer then referred to the Report of the Com-grammar or arithmetic. It would be as idle to deprive a mittee of the Society of Arts on Industrial Instruction,* in which the question of examination was discussed at length, and the strength of public opinion in its favour shown. But there are those who will say, such a measure as you advocate would lead to very great and important changes in the social and moral aspects of the country. We freely admit the charge. They would lead to such, unquestionably. But change is the condition of the life of every organised being. To cease to change is to cease to live. It is no less so of the life of a nation. Contrast the United States of America with the worn-out empires of the East, which have long since passed away. The restlessness of the ocean does not affect its stability. It is the condition of life for all within its bosom. Changes like those we advocate are but the developments of a healthy growth, and of a progress upwards to a long maturity. Change is life; sameness is death. That unchanging aspect of national institutions which has been sometimes lauded, is almost always to be deprecated; for time has shown that reform does not imply subversion, and that long unchecked decay does not admit of conservative renovation. Moreover, when an institution lives in the heart of a nation, the parasitical support of protective laws checks its development, and cramps it growth. We trust, then, in the onward progress of legislation, and that as our people increase in knowledge they will also grow in wisdom, and that these plied together will be the strength and the stay of a hope of better things to come, and of the stability of the present.

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The lecturer commenced by adverting to the difficulties in making the subject of his lecture attractive, yet he believed it was far easier than it was fourteen or fifteen years ago, when it first fell to his lot to take a share in performing it. For, though much remained to be done, several of those objections which stood in the way of any general diffusion of musical knowledge, had been annihilated by fair discussion, or had died out from want of vitality. It was objected at one time that skill in vocal music was very likely not to say certain-to lead those who acquired it into dissipation, and to promote habits of intemperance; at all events, that in the case of the working classes learning to sing, and singing, would distract their attention from those avocations to which they must look for their daily bread. It was objected, half a century earlier, that the power of reading would enable persons of the same class to read 'bad' books; and the power of writing to commit forgery. Experience has exploded this fallacy. A general impression, however, still prevails, that every department of the Fine Arts is not so much a subject for intellectual exercise, wherein a reasonable amount of appliation will ensure a reasonable amount of success, as a matter in which application goes for nothing at all. That certain persons show a greater aptitude for certain artistic pursuits a quick ear or a correct eye, for instance and that such persons will learn to sing or to draw apparently with more ease than others, no one will deny But if it be implied' that such inequality in organization is so great and so common, that some men can do without the least trouble that which any large number could never do at all-in any degree, or with any reasonable amount of application-then the lecturer protested against such a doctrine, which would put an end to all education whatever. It is no more true of music or of drawing than of

The Report of the Committee appointed by the Council of the Society of Arts to inquire into the subject of Industrial Instruction; with the Evidence on which the Report is founded. Published under the sanction of the Council of the Society of Arts. London, Longman & Co. 8vo., 5s. 1853.

These two propositions would seem to have a very considerable tendency, if left to themselves, to destroy one another.

Education, or training, may be classed under two heads the one direct, or professional; the other indirect, or unprofessional. And these two kinds of education, or training, are not peculiar to any particular rank of society; their operation may be traced no less in the lowest class of the parochial school than the highest of Eton or Winchester. No education is exclusively and entirely direct or professional; and, indeed, so strong is the feeling the other way in this country that the training, which he had called indirect, has been recognised, time immemorial, by the honourable designation a liberal education. We no more teach anatomy to a schoolboy, whom it is our fixed resolve to train eventually as a surgeon, than we teach plastering to a schoolboy who, a thousand to one, will have to earn his bread as a plasterer. In spite of all the efforts of those worthy but most unloveable people who call themselves practical men, a larger and nobler view of our duties to our children has prevailed, and will prevail among us; and we are pretty generally agreed that before we begin the professional superstructure, and rear our lawyer, physician, baker, or bricklayer, we must spare a few years for the non-professional foundation-to the rearing of the kind, truthful, and intelligent man. show that of all agents of mental discipline the most The lecturer, after stating that experience seemed to effective was the grammar of a foreign language, observed that in his opinion almost everything that could be said in favour of language, either as a means or an end of education, could be said with equal justice of music.

By the attainment of any single tongue (in the common sense of the word) we put ourselves in communion with the people of but one country, and perhaps of but one age. But music, while it possesses a grammar as interesting and as philosophical as that of any other means for expressing thought, has a history which takes in, and a literature which has been formed by, the contributions of every people and of every age.

The value of music as an instrument of mental disci

pline was then noticed, and the difficulty of one process of musical training-that of reading from a full score-was pointed out.

In a great piece of concerted music there are brought into requisition at least four kinds of voices, the soprano, the contralto, the tenor, and the bass, and at least twelve violoncello, doublebass; the flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon. different kinds of instruments; the violin, viola, horn, trumpet, trombone, and drum. Of these voices and instruments the numbers vary considerably. orchestra there are usually upwards of twenty-four violins, eight tenors, and about nine violoncellos and nine doublebasses. The flutes, oboes, clarinets and bassoons, rarely Of the horns, there are number more than two each. commonly four; of the trumpets, two; of the trombones,


In a large

That succession of sounds which each voice or set of voices, instrument or set of instruments, performs, is called a part. Each set of voices has its own part, (soprano, alto, tenor, and bass), and these are frequently further divided, making six or even eight voice parts. Of the instruments,

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