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Duke of York, the Princess Elizabeth, who died at Carisbrooke, Cooper has left a pathetic and beautiful picture. She died when ió, but sickness and sorrow have aged her face--the eyes are sunken in their sockets, the nostrils contracted, the lips pinched and pale, the eyelashes and brows have gone, and the figure fallen away. A look of premature old age has so settled upon her features that many will not believe that this can be the face of a young girl, but rather esteem it that of a woman of
can be identified; of the younger brother, Samuel, there fortunately exist enough to prove how much the glory of English art is due to his genius. Walpole, in continuing the paragraph from which I took the text of this discourse, says : “If his portrait of Cromwell could be so enlarged (that is by a magnifying glass) I don't know but Vandyck would appear less great by comparison.” This portrait of Cromwell is now preserved in the magnificent collection of the Duke of Buccleuch, at Montagu-house. Walpole continues : “ His works are too many to be enumerated ; seven or eight are in Queen Caroline's closet at Kensington; one of them, a head of Monk is capital, but unfinished. Lord Oxford had a head of Archbishop Sheldon”—this last is still preserved in its old filagree frame at Welbeck.
The head of Monk is now shown upon the screen. It deserves, I think, fully as much praise as that bestowed on the head of Cromwell. Most of the portraits of Monk have a coarse expression, like that of a butcher, but beneath the rugged features, Cooper has given to the head a determination and a nobility of character which make this the finest representation of the great General of the Restoration.
The skill of Cooper was confined to the head, his painting of feature and of hair cannot be surpassed; but in the hands and general pose of figure he was never at home.
Of his remarkable power in delineating the head, the present slide is an admirable example. It is the face of James, Duke of Monmouth, natural son of Charles II., and gives exactly that nameless grace which attracted all hearts to this illfated noble in his youth.
Of his father, Charles II., we have here a portrait as flattering as any of that hard featured monarch can be. It is exceedingly delicate in finish, and in this as in all other examples of Cooper's work the masterly treatment of the hair is particularly distinguishable.
Of his brother and successor James II. as Duke of York no finer portrait can be found than this. Regular as it is in feature, and at first sight attractive, it yet on examination betrays all the qualities which history tells us united in this most deservedly unpopular of kings. Arrogance, weakness, cruelty, and sensuality, are all portrayed here with a skill as masterly as is the painting of the peruke.
Of the younger sister of the king and the
In succession and in contrast with this, we can see the figure of one of the most famous beauties of the voluptuous court of Charles II. This is Frances, “ La belle Stewart,"' of the Grammont Memoirs, who married the Duke of Richmond. Here she is represented in a surt of page's dress, for she was not remarkably particular as to the fashion, quality, or quantity of her raiments. Her face and figure are better and more widely known and circu. lated than those of any other person. For over two centuries they have been seen on the reverse of the copper coinage of the realm in the figure of Britannia, for which she sat as model.
We shall close the series of the works of Cooper with one of the painter Walker, who so often painted Cromwell. This is not inferior to any of those already exhibited, nor do I know any which is its superior; and being highly finished in every part it shows, in perfection, the great power of this extraordinary
It is dated in front 1645, and on the back also is scratched by Cooper himself, “Feb. 1644, old stile.” This scratching is on the peculiar enamel-like surface, which Cooper used as a ground for his work. l'p to this date and till the close of the century, all miniatures were painted in body colour or gouache. It was not till after 1700 that ivory was used. The earliest specimen of its use with which I ain acquainted is a portrait of herself by Rosalba Carriera, the well-known pastellist. This she painted in 1704, and greatly excited the admiration of Carlo Maratta, the President of the Academy of St. Luke, at Rome, to which body she was in consequence admitted. This miniature is painted in gouache, except in the face and arms, which are painted in transparent tints to show the texture of the ivory it remained unknown in a cupboard in Rome, and was only described and photographed within the last few years.
