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a pump, then if the Calibre of the gun be inches diameter there must be a hole through the bottom of the cylinder of 11 inches as at C to let the bullet pass which hole is covered with a strong sliding valve the axis of which comes inside of the vessel as at D, when the gun is run into the cylinder and ready to be fired the valve opens, On firing the gun recoils shuts the valve and stops out the water, thus my guns can be loaded and fired under the water line with near the same ease they are now worked above the water line.

thick leather the gun then forms a piston like that of a steam engine, or the piston of a forcing pump, the gun so prepared there is a Brass cylinder with a stronghead cast and boared and bolted in the side of the Vessel. When as in figure 8 the gun is run into this cylinder it fits it exactly as the piston does

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My present Idea is to have 4 Columbiads on each side of a vessel and two in her Bow so that whether she runs Bow or side on to the enemy the Bullets must pass through her as in figure 9. You will observe in these sketches that not using guns above the waterline I have no portholes and the sides above the water may be 7 or 8 feet thick of pine logs which renders them not only bullet proof; but the Vessel so Buoyant that she cannot be sunk in this manner my men who work the guns are out of danger under the waterline and those who steer or work the sails are guarded by walls of wood, as A, B, figure 6th. For harbor defence and perhaps finally for sea

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service I have combined a steam engine with this kind of vessel to bring her up to the enemy in a calm or light breezes; In harbors I would not use masts or rigging, there would be nothing to shoot away, nor to hold by in case of attempts at boardage, and in such case as my deck would not be wanted for fighting or any other purpose while in action I could make it inclined to 25 degrees, and slush it so that Boarders could not keep their feet but must slide into the water they not having a pin, or rope to hold by. The steam engine would give a vessel of this description the means of playing around the Enemy, to take choice of position on her Bow or quarter and with little or no risque sink everything that came into

our waters.

For sea service we must depend more on numbers of which the calculations are in favor of my plan,—

A 74 will cost 600,000 dollars, and then the 74 of an enemy is equal to her in power, the enemy also have such fleets as will enable them to bring two to one, therefore the chances are against us. For 600,000 dollars I can build 7 vessels; were they to attack a 74 she could not dismast the whole of them, some one must get within the range of 8 or 10 feet of her where one fire from any one of them would certainly destroy her. This changes the chances seven to one in our favor and against the enemy for the same capital expended.

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This represents the 7 vessels bearing down on an enemy here it is obvious that


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with semi shot and chains 20 feet long would at 200 yards distance while bearing down cut her rigging and disable her before coming to close action :-We are now engaged in a war for principles important to our independence and interest as an active and great commercial nation, and if we fail generations to come must contend for it until they succeed; at all events millions must be expended which if as successful as our present hope; will fall far short of the liberty of the seas, In expectation to discover in the consealed magazines of science some certain mode for destroying military navies, and thereby establishing a perfect liberty of the seas I have laboured at intervals with much ardor for 13 years I now submit to your reflections whether I have found it. My present impressionand commodore Decatur' is that I have

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Enemy's 74.

this is also the opinion of many friends. for you will consider that if those vessels

can destroy such as now exist, they cannot be used against each other without both parties going to the bottom and such war cannot be made as duels would never be fought if both parties were obliged to sit on a cask of powder and ignite it with a quick match.

2 millions of dollars would build 20 such vessels 60 men to each would be sufficient total 1200 men. Such a fleet would clear our coast and the probability is it would be the most powerful fleet in the world;-one however should be built by government to establish principles on the public mind which are already proved in private. On the whole of this subject after you have maturely reflected it will give me great pleasure to have your opinions and if it coincides with mine, your influence at Washington may be necessary to carry it into effect, I sincerely hope this new art may give many pleasing hours to your evening of life as this wish is from the heart it is better than the usual unmeaning compliments with which letters. are concluded. ROBERT FULTON.


