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other nourishment than bread and water, that he might the more uninterruptedly pursue his labors."
8. The records of English jurisprudence' contain scarcely a name more distinguished than that of Sir Matthew Hale. And it is the testimony of history, that "his decided piety and rigid temperance laid him open to the attacks of ridicule; but he could not be moved." In eating and drinking, he observed not only great plainness and moderation, but lived so philosophically that he always ended his meal with an appe
9. Perhaps no man has accomplished more for the world. than he who has written such a commentary on the Scriptures as that of Matthew Henry. And it is, indeed, an immense literary labor. But the biographer's account of that writer's habits shows that temperance and diligence were the secret of his success.
10. Few men have accomplished more than the distinguished Methodist divine, John Wesley; and it is gratifying to learn that it was "extraordinary temperance which gave him the power to do so much, and to live so long."
11. In reading the poetical works of Milton, we are not so much delighted with the play of imagination, as with the rich and profound views which he opens before us. The fact is, he was a man of powers and attainments so great as justly to be classed among the leading intellects of the world. Nor were such powers and attainments disjoined from temperance.
12. Europe, as well as America, has been filled with the fame of Franklin, the philosopher; and no less wide spread is the history of his temperance. Early in life he adopted a vegetable diet; and thus he not only gained time for study, but "I made the greater progress," says he, "from that greater clearness of head and quickness of apprehension which generally attend temperance in eating and drinking." The habit of being contented with a little, and disregarding the gratifications of the palate, remained with him through life.
1 IN-TEL-LĔCT'-U-AL, pertaining to the mind 5 CON-STI-TU-TION, bodily system; the hu or intellect.
man body itself.
2 DEM-ON-STRA'-TION, the act of stating and 6 THREE-SCORE, a score is twenty. proving truths.
7 JU-RIS-PRO-DENCE, the science of law.
A-CU-MEN, quickness of mind; readiness. 8 DIS-JOINED', separated from.
1. There's somewhat on my breast`, father',
2. 'Tis not the lack of gold', father',
My lands are broad and fair to see,
2. "Tis not that Janet's false', father',
1 FAIN, gladly; with joy or pleasure.
2 GEAR, clothing; ornaments; possessions. 3 LEAL (Scottish), faithful.
14 CON-FOUND'-ED, that which ought to be condemned.
5 "I've eat," a poetic license for "I have eaten."
Temperance is the best physic.
The best physicians are Dr. Diet, Dr. Quiet, and Dr. Merry
Diet cures more than the lancet.
THE ORGANS OF CIRCULATION AND OF RESPIRATION:
THE HEART, ARTERIES, CAPILLARIES, VEINS, and Lungs.
1. NEAR the centre of the upper portion of the body, but a little on the left side, is the heart, the great working engine which sends the blood to all portions of the system, to do its work of building up and keeping in repair the house we live in. We have given a brief account of the formation of the blood-the material which the heart uses; and we now proceed to describe the manner in which this building and repairing process is carried on.
2. We will commence by informing you that your heart, a drawing of which we place before you, is a strong muscular organ, but little larger than your fist, and containing four cavities. The upper cavity on the right side, which is called the right auricle,1 receives the blood from the body through a number of large veins; this auricle then contracts2 by the power of its muscles, and forces the blood into the cavity below it, called the right ventricle.3 The right ventricle then contracts and sends the blood to the lungs; the left auricle, which is the upper cavity on the left side of the heart, receives the blood back from the lungs, and forces it into the left ventricle below it; and the left ventricle forces the blood through the arteries all over the body.
3. This is a very brief explanation of the labor which the heart has to perform in circulating the blood. But now let us trace the course which the blood takes, from the time when it is received from the body into the right auricle until it has performed its round of circulation and gets back again; then we shall begin to realize what a curious and wonderful piece of machinery these circulating and breathing organs are.
4. When the blood is received into the right auricle of the heart it is of a dark color, and full of the waste and impure particles which it has received from all parts of the body. If this impure blood should be sent in this condition throughout the body, death would very soon be the result. The
blood, therefore, must be cleansed, and the impure particles thrown away, and for this purpose the right ventricle takes right charge of it and sends it to the lungs.
