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Great rapidity is important, and a good position of the body is essential to this. The movements of the hand should be confined to the two end joints of two fingers and the thumb, because these joints move with much greater rapidity than the larger joints of the wrist and elbow, and are much more under command for small movements. Some masters teach that the fingers should be rigid, and that all movement should come from the wrist. This is wrong. The lecturer illustrated by his diagrams that a round hand is more rapid than an angular one. The angular one consists of a series of rapid jerks, while in the round hand the consecutive letters glide readily into each other. There is a great loss of time in taking off the pen in forming the letters. A rapid penman, who understands his craft, rarely needs to take off his pen in the middle of a word, and may even write several words without doing so, provided he keeps proper distances between his words. Again, a series of short lines can be made faster than long ones; a small hand is, therefore, more rapid than a large one, a close hand than a wide one, and an upright than a slanting one. Flourishes, loops, &c., are a waste of time. Capitals should be written distinct, and with a view to their junction with other letters. Schoolmasters should study the principle of rapid writing. Regularity and beauty of form are very important. A hand faulty in many respects is comparatively agreeable to look at if perfectly regular.
The German and French hands were specially pointed out as very deficient in the essentials laid down by the lecturer. The lecturer then referred to the quill and the steel pen; the former, unfortunately, though still the best, required more skill than is usually to be met with, for keeping it in order. The steel pen, which he hoped would be improved, was a great boon to the mass of writers. The quality of the paper must be attended to; the pen alone is the best judge of this. A good quality of ink, too, must be carefully selected.
NEW YORK INDUSTRIAL EXHIBITION. SIR CHARLES LYELL'S REPORT ON THE TOPOGRAPHICAL AND HYDROGRAPHICAL DEPARTMENT.*
Under Class X., "Topographical and Hydrographical Surveys; Charts and Maps," the only works which particularly claim attention, are the maps of the United States Coast Survey, (by far the most important scientific work now in progress in the United States,) under the charge of Professor A. D. Bache, and the Wind and Current Charts of Lieutenant Maury.
The importance of an accurate survey of the coast was felt at an early period, and a plan for the execution of a complete geodetic and hydrographical survey was adopted by President Jefferson, who appointed the late Mr. F. R. Hassler to the office of Superintendent. From various causes the prosecution of the work was delayed until the year 1832, though a commencement had been made on the Bay of New York, in 1817. "At the time of Mr. Hassler's death, which occurred in 1843, the survey had been extended from the base near New York, eastward to Rhode Island, and southward to the capes of the Delaware and the upper part of Chesapeake Bay. Professor Alexander Dallas Bache was appointed Mr. Hassler's successor; and under his direction the survey has been expanded in all its branches, and vigorously prosecuted up to the present time. According to the plan developed by Professor Bache, the operations are carried on simultaneously on different parts of the coast, which, for the purposes of the
New York Industrial Exhibition. Special Report of Sir Charles Lyell, presented to the House of Commons by command of Her Majesty, in pursuance of their address of February 6th, 1854. Harrison and Sons.-An Abstract of Sir C. Lyell's report on the Geological Department, will be found in the last
number of this Journal.
survey, is divided into eleven sections, in each of which the survey is executed independently on its own base line and geographical determinations. When completed the whole will form a continuous survey of the coast, presenting an unbroken chain of triangulation, with several base lines verifying each other, and numerous determinations of latitude, longitude, and azimuth, fixing geographical positions, and contributing largely to our know. ledge of the figure of the earth. The general plan of the survey may be briefly stated as follows:-After a reconnaissance to determine the best plan of work, a base line is measured, and a primary triangulation, having sides as long as the limits of vision or the nature of the country will allow, is carried on along the coast. Astronomical observations to determine the latitude and direction of the meridian are made at a number of the stations, and the longitude of some cardinal point in each section is determined. Magnetic observations are also made, furnishing the variation of the compass for the charts, and incidentally the elements of the earth's magnetism. On the sides of this primary triangulation is based the secondary triangulation, determining prominent points a few miles apart along the coast and bays, furnishing points of departure and checks for the topographical survey, which is next executed. The hydrographical survey lastly furnishes soundings and observations on tides and currents, and completes the material required for the charts, which are drawn, engraved, and printed in the office of the Coast Survey. The personnel of the survey consists of civilians and military and naval officers; the first class forming a permanent nucleus, and being composed of persons of scientific and practical ability, a great part of whom havə been trained to the work under the present superintendent; while the officers of the army and navy are put upon the survey or withdrawn from it, according as their professional duties may permit. The geodetic and topographical work is performed by the civilians and army officers, while the hydrographical survey is made by officers of the navy, all acting under the immediate orders of the superintendent, and reporting their results to him. A unity of plan is thus secured, highly conducive to accuracy and despatch, and which has not been attained on similar Works in other countries, where the geodetic and hydrographic surveys are carried on separately; in consequence of which the latter fails to derive from the former those data which are essential to its perfection."