A replica of the miniature had long remained unidentified in the Cabinet at Windsor, ever since it came
into the possession of George III. by the pur- torical detail as I wished the miniatures to chase of the collection of Consul Smith, of speak for themselves. Venice, who was a great friend of the artist. Till now, no means existed by which this
No account of miniature painting in this result could be obtained. Made, as Hillyard country would be complete without a reference says, to be viewed in the hand, they could to the greatest master of the art in modern never be placed in comparison with the times, Richard Cosway. He was a Devonian portraits by the great masters which look and was born in 1740. To illustrate the down upon us from the walls of national qualities of his work I have had these slides galleries or of the ancestral halls where they prepared, by which you will be able to see how themselves worked when they lived; but I thoroughly his work deserves the great reputa- hope the time will come when by permanent tion in which it has always been held.
facsimiles in colour, such as you have seen this The first is a small but very delicately evening, they will be admitted to take that finished head of George IV. as Prince Regent. place which only their size has debarred Here, as in all good portraiture from the time them from obtaining already. of the Greek head artists till now, the treatment of the hair is a sure test of the power of the artist and Cosway is no exception to this
DISCUSSION. rule. He never relied on force or strong contrast of colour, but entirely on the delicate precision
Mr. HUMPHREY WARD said that their thanks of his drawing, which enabled him to seize the
were due to Mr. Holmes, for having made such features, and to exhibit the character of his
admirable use of the magnificent treasure-bouse of
which he was custodian. In every way the paper sitters. Genuine examples of his work are,
had been instructive; it had been a lesson in history; as you know, of great value, but he had many
it had been a lesson in art; and last, but not least, pupils, and followers without number, whose
it had been a lesson in practical science. All sorts works are pretentiously put forward under his
of historical considerations must have passed through name, and with many seriously damage the the minds of the listeners as thcy contemplated proper estimate of his place in art. Most of
the pathetic features of that unfortunate young the members of the Royal Family were painted man, Henry Prince of Wales, whose early death by him, and you may see in this slide how was perhaps the most important single event that thoroughly he was a master in the art of ever occurred in the history of England. If he painting female beauty. This is the Princess had lived there might have been no Civil War, Mary, daughter of George III., who married and the whole course of our history might have been her first cousin, William, second Duke of
changed. However, perhaps those were not the Gloucester, and who left her well-known house
primary reflections that should be suggested
One reflection was how admirable were the in Piccadilly to the late Duke of Cambridge.
works of those miniaturists; and he wondered, as he Princess Sophia, her sister, died
looked at them, whether their perfection, as compared married in 1848.
with the work—he would not say of to-day, because Ozias Humphry, also of Devon, was born
he thought the work of to-day was very greatly imin 1742. He painted a miniature of Maria,
proving-but the work of yesterday, was not due Duchess of Gloucester, in 1769, when she was
to the absence of photographic assistance. He just thirty years old.
was afraid that at the present time a good many I must ask your kind indulgence for this miniature painters, instead of making that precise, very imperfect survey of a great subject. It exact, and penetrating study of the face of their has been in a large measure an experiment,
sitter that they saw in Holbein and Cooper, depended and I regret that the difficulties of reproduction
far too much on the camera, The camera itself had have caused me to omit half a dozen of the
given them a most admirable lesson that night. If it slides which had been prepared. The process
could speak, he thought it would say, “Leave me of reproduction is one that demands the
alone until after you have finished your miniature, and
then I will do everything for you.” Thanks to the greatest skill and accuracy, and in some cases
process in which Sir William Abney and his friends there has been slight failure. I would not
had had so great a share, that wonderful three-colour exhibit any but specimens of the highest class,
process, they were able to see miniatures like other as my object has been to vindicate for miniature
pictures translated, and by the aid of the lantern painting a larger appreciation and a higher
magnified in a way that their fathers, thirty years ago, estimate of the place which may be claimed may have dreamed of, but certainly could not for the masters of the art. Nor would I have foreseen. It was now an accomplished fact, and encumber this paper by biographical or his- showed what photography could really do to help the
miniature painter; but they must let the photographic the Chairman had said about the care and trouble work come after and not before.
