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personal motives either of interest or friendship, yet beyond their fellows. Now the case is changed past the safety of the state requires that this should not go recognition. Social conditions seem to be ordered to too far.” If a preacher's forecast made such a warn'a

meet a general summer exodus. Summer hotels are ing necessary then, how much more must be added everywhere. They form an almost continuous line now from our bitter experience ? How necessary such along the coast of New England and the Middle States; words of solemn and prophetic admonition as those one mountain region after another has succumbed to spoken by Bishop Potter at St. Paul's on the chief their invasion; the lakes of the interior have begun to day of the centennial celebration — in the presence of prove most attractive watering-places; and the rising one President and two ex-Presidents.

tide of summer travel has begun to cut new channels thirteen years ago, the scene of enthusiasm for itself - along the Pacific coast, on the Gulf of Mexico, when the dawning of Independence Day commemo. and in the great pine woods and the hill territory of the rated the origin of the festival just a hundred years be. South. The summer cottage has been elastic enough fore. We may easily imagine the intense excitement to meet the needs of purses of every grade: it ranges which would characterize it this year if armed and alien from that which is almost a palace in its extent and enemies stood in military array within the boundaries equipment or the wide-stretching club-park, with its of the Republic. And yet there has never been a time in reserved rights of shooting or fishing, to the economical our country's history when the elements of reverence boarding-place or the Adirondack cabin. Poor indeed for the past and anxiety for the present and the future is the family that cannot contrive by the exercise of were more necessary than in the celebration of this first forethought and thrift to secure some brief summer's Independence Day of the Constitution's second century. outing, for the bread-winners or for all the members There are many subjects which deserve the most seri. of the family; and when the inability seems to exist, ous reflection of any American who aspires to good it is more often a certain incompatibility between the citizenship. It is high time for him to awake out of family resources and the family desires. The developslumber and disappoint the hopes of the intestine foes ment has even gone further, and many who cannot of all good citizens. He can no longer afford to believe afford such a relaxation contrive a substitute by transthat all the voters of the opposite party are rogues; ferring their scene of work to summer resorts, or have that he is serving his country when he uses his citizen- it furnished for them by “fresh-air funds." ship for the mere purpose of circumventing them; Much of this change in the habits of the people has that he is under any obligation to transfer to local elec- undoubtedly been due to the increasing tendency to a tions the issues and passions which are appropriate city life. However great the attractions of the city may only to national elections; or that in general every be, man retains something of the nature of Antæus, man whom he finds labeled with his party title becomes and needs an occasional renewal of direct contact with thereby a Heaven-ordained leader, to be trusted im- mother earth to keep him in full vigor. When the plicitly and followed unshrinkingly: these are the proportion of those who are habitually confined to an familiar tricks and devices by which self-seeking poli- urban life has increased from one-thirtieth to one-third ticians of all parties have kept the good people of these it is natural that there should be a correspondingly States divided and neutralized, taking to themselves increased pressure for summer relaxation and for the objects of their own desire. To repudiate such in- accommodations to supply it. Even this explanation, fluences may seem an easy task, but human nature however, is by no means adequate. It would account makes it one of the most difficult of human experience. for the increased stream of Americans who wish to To meet it with success, there is need of all the re- leave the cities during the summer, but not for their sources to be drawn from the training of the past and ability to indulge the desire. The fact that school. the feeling of responsibility for the future; and for such teachers, who naturally long for a summer outing, are considerations there have been few Independence Days many times more numerous than they were fifty years more appropriate than that of 1889, when the political ago, will not tell us why that sorely underpaid class passions of the past have cooled and the strong winds of workers, for whom there was no provision then, has of coming struggles are yet at a distance. The thoughts now a store of vacation resorts from which to choose. appropriate to the day may be less exciting than usual The subject may have much more than a merely

but it cannot be said that they are less im- curious interest. Mr. Henry George and his disciples portant.