Up to the year 1853, six principal base lines had been measured. These base lines are in the States of Massachusetts, New York. Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Alabama. Two of these are now connected by a primary These two, as well as the third, were triangulation. measured with the apparatus designed by Mr. Hassler, the measurement being made with iron bars and by optical contact. with an apparatus designed by Professor Bache, and con"The subsequent bases have been measured structed under his direction in the office of the Coast Survey. In this apparatus the measuring bars are arranged upon the compensating system, first used by Colonel Colby in Great Britain, and by Mr. Borden in the survey of the State of Massachusetts, but the mode of obof the bars are so proportioned to their conducting power taining the compensation differs entirely." "The sections and specific heat, as to cause both to have the same temperature during variable temperatures of the atmosphere, their surfaces being easily made to absorb equally by tact and level, first used in the adjustment of standard The lever of congiving them the same coating. measures by Bessel, has been adapted to this apparatus; the contact between two sets of bars being made by a blunt knife-edge and a plane of agate." "The instruments used for measuring the angles of the primary triangulation are a 30-inch theodolite (designed by Mr. Hassler), and a 24 inch theodolite, by Troughton and Simms, both fitted with reacting micrometer microscopes, and a number of 12 and 10-inch repeating theodolites, by Gambey." "The average correction to an
Observations of latitude are made at numerous stations of the primary triangulation. Different methods and instruments have been used from time to time, but now the zenith telescope, or equal altitude instrument, made on Captain Talcott's plan, seems to be the greatest favourite. "In practice, from 35 to 40 pairs of stars are observed at a station, with three or four observations on each pair on different nights. The average probable error of a north polar distance in the British Association's Catalogue is 1·7, while the probable error of an observation with one of the zenith telescopes, as constructed by Simms, is about 0"-5." "A new zenith telescope, constructed recently by Mr. Würdemann, of Washington city, on an improved plan, has been found to give results with a much less probable error than the former instruments." "When the latitudes observed at different stations are referred to one another by means of the geodetic differences of latitudes, there appear discrepancies much larger than could result from the residual probable error of observation, which can only be ascribed to local irregularities in the figure and density of the earth, and which are designated as station errors." "The elements of the figure of the earth, used in these comparisons, are those obtained by Bessel
in his last discussion of the results of ten measured arcs. It is interesting to know, that the observed difference of latitude of the extremities of the arc at present passed over by a connected triangulation agrees very closely with the geodetic difference computed on Bessel's elements." "Observations of azimuth are made at all the latitude stations. The instruments employed are the same that are used for the angles of the primary triangulation. "Observations of local time are made in connection with those of latitude and azimuth, the instruments employed being generally portable transits of from 26 to 48 inches focal length, constructed by Simms of London, and Würdemann of Washington. Chronometers by the best makers are used in preference to clocks (except for telegraphic determinations of longitude), on account of their greater portability and the half-seconds beat. In order to fix American longitude in reference to European observations, observations of eclipses, occultations, and moon culminations, made at different American observatories previous to 1844, as well as the corresponding observations at European observatories, have been collected and reduced; and similar observations have since been continued at Cambridge in Massachusetts, Philadelphia, Washington, Charlestown, and Cincinnati. All these stations being connected by the electric telegraph, their differences of longitude have been determined with great accuracy, and all the results are referred to Cambridge as a common station of reference. The difference of longitude between Cambridge and Liverpool has also been determined by means of a large number of chronometers carried repeatedly between the two stations on the Cunard steam-ships." "The differences of longitude between Cambridge and the principal stations of the survey in other sections are determined by the aid of the electric telegraph, where the latter has extended. The manner in which the difference of longitude is obtained may be briefly stated as follows:Transit instruments are mounted at both stations; at one of them an astronomical clock makes a record of its second's beats on a sheet of paper, by breaking a galvanic circuit which passes through both stations each time the pendulum passes the vertical; the times of a star's crossing the wires of the transit at each station are recorded on the same sheet by the observer's breaking the circuit by pressing a key the instant the star appears bisected on the wire. The passages of the same star over two different meridians are thus recorded by the same time-piece, and the difference of longitude results immediately after
applying the necessary instrumental corrections."