which had been bestowed by Mr. Sanger Shepherd
upon the pictures was well deserved. The process Mr. HOWARD INCE said that there was one hint was, he would not say in its infancy, for it was full which the early miniature painters gave us, and grown, but was one which would doubtless de. that was the position of the head on the discs in velop. He had never seen anything finer than relation to the top of the oval. That might be seen some of the details of the pictures and the way by reference to the portrait of the Duke of Monmouth. in which the various subtle tones of the minia. In that case the head practically touched the top of tures had been reproduced. He did not think the oval. In later instances, and as one got down to that they could have been treated in a better way modern photography, it would be noticed that the than they had been. He might state that all frame got larger and larger, and this happened to the of the pictures exhibited were photographed from great loss of decorative art.
miniatures which were under his charge in the Royal
Library at Windsor. If he was allowed the privilege The CHAIRMAN said that he thought they were of addressing the Society on a future occasion he greatly indebted to Mr. Holmes for having brought might be able to reproduce some of the fine work forward this beautiful series of pictures. It was which existed in other collections. quite impossible for him (the Chairman) to criticise the paper from an artistic point of view. He might In reply to questions from the audience, be able to criticise it perhaps from the scientific point of view which, in this instance, would be the photo- Mr. HOLMES said that the carnations and graphic. The beautiful pictures which had been ex- carmines had a tendency to fade. Miniatures hibited had been produced by Mr. Sanger Shepherd's were generally kept in the dark as they could process. Anyone who was acquainted with the work not stand much light. Strong sunlight would that Mr. Sanger Shepherd had done must know destroy the carnation colours immediately. Ultrathe amount of labour which it cost him to bring marine would stand even fire. Carmine had a the process to such perfection as he had brought tendency to turn yellow. All the early miniait up to the present time. His was not a rule. tures were painted with what was called body of-thumb photography. It could not be done colour on card. No portrait was painted on by pressing a button and then leaving somebody ivory until after the year 1700. The first ivory else to do the rest. It must be a work of portrait that he knew with a date was about 1704. extreme accuracy of measurement, and of thought At that time the ivory was only shown in the flesh and artistic care. All these points Mr. Sanger Shep- tints. The background and all the dresses were still herd had devoted to the process, and consequently painted in thick body colour. he had been able to bring a knowledge of the necessities of the case to bear on the reproduction of the miniatures under the supervision of Mr. Holmes, who was a critic of the first order. They might congratu
Miscellaneous. late themselves that the reproduction of miniatures, at all events by three-coloured photography, was an accomplished fact. The gradations which Mr. THE MINERAL WEALTH OF PERU. Holmes had shown on the screen were gradations In Peru, the main production of silver and copper which were vouched for as true by Mr. Holmes is obtained at Cerro de Pasco. For several centuries himself. Mr. Holmes had justly valued the repro- this famous mineral centre overflowed the world with ductions which had been shown, and he had its silver, although the working of the mines was wisely withheld those reproductions which did not merely superficial, and the system of amalgamation satisfy his fastidious eye. If only other people who entirely deficient. The depth of the mines very produced three-coloured photographs would be equally seldom exceeds 150 seet. It is only in recent times fastidious, and not allow such abominations to appear that the existence of copper in enormous quanti:ies as were occasionally seen as productions of the three- was discovered at Cerro de Pasco, which has become coloured photography, the three-colour process would one of the largest deposits of copper in the world. not have the bad name which it had at the present time. In the case of gold it is rather difficult to estimate the He would ask the meeting to pass a very hearty vote of annual production, as the mine owners do not issue thanks to Mr. Holmes for his interesting paper, not any complete statistics. The mercury or quicksilver only on account of its historical value and its art of Huancavelica will, it is stated in a recent report by value, but also for its scientific value.
the United States Vice-Consul at Callao, become, in
in the near future, a rival of the famous mines of Mr. HOLMES thanked the meeting for their Almaden in Spain, and of New Almaden in Caliappreciation. The present paper was entirely an ex- sornia. The exploitation of iron is at present of 10 periment. Some of the slides, which he had shown, great importance in Peru. A considerable quantity he had not
seen until that afternoon. What of this metal is found at Tambogrande (Piura); also
marsh, invaded by weeds and scattered with inhabited islands, being scarcely ever navigable, while its topography cannot be established because the shores are constantly changing.