have strenuously asserted that the rewards of labor

are both actually and comparatively less than they were The Summer Exodus, and what it Testifies. fifty years ago, and others have as strenuously contra

dicted them. It is impossible, unfortunately, to array The contrast between the past and the present of any undoubted or fairly indubitable testimony on either American life will hardly find a more striking embodi- side. Those who labored and were paid for their labor ment than in the changes in the mode of passing the fifty years ago are most of them dead, and can tell us summer. Within the memory of many of us, a com- nothing about the matter. Those who are still alive plete change of residence during the hot months was are by no means the same persons that they were fifty a luxury confined to comparatively few. Country peo- years ago; they cannot compare the two periods fairly ple never thought of it; and it was believed that in the and tell us whether the intervening time has given cities the first subterfuge of an ambitious family was to them more or less for their work. Figures are inclose the front of the house and to live in the back corrigible liars. They leave out of view all sorts of rooms, isso be that they could thus persuade the world of conditions, which materially change their size and their neighborhood that they too had taken part in the weight. A table of comparative wages may tell us in annual flitting. If city children were sent for the sum- plain figures the workman's different rates of wages at mer to the grand-paternal farm, they were fortunate two different periods, while it tells nothing of the varia

this year,

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tions in the price of Aour or meat, or in rent or cloth- poverty, unless we are to take it that the people are
ing, all of which the workman would find to be very obstinately bent nowadays on taking vacations which
serious limitations on the real purchasing power of his they cannot really afford. It is from this point of view
money wages. Even when we get figures for these that such social phenomena are most worthy of study,
latter elements they profit us little. The average price as well as most easy of apprehension. There are not
of four for a particular year may be a high one, but this many who cannot make some contribution to the dis-
may be due either to continuous high prices throughout cussion; and the greater the amount of light which is
the year, or to an abnormally high price for some poured upon it the greater is the likelihood of a just
months, in which the workman has felt it very little and permanent decision.
by reason of his ability to provide substitutes for four
at that time. No mere wage statistics, moreover, will

Outdoor Sports.
tell us whether the workman, under the wages current
for either point of time, had work enough for all the THERE comes to the American people, with the hot
year around, or for but a part of the year. Again, the weather, the season in which outdoor sports seem to
price of board or the total cost of living may have reign supreme. Boat-races and baseball matches fol-
remained the same, while improvements in transpor- low one another in bewildering succession. The news.
tation have added to the table beef and mutton from papers reek with championships and gossip about
the West, fish from the Pacific coast, and canned goods champions and would-be champions. You shall find
from all parts of the country or of the world, thus en. the spectators at a single game of baseball outnum.
abling the same money, or the same wages, to furnish bering the entire population of such a city as Boston a
that prime necessity for man, a varied diet. Countless hundred years ago. Schoolboys are no longer the
parallel reasons have led men to impeach the validity only ones who are thought to suffer such amusements
of almost every collocation of figures, and fair-minded to come between them and their work; an equal in.
men, while admitting the figures as conclusive upon terest in outdoor sports is attributed to judges and law-
their own judgment, have often shrunk from any at yers, editors and reporters, merchants and clerks; and
tempt to impose them upon the judgment of others. it is even said that our Saturday half-holidays are in
The figures do seem to show that Mr. George is ut- many cases due less to interest in the health of subor.
terly wrong, and that the condition of the workingman dinates than to the desire of principals to witness some
has improved greatly during the past half-century. outdoor athletic contest. At any rate, it should be un-
Every new collocation of figures which brings out the derstood that lack of interest in open-air amusements
same result strengthens the mathematical probability is no longer to be included among the faults of the
of that conclusion, and yet we can hardly say that the American people.
inherent weakness of figures has so far been overcome We may grant at once all that is claimed for the new
that the case is decided.