I Robert Fulton give the following specification of my invention for injuring or destroying Ships and Vessels of war, by igniting Gunpowder below a line horizontal to the surface of the water or so that the explosion which causes injury to the vessel attacked shall be under water. Therefore instead of having the cannon and portholes of a ship or vessel of war as usual above the surface of the water I place my cannon so low in the vessel that their portholes will be below the surface of the water any number of inches or feet which may be required from 6 inches to 4. 6. 10 or more feet and thus the cannon being fired with its muzle under Water the Bullets will pass through the water instead of through air and through the sides of the enemy from I to ten or more feet below the water line which letting in the water in quantity according to the size of the holes and their dept under the surface will sink the vessel attacked.


muzle be presented to hole in the side of the ship below the waterline then be fired its Ball pass out through water the cannon recoil into the ship and the porthole shut without letting in any inconvenient quantity of water-the gun may again be loaded and fired as before.

Represents the mechanism by which a cannon may be loaded inside of a ship its VOL. XXII.-45.

For this purpose a ring or flange is cast round the cannon near its muzzle which may be filled in with hemp like the packing of the piston of a steam engine or with leather like the piston of a pump. a strong Cylinder of Brass or Iron-or the most fit metal for the water in which it is to be used

is to be neat and smoothly bored like the air pump or cylinder of a steam engine and of a size exact to receive the muzle of the canon with its beforementioned packing hence when the muzle is pushed into the cylinder it will be air and water tight like the piston of a forcing pump the cylinder may be one 2 or more feet long as the use may require on its outer end a stronghead and flange cast which flange receives screw Bolts to fasten it tight in the side of the vessel In the centre of the said head there is a hole two inches in diameter greater than the caliber of the cannon to be used for the cylinder-the canon being run home until its muzle touches the head of the cylinder as in the drawing the cover to the hole is to be turned to one side and the cannon fired the Ball and Charge passing through the hole. through the hole. on the recoil of the canon the sliding piece which covers the hole will descend and Stop out the water on this plan the cannon may be mounted on a carriage with wheels or not as future experience may prove best and always recoil and be worked in a line direct to the Cylinder which is to receive the muzle. in my experience so far when the cannon is loaded as usual I put a kind of tompkin or stopper in the muzzle with canvass and white lead to keep the water out of the gun thus I have found the gun to fire perfectly well without any risque or accident, although this mode may be good in practice I do not positively know that the water might not be admitted into the gun up to a Water tight Wad the first plan will do the latter may be proved in future practice-Cannon may be thus arranged under the water line in such vessels of war as are usually built But as the whole battery comes below water and may be several feet below, the Vessel above the water line may be made 5, 6 or more feet thick of pine logs or other wood or hay or cotton or old rope or cabbage

tree or any kind of material which will be Bullet Proof thus all the men will be out of danger as in drawing

Cannon may be placed in the Bow of a Vessel near the Keel as in drawing or suspended over the Bow or sides as in drawings and be fired with water proof locks constructed för common or fulminating powder-various other modes of practice may be devised But the whole merit of this invention consists In having discovered and proved that cannon can be fired to greater advantage for the destruction or annoyance of an enemy when so placed that the muzle shall be under water and the Ball pass through Water for the whole or greater part of the space it has to go till it strikes the enemy. The practice then will

be with strong Bullet proof vessels to run alongside of an enemy within 30. 20. or 10 feet give her a Broadside of 1. 2. 3. 4 or more heavy pieces from 32 to 100 pdrs from 4 to 12 or 15 feet below the waterline and retire. Of this whole system of firing cannon, carronades columbiads or ordnance of any kind under water so as thus to attack an enemy to advantage, I claim to be the original inventor and claiming it as my right I have deemed It sufficient to give one mechanical and practicable combination-being improvements previous to further experiments. But any attempt to fire any kind of ordnance under water in attacks on vessels of war or maritime combat will be considered a violation of my right and purvey of my invention.

Rott Fulter




THE argument of the preceding paper was to this effect: The purpose of the people in framing our present political system was to create what they thought would be a People's Government, under which, as the phrase is, the people should govern themselves should keep power in their own hands. The main idea which led them to form that purpose was that they could not trust their public officials. The main feat-great ures of the system which they framed on that idea (as those features have developed) are: election districts have become very large; elective offices have become very

many; and elections are very frequent. The particular results which have followed from these features are: we have a great mass of election work; this election work is so large that it cannot be done by men who have other occupations; it falls, therefore, into the hands of professionals; these professionals capture our public offices; they keep them; the number of these professionals is so that they naturally and necessarily have grown into large organizations, with able leaders and thorough discipline; naturally and necessarily, too, as must always be the case with large bodies of men, the action of

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