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HE Sultan of Morocco, be he old or for some sixteen months, from November,

young, lives in a seclusion, as far as 1900, to March, 1902. Their contact was Europeans are concerned, common to under the easy, intimate conditions which Oriental sovereigns. The etiquette which reveal the man; and it also shows the mansurrounds him separates him even from ner in which the typical youthful Oriental his own court. Secluded from all women of a ruling caste and supreme power-his but those of his own harem, and without father masterful, his mother the charm of social life, as it is known in the West, no the harem-meets the revelation of the Oriental sovereign comes in contact with West. The accuracy of the portrayal will ministers and their households. Mulai Abd- be recognized by all who know the East. ul-Aziz, the present Sultan of Morocco, has The Sultan was at this time an unchalbeen still further separated by his youth lenged ruler. He was still in his southern and the anxious desire of those who ruled capital, Morocco city, but all resistance through him to keep him apart from in- had vanished, and he had full control of trigue. For months together he did not his entire empire. At the close of 1901 appear outside his citadel walls. He never he transferred himself, his court, and his moved freely in the capital where he was forces from his southern to his northern residing. He is still, even for European capital, Fez, a march which still further envoys to his court, a man unknown.

assured his supremacy. The American artist whose account of A host of diplomatic issues were settled, his experiences succeeds saw him daily not always with success to Morocco, but

Copyright, 1903, by THE CENTURY CO. All rights reserved.

with stability for his throne. He established Fez stands on an elevated plain, and the closer and closer relations with the Eng- mountainous regions between it and the sea, lish legation, he was guided by English as well as the mountains to the east, are influence and advice to many reforms, and dotted with the villages of semi-independent

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the execution of a progressive policy was Berber tribes, fighting men all. The shock confidently predicted; but in this work he that all good Moslems must feel at a sulhad estranged those with influence in the tan keeping wild pigs in his palace yard, cities, both officials and ecclesiastics, and albeit less in Morocco than it would be farhe had greatly weakened the reverence ther East, was about that which would have with which he is regarded as the head of been caused by a medieval Catholic king Islam, the descendant and successor of who habitually and flagrantly ate meat in the prophet.

Lent and turned his back on the host.

Mr. Schneider's record has for readers subjects, and his own lack of the masterful new gloss and interest now, since all that qualities of his line have brought him. he records has worked its sure result. The The issue will probably be decided before tribes last autumn rose all about the north- or soon after the following pages, which ern capital. They rose between Fez and hold the fullest account of him yet penned, the Atlantic, on the road to Rabat, between are read. Fez and the Mediterranean, about Tetuan The Sultan has a mingled blood. His and east. In the great mountains about great-grandmother was an Irishwoman, Tesa, a very considerable place seventy wife of a Gibraltar corporal, who went from miles from the capital, all the tribes united barracks to harem. There are so many in insurrection.

negro women in the succession that his The young pupil of the pages that follow father, Mulai-el-Hasan, had pronounced · has for four months been facing the pos- negroid features. The original stem is sibility of losing throne and life. The ac- Arab, direct in the male line from Fatima, tual force in resistance was small. The daughter of the prophet, through a chain disaffection was general and wide-spread of thirty-six lineal descendants, and on this The leader of the tribes, Omar Zarhuni, has been grafted a long line of Berber better known as Bou Hamara, literally marriages. "father of the she ass," more nearly “don- Mulai Abd-ul-Aziz's mother was a Cirkey-man," in November had organized a cassian of Turkish residence and origin. royal state at Tesa, in December he de- With this line, he became Sultan at feated the column of two thousand men fourteen, and when his mother and the sent against him, and by January his rude vizir who made him Sultan died, he began camp was a few miles from Fez, watching to walk alone, that vanished thing an the main road north. In the early part of Oriental absolute prince playing an old February he was defeated by the Minister part that will end with him. Before he is of War, who figures frequently in this nar- through with the pretty game of learning rative, but there remains the necessity of to rule by ruling to learn, Morocco will penetrating the mountains in the spring have gone the way of all other Moslem and subduing the rebels.

realms, absorbed, controlled, or protected With the open chances all in favor of by some European power. Either France the Sultan, there remain the serious risks will include it, or Europe agree on a divito which his reforms, the fanaticism of his sion, or the empire be put into commission.



N the impenetrable gloom of a "Shkoon?" ("Who?") like the weird cry
moonless African night our stag- of an owl.
gering animals brought us to the “Open, in the name of the Sultan!”

Beb el Hamees — Thursday Gate commanded the soldier. --of the city of Morocco.

“Not until the coming of dawn,” came At sunset all gates are closed, as a guard the echoing hoot. against night attacks by rebel tribesmen; The sham announcement that I was “ EI but a sentry had been instructed to admit t'beeb” (“ the doctor”) to his Majesty, and me, and a soldier, sent by the governor must enter the city that night, met with of the Kasbah to see these instructions the same response. Arguments, entreaties, carried out, had joined us a few hours epithets, proved alike unavailing. : before.

So inky was the night that only the white Riding up close to the gate, the man garments of one or two of the men at my banged the heavy portals repeatedly with side could be distinguished. his rifle, and cried : Booab! Booab!” Amid the uproar of my now thoroughly ("Gateman!")

frightened henchmen the soldier's voice A grumbling sentry sleepily answered: shrieked :

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Edward L. Thorndike

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Edited by...

With Recollections of Mrs. Mary Anne Watts Hughes, grand-
mother of Thomas Hughes....

With portraits, facsimiles, etc.


Horace G. Hutchinson ..424, 566
William Hastings Hughes.. 424

Brig.-Gen'l. A. W. Greely,

Pictures from photographs and drawings by Otto H. Bacher and George Chief Signal Officer U. S. A. 811

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.. Baroness von Hutten

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With Rejoinder by


John Wesley. Part I. ....

Prof. C. T. Winchester..... 389

Pictures by Katharine Kimball, Harry Fenn, and Arthur I. Keller, and portrait of Wesley after J. Williams. Wesley's Days of Triumph (John Wesley: Part II)...... Prof. C. T. Winchester..... 492

Portrait of John Wesley, after the painting by Romney; pictures by Harry Fenn, W. Hatherell, Katharine

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