development by its professed admirers. It will doubt. Under such circumstances, the summer exodus may less exert a strong influence against the intrusion of contain indications which are more trustworthy and of weak lungs, hearts, and livers into our pulpits, editorial more real weight than any mere figures can be. A col. and court rooms, and other scenes of professional work. umn of wage statistics may, out of willsulness, inatten. It will make those who take active part in it more tion, or pure ignorance in the compiler, omit elements prompt to think and decide in emergencies. It will which are essential to any complete or just conclusion; check the severish eagerness of Americans in their but no such imperfection can be attributed to such a pursuit of work for the sake of work. And the increassocial fact as that which we are considering. The sum- ing number of those who are able to take part in it is mer exodus is the mathematical result of a composition of merely another fact in evidence of the greater comfort all the forces which bear on the question: it omits no con. of modern life and of our people's stronger leaning tosideration which is essential to the conclusion; it assigns wards healthy amusements as a break in the monotony to each its comparative importance with an accuracy of unvarying work. which no human compilation of figures can hope to All this and more might be granted without making reach; and its summing-up may be of the greatest service out an impregnable case for the modern development in showing us whether the progress of the past fifty years of athletics. It is not enough to prove the objects has really been accompanied by any relative increase of good, even with a likelihood of attaining them; it is poverty. If the summer exodus has grown only as the often more important to attend to the correctness of country has grown; if it is confined to the same social the methods employed, for they may be such as to classes to which it was confined in 1839; if the num. bring with them new evils which more than counterbers who take part in it have increased only in pro. balance all the good that has been attained. The portion to the increase of those classes; still more, if anusements of a people are not at all beneath the at. there has been any relative falling-off in number — then tention of a sound social philosophy; they are often we may as well admit that there is the strongest of in. symptomatic of tendencies which cannot yet be seen in dications that our progress has not done much for poy. any other way, as the real nature of men comes out erty. If, on the other hand, we find that the numbers most clearly in their moments of relaxation. When the of those who can now indulge in the summer's outing Roman noble went into the barracks of the gladiators have grown far beyond the mere numerical increase of and bet his sesterces upon their chances in the morpopulation; that the annual movement has penetrated row's contest, the evil omen of the scene was not in further downward to social strata which could not have the mere brutality of the sport, but in the disappear. thought of it a half-century ago - then we may surely ance of all that had once made up the Roman idea. take the whole development as a fair indication that No matter whether the sport in question was cruel progress has done something to take the edge from or refined, the men and women whose souls were

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absorbed in it were no longer of that breed which had readers for more than a meager summary of the debrought the civilized earth under control of the Roman bates in Congress. Crowds surround the bulletinPeace. When the Byzantine mob went into ecstasies boards to watch the reflected glories of a boat-race, of excitement over the alternate victories of the blue or while the demands of business are so imperative that the green drivers in the circus there were none of the they cannot spend an hour twice in a twelvemonth cruelties which marked the outdoor sports of Rome; in keeping alive their membership and influence in but the pettiness of mind which found satisfaction in their party's primary association. If we are to gauge such relaxations was echoed in the bombast and con- the popular interest in outdoor sports and in any ceit of Byzantine historians, and in the cowardice of the more serious occupation by their respective shares of Byzantine emperors, who trembled behind their strong the Sunday newspapers, what is to be thought of walls as successive deluges of barbarians, crusaders, the mental and moral standards of our people ? and Mohammedans swept around them.

The whole question is one on which no appeal is The relaxation of mind and body which is found in possible except to the individual consciousness and outdoor sports is by no means the most important conscience. A man should be able to tell, in his own circumstance connected with them: they are much case, whether his interest in outdoor sports is for more important as representatives of, or centers of in- their own sake or as a means to a higher and better fluence in, the growth of the people. Viewed from end; whether he is a grown-up child,“ pleased with this standpoint it is a serious question how far the a rattle, tickled with a straw," or a hard-working man, modern athletic régime is a social benefit or a social who feels the need of decreasing the strain upon his injury. The development of a people is seen nowhere energies from time to time in order to keep them in more clearly than in their ability to distinguish means full efficiency. His ability to consider his own case from ends, and this is nowhere more true than in this impartially will test his ability to estimate the general matter of amusements. One may be glad to see a influence of outdoor amusements as we have them. people turn work into play from time to time, from a These amusements are of no importance whatever in conscious longing for relaxation, and yet see nothing themselves; they are of the greatest importance as admirable in an interest which makes the amusement indications of a general drift, and it is a most serious an end in itself, and not a means to something better. question, on which every man ought to have an opinOur newspapers give columns of expensive dispatches ion, whether they are now indicative of greater comdetailing the foreign “triumphs" of two American fort or of popular degeneracy, of higher standards of baseball nines, while they have no longer space or living or of lower standards of work.