5. But how can the lungs purify the blood? In order to explain how, we must first describe the lungs themselves. The lungs are large sponge-like masses, which fill up nearly the whole cavity of the chest on each side of the heart. The air which we breathe passes into them; and through a vast number of little channels, which terminate in very minute aircells, it is brought in contact with every portion of the sponge. like structure of the lungs.
6. The arteries which run from the right ventricle to the lungs branch out in millions of little tubes, not so large as a
CIRCULATION OF THE BLOOD THROUGH THE HEART AND LUNGS. ceives the impure ve.
The Right Auricle re
nous blood from the body through the veins D. V. (the descending vena cava), and A. V. (the as cending vena cava).
At is the opening through which the blood is forced into the right ventricle. Here is the tricuspid valve, which closes when the blood attempts to return.
The Right Ventricle, by contracting, forces the impure blood through the two branches of the pulmonary artery (P.A.) into both lungs. The lids of the valve at d I would close if the blood
should attempt to return.
The blood, having been purified in the lungs and lost its dark color, is sent back to the heart through several canals, which form at length four large trunks called pulmonary veins, and these terminate in the Left Auricle by one
common opening, as seen at o. Only two of these pulmonary veins, P. V., P. V., are seen in the drawing.
The Left Auricle forces the blood into the Left Ventricle, through the opening 9, where is placed the mitral valve to prevent its return. The Left Ventricle then forces the blood into the large artery called the aorta, which distributes it to all parts of the body, to be returned again to the Right Auricle through the veins A. V. and D.V.
When the blood is forced into the aorta, the lids of the valve at the entrance e fall back against the sides of the artery; but when the blood attempts to return, they come together and prevent it.
At a, b, and c are arteries branching off from the aorta to the head, arms, etc.
hair, all over the air-channels and air-cells of the lungs, and by them the blood is brought into close contact with the air we breathe. The impure particles of the blood, which are found chiefly in what we shall hereafter describe as carbonic acid gas, are now thrown into the air-cells and air-channels, and breathed out of the body through the mouth and nostrils in the form of vapor. At the same time, the remaining blood in the blood-vessels of the lungs takes in a portion of oxygen from the air, and receives thereby a bright red color, very different from the dark hue it had on entering the lungs. The blood, being thus purified, is returned to the heart, from which it is again sent forth through channels called arteries to every part of the body.
7. These arteries branch out into the smallest tubes that can be conceived, many of them invisible to the naked eye. They spread over every muscle and bone in the body, and throughout the skin, and from the blood thus received every part of the body is built up.
8. How wonderful it is that this single fluid-formed, perhaps, as it may be, out of some one simple material, such as the
While Fig. 11 is a diagram design.
THE HEART AND LUNGS, WITH THE OUTER COVER- ed to show the manner in which the
ING OF THE LUNGS REMOVED.
blood circulates through the heart and lungs, and can not, therefore, be a strictly accurate drawing of those organs, Fig. 12 is a true representation of the heart in its natural position, showing also the lungs, after their front outer covering has been removed.
At 12 is the lar'-yn, or upper part of the windpipe; 11 is the tra-che-ü, or windpipe, which conveys air to the lungs. Back of the upper part of the heart the tra'-che-a divides into the two bronchial tubes. These bronchial tubes branch out all over the lungs in minute subdivisions, and ultimately terminate in a vast number of minute air-cells, from the twentieth to the hundredth of an inch in diameter. These air-cells are so numerous that the amount of surface contained in their lining membrane in man has been computed to exceed 140 square feet!
At 1 is seen a part of the left auricle, most of this auricle being on the back part of the heart; 2, right auricle; 3, left ventricle; 4, right ventricle; 5, pulmonary artery; 6, aorta; 7, de scending vena cava; 13, upper lobe of right lung; 14, upper lobe of left lung; 16, 16, lower lobes of lungs.