The topographical survey is executed with the planetable on scales of and of nature, according to the importance of the locality and the amount of detail to be represented. On the sheets drawn in the field the irregularities of the surface, hills, and depressions are indicated by horizontal curves, drawn at certain fixed vertical distances from each other. In the reduced drawing for the engraved charts, the spaces between these horizontals are filled up with hashures, the shade being darker in proportion to the steepness of the slope, according to a system somewhat modified from that of Lehman. Scales of shades showing the distance between the hashures and the strength adapted to different scales of the maps, have been printed. The absence of very steep slopes and predominance of small ones rendered necessary the modification of the Lehman system. The topographical survey is carried inland as far as required for purposes of navigation and the defence of the coast.
"The hydrography is next in order. Soundings are taken with such frequency, as to exhibit the configuration of the bottom with sufficient minuteness for the purposes of navigation, the number of casts depending on the greater or less irregularity and slope of the bottom. The positions of the casts are determined in reference to the trigonometrical stations, generally by means of angles measured with the sextant at the place of sounding, and sometimes by the use of theodolites at two shore-stations; the latter especially in off-shore work, and in cases where great accuracy is desired. Great aid is also derived from the outlines of the topographical survey in fixing positions, as well as in determining the lines of equal dpth, which are drawn on the chart for every fathom down to three or four fathoms. The spaces contained within the several fathom curves are shaded by dotting, lighter shades corresponding to greater depths. The configuration of the bottom is thus graphically represented to the eye, and the direction and limits of channels are conveyed to the mind in a more rapid and comprehensive manner by mere inspection, than could be done by a close examination of the figures indicating the depths, which of course are also given. The soundings extend from the shore and the head of tide-water generally, out to sea as far as soundings can be of use to navigators in determining their position." The sounding-leads are provided with an apparatus to bring up a portion of the bottom, specimens of which are deposited in the archives of the Coast Survey. It is not impossible that science may here supply the mariner with another mode of determining his position at sea. The subject of tides is receiving great attention, not only with reference to local tides and currents, but the general laws of the phenomena, both on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts, are under discussion. The direction and velocity of tidal currents, as important to navigators as the rise and fall of the water, are also observed with care.
In connection with the hydrography the present Superintendent has undertaken the exploration of the Gulf Stream. Within a few years also Professor Bache ex
tended the Coast Survey to the Pacific coast of the United States, which had suddenly assumed a great importance in a commercial point of view.
mising at the same time to keep a record of those that might be thought worthy of distinction upon such occasion.
They appointed a Council of Examiners, consisting of head masters of our grammar schools, professors of King's College, and one or two other distinguished educationalists.
Forty young men presented themselves for examination: One in Hebrew, nine in Greek, three in Latin, eleven in French, four in German, ten in Drawing, and thirty-eight in general subjects, as Bible knowledge,
Examiners who attended were the Rev. Dr. Russell, Rev.
and M. Wattez.