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OPEN LETTERS.

Indians, and Indians.

ground are agreed that while the army view, the view

of the frontiersman, and the view of the philanthropist R. REMINGTON'S descriptions of the Apaches are each true in individual cases, none of them contains

M ,

have all the vividness of an impressionist, and are un- the character of the white man who sits in judgment doubtedly faithful as impressions. There is a tendency, upon him. Reversing the usual process, the Indian however, among the people at large to accept a brief might base his impression of the whites on the indifimpression for a complete portraiture, and so to form ference and somewhat scornful protection which the general ideas out of a few details entirely inadequate for army man offers him, or the undisguised greed and such a purpose. There are Indians and Indians, and he unscrupulousness of the frontiersman who covets his who should form his general impression of the Indian lands, or the sometimes unpractical temper of the from a glimpse of the savagery of individual Apaches philanthropist whose whole desire is to serve him. would find it necessary to discard his work and begin All these types exist, and yet neither of them repreanew in the presence of the peaceful and skillsul Zuni. sents the great body of whites. It is true that the determination of methods of practical What is known as the Indian Question has made great dealing with the Indians must depend somewhat on and substantial progress during the last ten years their character, but if the whole mass of Indians were progress not only in the development of public opinion as bad as individuals are sometimes represented to be favorable to an award of an exact justice, but in the duty of dealing justly with them in all relations knowledge of the real character and capacity of the would still remain untouched. Whether or no the Indian himself. No one who has any real knowledge Indian of to-day is an attractive person to us is a of the matter ever thinks of the Indian to-day as con. small matter; the supreme matter is that he shall trolled by any single passion or as represented by any have no ground for a charge of injustice against us. single type of character. He recognizes that in dealing No characterization of the Indian can be in any meas- with them we are dealing with a body of people who ure adequate which does not exhibit the various types differ among themselves as widely as the people of any found among the different tribes, the degrees of civil- other race. Moreover, what can be done with the Inization reached, and the varying grades of material dian is no longer a matter of speculation. Much has advancement represented by individuals and communi- been done in education, in agriculture, in social organties. Those who have studied the question on the ization, and in diffusion of the spirit, occupations, and habits of civilized men. The present stage is no longer But while there is this nearly universal agreement experimental. So much has already been done, and, in as to the need of training of this sort, and disagreethe main, done successfully, that what still remains to be ment merely as to matters of detail and method, done is to complete and expand the operation of methods, there are a few earnest friends of the colored man instrumentalities, and laws already in operation. whose long, arduous, and efficient labors in his behalf

The results at Hampton and Carlisle have settled the entitle their opinions to great weight — who are afraid question of the capacity of the Indian for education. of this movement, and speak of it as a "craze.” They During the last decade Hampton alone has trained think that the outcome of it is almost certain to be a with more or less thoroughness more than three hun- less extended and thorough mental and moral culture. dred students, who have been under its culture from And as some of them are in positions where their a few months to five or six years. The record of these opinions must have great power to shape or modify students has been carefully preserved, and that record some of the most important of the organizations and shows that the great majority, in the face of almost institutions whose special object is negro education, it insurmountable obstacles, are exercising a wide and seems as if a statement of the reasons for their opinion, beneficent influence on the communities through which and the considerations which lead many of the benevothey are scattered, and are doing faithfully and success- lent to disagree with them, would be timely. fully the work of pioneers in the civilization of their One of these reasons is that it is very hard to get people. As teachers, farmers, clerks, interpreters, enough money to give the ordinary scholastic educascouts, and cattle-raisers they have attained, all things tion, the equipment for which is not so costly as that considered, an average success quite as high as that for industrial training. Will not the effort to give this which would have attended the labors of an equal more expensive culture diminish the amount available number of whites. The record of Carlisle's school for the other ? would undoubtedly make as favorable a showing as the It is urged, further, that the proposed change imrecord of Hampton.