in the provinces of Colca and Larez. It also exists in various other parts of the country, but no serious attention appears to have been given to the matter as yet. The principal port of the department at Piura, is Paita, and it is said that iron works established there could easily provide all the Pacific coast with as much iron and steel material as at present is drawn from the United States and Europe. The lead mines have not been worked, up to the present, with any profit, but there is said to be an opening here for persons with capital, and well-provided with upto-date machinery to lessen the cost of production. Sulphur exists in good abundance in all the volcanoes of the Andes, and it presents itself in such dense layers that it is difficult to estimate the quantity that might be extracted, or form an idea of the thickness. It also occurs extensively near the sea, on the Penin. sular of Aguja, near Paita. Many varieties of coal are produced in Peru, but as no records are kept, it is not possible to state the exact amount yielded in the country. From a carefully prepared estimate, however, for a recent year, the amount appears to be about 55,000 tons. Salt is widely distributed in different parts of Peru, although the principal salt pits are on the coast, and are easily and cheaply worked. Owing to the dry atmosphere of the Peruvian coast, different classes of salt have accumulated as well as nitrate. The importation of salt in Peru is absolutely prohibited. The whole coast of the Department of Piura produces petroleum, and that is the only part of Peru in which it is worked.
STATISTICS OF THE WORI.D'S IRON
AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. May I be permitted to say that so far as I was able to gather the drist of last night's paper, it seemed to me that the main contention put forward by Mr. Digby as to the position of the iron and steel industry being now relatively more satisfactory than in the boom period of 1870-4 because of the cheapening of food supplies and other commodities, is somewhat irrelevant to the consideration of the causes which give rise to anxiety as to the future of our iron trade.
The new light which Mr. Digby appears to think he has thrown upon the question because of the increased purchasing power of a diminishing or stationary export margin, seems, however, to be based upon a misconception resulting from the omission to throw a similar illumination upon the great expansion of the trade of the United States and Germany which would thereby be greatly accentuated.
Thus Mr. Digby's point does not remove the disparity between the tremendous growth of the iron industry in the United States and Germany as compared with its stationary or diminishing character in this country, but so far as it is fairly applicable to a comparison, would probably emphasise such disparity, because the cheapening of commodities has also been very considerable in those countries.
The calculation, though perhaps not necessarily relevant, is interesting, and should desirably be completed, but it is a little unfortunate that what is no doubt a conscientious attempt to remove anxiety as to the future of our great iron and steel industry, by its apparently incomplete and one-sided view, should have somewhat laid Mr. Digby open to the criticism of having discovered a " mare's nest."
GEORGE S. BURT, F.S.S. 4, Lothbury, E.C.,
5th May, 1904.
FRENCH MISSION TO LAKE TCHAD.
Dr. Auguste Chevalier, director of the colonial laboratory at the Paris Natural History Museum, started in May, 1902, at the head of a scientific mission, to Chari and Lake Tchad, to study the native productions, collect specimens, and make topc. graphical observations of the unexplored portions. The Mission passed twenty-two months in Central Africa, traversed more than 20,000 kilométres (12,427 miles) and brought back 150 cases of specimens, without having fired a single shot.
Climbing plants that yield indiarubber abound in the Tchad basin, but the natives do not know how to cultivate them. The Mission discovered several species of dwarf climbers, very numerous in the Snoussi country, that are burnt every year by brush fires, so that they never grow to any great size; but the roots, which yield indiarubber, become, on the contrary, very large.
While the explorers found that cotton could be grown to great advantage, and to a large extent, in the Tchad region and Saras countries, they discovered several magnificent species of wild coffee plant. A giant variety, named coffea excelsa by Dr. Chevalier, that gru Ws to an average height of 15 métres (49 ft.), yields excellent coffee.