The results of the field-work are prepared for publi cation at the office of the Coast Survey in Washington city The original sheets containing the topographical and hydrographical work, are combined and reduced to the scale of publication by regular draughtsmen in the office. The beauty and accuracy of these drawings can scarcely be surpassed. The maps and charts are of three classes, charts of harbours, maps of portions of the coast, and sketches of discoveries, &c. The scales of publi-English Grammar and Literature, and Geography. The cation vary from 10000 to according to the detail to be represented. The charts are engraved on copper by a corps of engravers in the office, among whom are some first-rate artists. When ready for publication the plates are multiplied by the electrotype process; the originals are preserved in the archives, and the electrotype copies are used in printing. Large charts are sometimes engraved in two or four separate pieces, and then joined on a common electrotype plate; by this means great des patch may be effected, as several engravers can be engaged on the chart at the same time. The prices at From some neglect in publishing a form of certificate, which the charts are sold are extremely low, ranging the next year found the young men less earnest about the from fifteen cents to one dollar. They are freely distri-Annual Examination, and only nine were thought worthy bute to all educational institutions, libraries, &c. of distinction. Of these, two were placed in the first, and conclusion it may be observed that the funds for carrying studies, separate certificates being prepared for the several seven in the second order of merit under their respective on the survey are voted annually by Congress, upon estimates submitted by the Superintendent, and the work languages, and a general one for the combined subjects above sketched out is excented in a manner as economical already noticed. as it is accurate and comprehensive."
The Natural History Charts, executed by James D. Dana, A.M., in which the geographical distribution of marine animals, especially that of the different species of crustacea, are then referred to; and it is stated that the author has laid down on his map the isocrymal lines on the zones of greatest cold on the surface-waters of the ocean, in preference to the isothermals usually traced on maps descriptive of climate, since he finds that they are of higher importance in limiting the range of marine species.
examination, but although the Committee are of necessity The contents of the Bible were made an element in the members of the Church of England, no peculiarities in Theology are required of their students, only a knowledge of the contents of the Holy Volume.
On the 3rd inst. we met for the third Examination, and forty-five students were examined by Dr. Wilson, the Rev. Alfred Povah, the Rev. Charles Mackenzie, M. Wattez, Dr. Bernays, and Sig. Valetta, in Greek, Latin, French, German, Italian, and English.
The Reports from the Examiners are most encouraging, but the class-list is not yet prepared. I enclose, however, the industry and application of the person to whom it is a copy of our certificate, which is intended to indicate granted during the last year, in the hope that it will find a place in your Educational Exhibition.
The Report concludes by alluding to the Wind and calculated to improve the status, and gratify the honourHerein you may recognise a system of encouragement Current Charts published by Lieutenant M. F. Mauryable ambition of the young men of London, and, if U.S.N., Superintendent of the National Observatory at Washington; and to the Maritime Conference held at Brussels in August last year, for the purpose of concerting a plan of combined, operations, whereby the physical features and meteorology of the occan might best be explored, and a record kept of scientific observations calculated to promote the progress of navigation. As the report adopted by that Congress has already appeared ot length in this Journal (vide No. 48, page 552) it is unnecessary to do more than refer to it on the present
PUBLIC LOCAL EXAMINATIONS.
Crosby Hall, July 10, 1854. SIR.I regret that my duties elsewhere prevented my attending the Meeting of Delegates on Tuesday last. when the subject of Public Local Examinations, with special reference to Lord Ebrington's letter of June 28, (in your former paper) was discussed.
generally accepted, paving the way for that higher system of honours which may be hereafter offered by the Society of Arts. Agricultural Societies in different parts of the country, colleges in cathedral cities, the College of Preceptors in London, Gresham College (if it could be made available), and our Evening Classes for Young Men, with other Institutions might occupy the position of several colleges, at which a certain curriculum of study passed with credit before the Members could be admi.ted must be pursued, and a certain number of examinations as candidates for your honous holding the relative rank of a University examination.
The time perhaps is now arrived when we may hope to do this with success, and really to establish colleges for the people; for of the two things that have been wanting one is now given, and we have a prospect of the other. The countenance and concurrence of the nobility, clergy, and gentry, were long desired in vain. But now your Society, and many in union with it (and emphatically among these the Metropolitan Evening Classes for Young Men) have the avowed patronage of H.R.H. the Prince Albert, and the highest sanction in the Church, while men of all ranks, eminent alike for their philanthropy and their talents, are freely delivering valuable lectures in their several halls and theatres.