plies too great a concession to the widely prevailing But the great and substantial gain which has been opinion that the negro is, and in the nature of the case made in the discussion of the Indian question is the must be, better fitted for manual than for mental labor. clear perception that the doing of justice does not de- They argue also that the new departure tends to pend on the character of those to whom it is awarded; foster materialistic notions of the value of education, that it is an absolute obligation independent of all the main object of which should be the ennoblement such considerations. The long and terrible story of of the worker rather than the production of more cotinjustice to the Indians has at last borne its fruits in ton, rice, sugar, coal, iron, or lumber. It is a materialan awakened public conscience. The appealing pathos istic age at best, and the tendencies in that direction of such a story as “ Ramona” has undoubtedly reached are especially strong in the South at present; and even many who would have turned away indifferent from were the object no higher than the increase of the a bare recital of facts, but if the typical Indian negro's value as a factor in the production and distri. were Geronimo rather than Ramona our duty to him bution of commodities, a widely known writer contends would not be the less evident or the less imperative. that, since dexterity is largely a result of mental It is the perception of this long-neglected duty which rather than muscular training, any scheme that conhas not only banded together individuals to secure the templates less of the higher education for the sake of redress of the wrongs inflicted upon the Indian, but increased production will in the end defeat itself. which has at last produced something like a coherent Then again, the surprising success in some schools, system of measures looking to a permanent adjust- and notably in one, in mastering the more advanced ment of the relations of the two races. The breaking branches is profoundly affecting the opinions of many up of the reservation system, the allotment of land of the most influential people in the South as to the in severalty, the conferring of the privileges and pro- capacity of the negro; and to do anything which would tection of citizenship, the extension of the civil and make the work in these high-grade schools less extenmilitary laws over the reservations, the organization of sive or less thorough will push him and his friends an educational commission looking to the establish- off this hard-won vantage-ground. ment of public school education, are all consistent Still further, we are exhorted to remember that leadfeatures of a general movement which shall incorpo. ers qualified to hold their own in the sharp competirate into the law of the land the aroused sentiment of tions of professional lise are a great, if not the greatest, its citizens.

need of the colored race in this country. Over wide llamilton Wright Mabie. areas most of their ciergy are illiterate, immoral,

self-seeking, bitter sectarians, and the most determined Industrial Education for the Negro : Is it a “Craze"? opponents of every kind of improvement. So, too,

the lack of lawyers, editors, and physicians of suffiMost friends of the negro in the North as well as in ciently broad and thorough training to be able to defend the South agree that industrial training should go hand their weaker brethren against designing or incapable in hand with his moral and mental culture. That is, they advisers is a very discouraging feature of the situation. think that there should be for men such a drill at least in The negroes do not as a rule seek the leadership or the elementary principles and processes of farming and counsel of competent and honest whites in matters of the most common handicrafts, and for women in religion or of business; hence the greater need of cooking, sewing, domestic economy, nursing and the well-qualified men of their own race. care of children, that they may be better able both to These are strong points. What can be said against earn and to save money, to secure homes of their them without aiding those who disbelieve in advanced own, and to make them worthy of that sacred name. education for colored people ? Some of these are warm

friends of the negro, and some, it is to be feared, are not tillage, the enlarged and varied products, and the imanxious that he should have more education than just proved stock and buildings of the farms attached to enough to keep him from voting on the side of anarchy these schools. and to make him more efficient as a hewer of wood and Fifth. Two or three hours a day of manual labor a drawer of water. But is it not possible to unite indus- leave abundant time for all the study which is consisttrial training with thorough and wide mental and moral ent with mental alertness and vigor. Quality is of far culture? In advocating it need we strengthen the higher importance in mental work than quantity. It hands of the excellent people who oppose the high- is of comparatively little moment that a certain numschool and college work, on the ground that it is better ber of facts and rules find lodgment in the mind for to give some book learning to the many rather than a a time — usually a short time. The main thing is that good deal to only a few? There are a considerable the student acquires the power and the habit of incisive, number of those who believe in providing the most ad- sustained, and honest thinking. Six or eight hours of vanced scholastic education for those colored people sharp attention is as much as should be required of who will push on to gain it who are firmly convinced any young person in one day. Some public schools that the movement for industrial education may be a require all lessons to be learned at home; but it is help rather than a hindrance to the higher school work. hard to see how such schools can produce anything What can be said in support of their position ? but a lax and flabby habit of mind, or else injure the