The Tchad was found to be not a lake but a
SIR HENRY STANLEY, G.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D. -Sir Henry Morton Stanley, the great African explorer, whose death occurred at his town residence in Richmond-terrace, Whitehall, at six o'clock, on the morning of Tuesday, 10th inst., had been a lise member of the Society of Arts since 1878, when he was elected by the Council “in consideration of the services to
Commerce by his explorations in Africa.” He was chairman of the meeting of the Indian Section on May 19th, 1898, when Sir Alfred Lyall read a paper
“ Colonies and Chartered Companies," and again, at a meeting of the Colonial Section on January 28th, 1902, when Commander Whitehouse read
paper, " To the Victoria Nyanza by the Uganda Railway." He was also a speaker at other meetings when questions of explorations in Africa and elsewhere were considered. His last appearance at a meeting of the Society was March 3rd, 1903, when Mr. Herbert Samuel, M.P., read a paper on “The Uganda of To-day," and Sir Henry Stanley then made an important speech.
The particulars of Sir Henry's life and of his public se are so well known, and so fully related by the public press, that it is unnecessary to repeat them here.
MEETINGS OF THE SOCIETY.
INDIAN SECTION. Afternoons, at 4.30 o'clock :
TUESDAY, MAY 31.-" The Economic and Indus. trial Progress and Condition of India." By J. E. O’CONOR, C.I.E., late Director-General of Statistics, India.
APPLIED ART SECTION. Tuesday evenings, 8 o'clock :
MAY 17.—“Pewter and the Revival of its Use." By LASENBY LIBERTY. SIR GEORGE BIRDWOOD, K.C.I.E., C.S.I., will preside.
Genus Hyla, from British Guiana, carrying Eggs on the Back.” 3. Mr. F. E. Beddard, “Notes
upon the Anatomy of certain Boidæ." WEDNESDAY, MAY 18... Meteorological, 70 Victoria-street,
S.W., 43p.m. 1. Discussion on Mr. W.L. Dallas's paper,
“ The Variation of the Population of Inda compared with the Variation of Rainfall, 18912. Hon. F. A. Rollo Russell,
" Some of the Causes of Rain." 3. Mr. William C. Nash, “ Rainfall at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich,
Mr. E. M. Nelson, “ Grayson's Rulings." 2.
builders, Newcastle-on-Tyne, 7. p.m. Discussion
Management of Belleville Boilers at Sea.”
street, W., 8 p.m. Ambidextral Culture Society, 11, Chandos-street,
W., 5 p.m. Dr. J. Shaw, Ambidexterity from
the Medical Point of View." THURSDAY, MAY 1)... Royal, Burlington-house, W., 43 p..
Antiquaries, Burlington-bouse, W., 85 p.m.
Mr. Arthur Hassall, “Great Britain and Europe"
(1763-1793). (Lecture III ) Electrical Engineers (at the HOUSE OF THE SOCIETY
OF ARTS), John-street, Adelphi, W.C., & p...
Mr. J. D. Rees, “ Domestic Life in India."
Rooms, Burlington-house, W., 8p.m. 1. Dr.!
and Worms, &c." FRIDAY, MAY 20... Royal Institution, Albemarle-street, W.
op.m. Prof. E. Rutherford, ** The Radiation 2%.
Emanation of Radium."
W.C., 8 p.m.
W., 3 p.m. Mr. D. F. Tovey, “Sonata Srla and the Sonata Forms," with Musical Illustra tions. (Lecture III.)
MEETINGS FOR THE ENSUING WEEK.
MONDAY, MAY 16.,,Optical, 20, Hanover-square, W., 8 p m.
Report of the Optical Standards Committee. Surveyors, 12, Great Georgc-street, S.W., p.m.
Discussion on Mr. Thomas Blashill's paper,
“ London Streets and Street Traffic." Geographical, University of London, Burlington
gardens, W., 3 p.m. Annual Meeting. British Architects, 9, Conduit-street, W., p.m.
Rev. J. B. Lock, “The Planning of Collegiate
TUESDAY, MAY 17...SOCIETY OF ARTS, John-street,
Adelphi, W.C., 8 p.m. (Applied Ait Section.)
Mr. L. Fletcher, Meteorites.” (Lecture III.) Statistical, 9, Adelphi-terrace, W.C., 5 p.m.
Mr. R. J. Thompson, “ Local Expenditure and Local
Indebtedness in England and Wales."
Charles Eliot, “Some Nudibranchs from East