Permit me to record my opinion in favour of periodical examinations at the different local Institutions with the prospect of some eventual distinction, and to explain the operation of one of the Societies in Union, wherein much The other denciency, so long experienced and not yet of the work recommended by Lord Ebrington is at present fully supplied, is in that vulgar but necessary commodity done, and the opportunity is offered for its wider applica--money. All these efforts, especially at starting, are expensive; for those who should make chem self supportThe Committe for the Metropolitan Evening Classes ng are not yet sufficiently educated to feel the value of for Young Men at Midsummer, 1852, invited the members paying for their own education. Although there ou ht of the respective classes to a voluntary examination, pro- to be no difficulty about the principle of assisting the
poorer man to gain more knowledge, when we remember how much many of us were indebted to the liberality of our ancestors for those endowments which enabled us to run an expensive school and university career, we all find a difficulty in eliciting from the present generation sums sufficient for the purpose; but "the coming man" is "looming in the distance." The Charity Commissioners! are again at work, and surely they will compel treasurers who have funds not applied or misapplied, to direct them into those channels of usefulness which are already prepared throughout the land to drain off the pernicious waters of ignorance, infidelity, and vice, and to supply such refreshing streams of pure knowledge as shall fertilize the country that they traverse.
Feeling that the example we have adopted is of easy
C. MACKENZIE, A.M.
EAST AND WEST INDIAN FIBRES.
44, Myddelton-square, Pentonville,
SIR,-The question of the provision of material for the manufacture of paper, as well as for textile purposes, in substitution of the flax and hemp of foreign growth, loses none of its interest. That interest, as far as public discussion of the question goes, may be said to have sprung from the able and interesting lecture given by Dr. Royle, in the Society's Rooms, on the 12th April, as reported in
the Journal of the Society, Vol. II., No. 73.
an increase of above 23,000,000lbs. in one year." Every figure above stated (fractions of whole numbers excepted), I have, by subsequent examination, established as correct. Let me now show the quantities contained in the parliamentary return in a condensed form:-The total quantity of flax imported in the whole term of fifty-three years, was 2,252,422 tons; of which Russia furnished 1,587,395 tons; and the rest of the world (all foreign) 665,027 tons. Of hemp, the total importation was 1,829,291 tons; of which Russia furnished 1,505,189 tons; and the rest of the world, including India, 324,102 tons.
We see here, then, that we have received from Russia, in the last 53 years, the following quantities and value of flax and hemp; the valuation being made, for the whole term of years, at the moderate rates of £10 per ton for flax, and £35 per ton for hemp:
In a few observations which I committed to paper upon this question, I maintained, as I do now most strenuously and value of material, so obtained from Russia, "giving maintain, that every pound of this enormous quantity extensive employment to the Russian peasantry, and enriching the nobles of Russia," in "the same materials, or others of equal value, could have been obtained, for the last hundred years, from our own possessions, east and west, within the tropics; giving a corresponding amount of employment to our own fellow-subjects, and conducing largely to individual, colonial, and national benefit." This doctrine of supporting our own Colonial possessions the same character obtainable in each, I know to be very unfashionable in many quarters. Upon this question, a weekly commercial publication, conducted with great talent, in an article in a late number, upon this subject others who may happen to think with me in the matter. (Economist, July 1, p. 700,) is at issue with myself and The Economist says
The few general statistical facts which I had the opportunity of offering to the notice of the meeting, in the dis-in preference to foreign states, for supplies of products of cussion that suceeeded to the lecture, have created surprise in some quarters, from the high figures that were necessary to express the amount of import and consumption of the various substances to which reference was made. It has been said that the quantities named by me were in excess of the truth. In consequence, and with a view to rest the evidence of the correctness, or otherwise, of my statements, on undeniable data, I drew up, and placed in the hands of a member of the House of Commons, two motions, calculated to lead to that evidence being clearly obtained. Returns have been made to those motions, and printed by order of the House, giving the information required for each of the fifty-three years of the present
The points which it was important to establish were, the amount of importation of Flax and Hemp, distinguish ing the quantities received from Russia from those received from all other parts; and the amount of the import and export of Rags. The first of these questions, showing to what extent the war in which we are engaged may imperil the supplies of those portions of fibrous matter essential to various manufactures; the second, establishing the limited amount of material for paper for which we depend upon foreign countries.
What I stated on the 12th of April was, that "the quantity of fibrous substances of all kinds imported into the United Kingdom last year was 614,000 tons; and deducting 72,000 tons exported, there remained for home consumption 512,000 tons. Of this quantity 94,000 tons were flax, and 63,000 tons hemp; and of these two articles 64,000 tons of flax, and 42,000 tons of hemp, together 106,000 tons, came from a country to which I would not more particularly allude (Russia).”