First. Only a small number graduate in the thorough health. Just as much severe, intense study - and no college courses of the institutions that provide such other should be tolerated — can be done in a day by advantages, and most leave them before they are quali- one who works two or three hours as by one who does fied to pass the examinations for first-grade certificates not. Work that demands care and skill is really more as teachers. Hence they cannot hope for positions in of a relaxation than that which calls for nothing but the graded schools, which are kept open eight or nine brute force, because it is more interesting. months in a year. They must take those which afford Sixth. The ability to plan or build a church, a them employment for only two or three months. What school-house, or a dwelling, or to carry on a farm as it are they to do during the remaining nine or ten months? should be carried on, gives a man's opinion about purely If they had the industrial education now given in some professional matters greater weight in all struggling schools they might support themselves in the same communities. A teacher, minister, or physician could communities where they teach, acquiring decent homes hardly have, aside from his mental and moral qualiof their own, which would be a much needed example ties, a more effective passport to the confidence and and incentive to all about them. The lack of anything respect of colored people. worthy to be called home is the most appalling obstacle Industrial education is in the air, and is sure to be to the elevation of the negro. If these higher schools tried extensively. Ought not those who have so long should furnish this industrial training, as some of them and so successfully fought the battle for purely school are beginning to do, nine-tenths, or, in many cases work to take a leading place in shaping policy under nineteen-twentieths, of the pupils who never finish the new departure? Who can keep it from becoming even the grammar-school course might be put in the too materialistic so well or so surely as they ? way of living for the rest of their lives like human beings instead of like beasts.

S. W. Powell. Second. The industrial training need not diminish, but may be made rather to increase the funds available Charles Thomson, Secretary of Continental Congress. for school work. Many will give to schools that afford this training who will not give to the schools that IN THE CENTURY MAGAZINE for April is a very indo not afford it. Many will give for this who will give teresting article by Clarence Winthrop Bowen on nothing for school work. Besides, a large item of the “The Inauguration of Washington.” On page 813 expense of most of the existing schools is for “stu. Mr. Bowen says: “In 1774, when he [Charles Thomdent's aid.” In an institution which gives industrial son) was elected Secretary of the Continental Congress, training the students can earn much is not all of this aid. - which office he held for fifteen consecutive years,This saves their self-respect, avoids the danger of he had just married a young woman of fortune, who pauperizing them, and enables a thousand dollars was the aunt of President William Henry Harrison, and given for such aid to be used over and over.

the great-great-aunt of President Benjamin Harrison.Third. In many cases students could stay and get The marriage referred to took place September 4, 1774, a more thorough mental training if such work were at “ Harriton,” in Merion Township, then in Philadel. furnished. There need not be such a small percentage phia, but now in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. of graduates from the normal, scientific, and collegiate The lady whom he married was Hannah Harrison, courses as the catalogues show.

daughter of Richard Harrison, a Friend who originally Fourth. Such work gives an entirely new idea of came from Maryland and married Hannah Norris, a the dignity of labor. It was one of the greatest evils of daughter of Isaac Norris and granddaughter of Goy. slavery that manual labor was considered degrading. ernor Thomas Lloyd. Richard Harrison died March This was especially mischievous in its effects on the 2, 1747, and left to survive him his widow and four poor whites. The South is only slowly coming to be- children, namely, Thomas Harrison, Mary, who died lieve that one who works for a living can be qualified unmarried, Samuel, and Hannah, who married Charles for good society. In many of the industrial schools al. Thomson. As neither of Mr. Harrison's sons was ready established students are beginning to take pride named Benjamin, it is very apparent that Mr. Bowen has in their command of tools, in their well planned and ex. made a mistake. John Adams, in his diary of the occurecuted mechanical work, and in the thorough, clean rences of a few days previous to the meeting of Congress,

Vol. XXXVIII.- 62.

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