"Some persons, amongst the rest Mr. Sharp, whose pamphlet we have referred to, seem anxious to profit by present circumstances, to bring forward the fibrous productions of India, to the exclusion of those of other countries. Their object is not trade, and dependencies, to the exclusion of Russians and Americans. but to give employment to our fellow subjects in our colonies This means, in the main, we believe, enriching some few hundred or thousand of our countrymen, who have estates, or a pecuniary interest, in the East and West Indies. At the same time, a factitious system of State patronage, directed to this end, would obviously injure, in an equal or greater degree, all the persons engaged in the shipping and in the trade with those countries, from which our too zealous patriots wish to exclude supplies."
Now, with all submission to the talented editor of the Economist, this is rather begging the question. True, we do seek to give employment to our fellow-subjects in our colonies and dependencies," even were it, pro tanto, "to the exclusion of Russians and Americans." But we do not ask for "a factitious system of State patronage directed to this end." We ask for no special or factitious patronage- -no system of exclusion-nor even for support, beyond that to which the intrinsic merits of the colonial products may entitle us. But we do seek to bring those products into fair competition with foreign commodities; and it will go hard with us but we will accomplish so And in speaking of paper I said, "that the amount much. At the same time we do also feel an interest in manufactured in the five years from 1830 to 1834, seeing "enriched some few hundred or thousand of our both inclusive, was 354,940,658lbs., or au average of countrymen, who have estates or a pecuniary interest in 70,988,131lbs.; and in the five years from 1849 to 1853 the East and West Indies"-and who stand much in need the manufacture increased to 756,170,893lbs., being an of such an improvement in their circumstances—rather than average of 151,234,178lbs. per annum. Last year the that such wealth should continue to flow into the pockets amount manufactured, in round numbers, was 177,000,000 of a few hundred or thousand Russian nobles or prolbs., against 154,000,000lbs. in the previous year, showingprietors, having estates or a pecuniary interest in the soil
of that country. The ground of our wish and interest in this respect may appear to some very simple, but we think it is not very unnatural, however it may expose us to the serious charge of being "too zealous patriots." What the Russian noble or proprietor gains it is fairly presumable he spends in Russia. What an East Indian or a West Indian planter, or a British merchant gains, it is equally presumable that he will spend here or in the colonies. And if the 100 millions sterling paid for flax and hemp to Russia, in the first half of the present century, should be partly or wholly transferred into the pockets of British subjects, in our own colonies and at home, in the second half of the century, it would be difficult, I imagine, to discover in that fact any particular cause of regret.
In like manner, we have yet to learn how, as it is stated, we should, by our proposed measures," obviously injure, in an equal or greater degree, all the persons engaged in the shipping and in the trade with those countries from which our too zealous patriots wish to exclude supplies." As regards shipping, it is by no means obvious to us, nor, in truth, can we at all comprehend, how 100,000 tons of shipping employed in bringing flax and hemp from St. Petersburg, Riga, or Archangel, would be prejudiced, if they had to bring the same quantity from Calcutta, or Ceylon, or Jamaica, or British Guiana. The opposite of injury would seem to be the more probable result.
present quarrels out of the question) is Russia. I have not the means at hand to state the general amount of our imports and exports for every year of the last half-century, the same as the Returns under notice enable me to do as regards flax and hemp. The import of last year from Russia, in these two articles, was to the amount of four millions sterling. Add to this the value of tallow, timber, corn, and linseed, each imported to a large amount, and the various other articles to a less extent imported in the year, and I believe it will reach about eleven millions.
And what were our exports to Russia, of British and Irish produce and manufactures, in the year 1852, the latest date to which the public accounts are made up? Just £1,099,917; or a tenth part of the value of our imports. Some trade returns before me, for the 13 years from 1840 to 1852, show the total exports to Russia to be £22,179,290, or an annual average of £1,706,099; that average, be it observed, being above 50 per cent. more than the last year's trade; whilst I see that the two articles of flax and hemp alone, imported from Russia in the same 13 years, were worth above £36,000,000 sterling. It is a striking fact, in connection with our commercial relations with Russia, that, if we only go back seven or eight years, in our inquiries into the state of that trade, we shall find that from that period to the present, our imports from thence have increased by some millions Again, with regard to the editor's remark, "We have sterling per annum; whilst our exports to that country no wish to see the sails of our ships made by hemp grown have diminished nearly one-half. The amount of British in India, in preference to hemp grown in Russia"-we and Irish produce and manufactures shipped in 1815 avow in all candour, that we have such a wish-all ques-being £2,153,491; and in 1852, only £1,099,917; the tions of quality and price equal. diminution having gone on gradually for several years down to 1852, the smallest amount on record for 20 or 30 years.
With just an equal degree of reason could the arguments I have here contested be applied to the cultivation of flax in Ireland; where it is most gratifying to observe the large and satisfactory progress recently made, both in its growth and preparation, as proved by the valuable Agricultural Statistics with respect to that country; and which it would be well to see applied to the other portions of the United Kingdom.
The average annual importations of these articles from foreign countries, for the last three years, were, of flax, 75,000 tons, and of hemp, 33,000 tons, together 108,000 tons; of which the average quantity received from Russia was 84,000 tons per annum.
If I were to enumerate the countries from which we can obtain those materials that would be perfect substitutes for the foreign productions, beginning at the points nearest home, I would say Jamaica and British Guiana, our two principal possessions in the west; from which there would be no difficulty in obtaining half of the entire quantity, or above 50,000 tons, with such arrangements as those to which the measures I have taken will lead. And, to travel eastward, to more remote dependencies, the remaining half there would be no difficulty in obtaining from the Presidencies of India, especially the Plains of Bengal; and from the Islands of Ceylon and the Mauritius.
Much has been said, in years past, of the sound policy of obtaining the raw materials of our several manufactures at the lowest possible rates. Hence the removal of all duties on such importations. If, then, as I contend, we can obtain from our colonies and dependencies, raw products of equal, many of superior, value to those supplied by foreigners; such materials being deliverable in thi country, for purposes of manufacture, at prices below the average rates of foreign articles (not the present high rates, but current peace prices), thus accomplishing, in a marked degree, the object proposed by the removal of all duties on raw materials-if, I say, all these things can be, as they will be, accomplished, it may fairly be asked, if we are not justified in seeking "to give employment to our fellow-subjects in our colonies and dependencies," rather than to foreigners, and especially to Russians?
If there be any country with which our commercial relations are of a nature to warrant a desire for a transfer of interest to other quarters, that country (putting all
Nor is there the least chance, on the return of peace, of any relaxation in that rigid system of exclusion in Russia which shuts out almost everything but those articles that are of indispensable necessity to the successful prosecution of her own manufactures; or that, being of the number of her urgent wants, she is wholly unable to produce. With such a drain of our metallic currency as that to which the state of our commercial relations with Russia has hitherto been calculated yearly to lead, I must confess that I have no sympathy.
But these importations of raw material from our own possessions will have a most beneficial effect upon that important element of public economy, to which I will now again shortly advert-I mean the manufacture of paper; the difficulties of which branch of trade, in obtaining adequate supplies of sound materials, it is needless to dwell upon.
The importation of rags of every description, in the last 53 years, was 346,554 tons, or an average for the whole term of 6,539 tons per annum. We exported in the same period, 12,296 tons, of which 10,146 tons were British and Irish rags; and only 2,150 tons foreign rags re-exported; and of the quantities so exported, 4,206 tons, or about 35 per cent. of the whole quantity in 53 years, was exported in the last two years, almost wholly to the United States. The quantity of imported rags now employed for paper, is only about 6 per cent. of our whole consumption, and is considerably less than it was 20 years ago. The average annual quantity of imported material left for home consumption, for the whole term of 53 years, was 6,307 tons; the average of the last three years was 7,745 tons; and that of the ten years 1831 to 1840 was 9,306 tons; at which latter period the manufacture of paper was less by above 100,000,000 lbs., or between 45,000 and 50,000 tons per annum, than the present production. No wonder that under such circumstances there should be an outcry for a supply of more and better materials, since the scarcity which exists compels a resort, by a great number of paper-makers, to every species of rubbish that can be made to hold together. That supply, both in quantity and quality, can be obtained from the colonial fibres to which I have here adverted. With the exception of a very įminute quantity of what is