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firmly established in their pacific Utopia possibly as a mediator, must have a voice than their brothers of "The Great Illu- in the international conference which will sion" in England. It is clear that there define the future frontiers of Europe and are many among the professors, the par- many subsidiary questions. Among these, sons, and the big business promoters who the rights and interests of the powers in believe that Europe, temporarily insane, China, and the future of that country as will eventually forswear for evermore the an independent state, present problems anachronism of war, embracing once and which, unless carefully studied in advance, for all the gospel according to Norman may well create great difficulties and even Angell and Andrew Carnegie. They re- new casus belli for the powers whose tergard it as a mere incident of the question ritories border on the Pacific Ocean. The that the wealth of the world will by that shadow of the far-Eastern question has time have passed from the European con- frequently been darkly cast between the tinent to America. The sadder and wiser United States and Japan in recent years, nations of the Old World are evidently and never more ominously than when the expected to accept this fact, together with renewal of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance all it implies, and then to proceed to con- (1911) relieved England of the duty of clude, under American auspices of media- assisting Japan against any nation with tion, a final general agreement for dis- which Great Britain might have conarmament and peace in perpetuity.

cluded a treaty of arbitration. But much Such, without exaggeration, are the of the trouble has been due to ignorance: dreams of many humanitarian idealists. a closer study of the question should serve But a good deal has happened since the to reassure public opinion in the United Magdalena Bay incident to cause the States and to put an end to the suspicious American people to take serious reckoning uneasiness which finds expression in the of its position in the world of things as unbalanced writings of a Homer Lea or they are. The professors may continue to the diplomatic vagaries of a Philander wander placidly amid their olive-groves, Knox. discussing the text of new Hague conven- Japanese statecraft, whether displayed tions, extolling the philosophic tempera- in Manchuria, in Magdalena Bay, or in ment which is "too proud to fight"; but the Marshall Islands, points to a perfectly the message of Armageddon has sunk, and consistent and legitimate policy, which has will sink deeper, into the hearts of the peo- only to be rightly appreciated in order to ple. Altruism, benevolence, the cause of remove all immediate prospect of serious humanity-these will remain American friction between Nippon and Anglo-Saxon ideals; but unless all the signs mislead us, peoples. The Japanese, who would not the American nation has learned the les- hesitate for a moment to exclude from son of the strong man armed, and the their country Chinese or other cheap latruth that weakness combined with wealth bor, are fully alive to the economic necesinvites to a breach of the world's peace. sity which has compelled America, CanThe example of England the Unprepared ada, and Australia to frame their Asiatic cannot be lost upon the sound common exclusion acts. Beyond all question they sense of the American people.

recognize the legitimate protective purAt the conclusion of the present strug- pose of these acts; what they object to, gle, the exhaustion of European nations and very properly, is the implied asmust leave the United States and Japan sumption of the racial and moral superiorrelatively much stronger and richer than ity of the white races. They are well they were. Both powers will be deeply aware that the objection to Chinese laborand directly interested in the arrangement ers in the Pacific States and to Japanese of the conditions under which peace is children in the Californian schools is just eventually restored. Japan, as an ally of as directly due to economic causes as the the Quadruple Entente, and America, anti-Semitic movement in Russia. They know that the Asiatic is excluded not be- treaty-making and treaty-breaking. It has cause he would contaminate, but simply learned to a nicety the time and place for because he would devour, the white man "extra-textual interpretations" and the in open-labor competition. England, conclusive value of the fait accompli. As which professes to believe in free trade far as China is concerned, the protective and unrestricted immigration, can hardly clauses of the Portsmouth Treaty, greeted meet the Japanese on this question in the with intense satisfaction in America, were spirit of "frank and full consultation" for never likely to be effective in Manchuria which the text of the alliance provides. even had Russia and Japan remained on Frankness must stultify either the British guard against each other in their respecGovernment or the acts of the dominions tive spheres. Those who hoped and beoverseas. Similarly, with its Monroe lieved that China, in accordance with that Doctrine for America and its open door treaty, would be allowed to develop the for Asia, with its professed belief in the resources of this fertile region without inright of every human being freely to terference and for her own benefit knew change his nationality and domicile, the little of the imperative necessity which United States is not in a position to dis- had compelled Japan to fight Russia for cuss the exclusion acts with Japanese Port Arthur. The same necessity led her, statesmen on its accustomed lofty ground immediately after the conclusion of the of political morality. The Anglo-Saxon's Portsmouth Treaty, to come to terms with ultimate argument, conceal it as we may, Russia for a division of the spoil under lies in the stern law of self-preservation, conditions which virtually insured the backed by force.

benevolent acquiescence of England and Now, if there is one fact which stands France. Upon the conclusion of this pact out more prominently than any other in of spoliation, diplomatically known as an the history of the last ten years, – that is, entente, the Portsmouth Treaty became a since the conclusion of the Treaty of dead letter; it had never been more than Portsmouth, --it is that Japanese states- a time-and-face-saving device. men are prepared to recognize and accept The results were many and important. these self-protective activities of the An- Not only was China not permitted to deglo-Saxon races, provided only that Japan velop her commerce in Manchuria by the also is allowed to follow her own national extension of her northern railways, not instincts of self-preservation on the lines only did Russia and Japan separately and of geographical gravitation dictated by jointly veto the construction by English her economic necessities; that is to say, by and American capitalists of the Chinchouexpansion into China's thinly peopled de- Aigun trunk-line; but they went much pendencies of Manchuria and Mongolia. further, asserting and extending their speEven a cursory study of the recent history cial rights and interests over China's of the far East points clearly to this con- loosely held dependency of Mongolia, forclusion. Japan is not prepared to accept bidding its colonization by Chinese subthe Monroe Doctrine and the Asiatic ex- jects, and establishing their usual trading clusion acts and at the same time to ac- and mining monopolies. By the end of quiesce in the traditional policy of the 1910, China's sovereignty throughout all commercial powers, which insists on main- the region north of the Great Wall was tenance of the status quo in China. evidently doomed. Mr. Secretary Knox,

It is true that by the terms of the Ports- under the direction of American finanmouth Treaty and other conventions Ja- ciers, made spasmodic, but futile, attempts pan pledged herself to abstain from any to prevent the inevitable, by his scheme encroachments on the territorial integrity for the neutralization of Manchurian and sovereignty of China; but her diplo- railways, by forlorn excursions into dollar macy, trained in the best European tradi- diplomacy, and by earnest appeals to the tions, is unsurpassed in the gentle art of open-door pledges of all concerned; their


only result was to draw Russia and Japan Manchuria and Mongolia, but to the asmore closely together in the bonds of a sertion of Japanese political and economic most profitable pact. In 1910, Korea, ascendancy throughout China proper. whose independence had been solemnly As originally submitted to the terrified guarantied by Japan and by all the pow- Chinese Government, certain of these deers, was "persuaded" to sign away the mands involved concessions of a kind that, remnants of her sovereignty and become had they been allowed, would speedily an integral part of the Japanese Empire. have given to Japanese officials control The scraps of paper, which were con- over the administrative and military afsigned to oblivion by the European and fairs of the provinces. It is characteristic American chancelleries at this passing of of Japanese (and, for that matter, of Britthe Hermit Kingdom, had ceased to repre- ish) diplomacy that these vitally imporsent either actualities or vital interests. tant demands, contained under Section 5 This being so, the forces of geographical of the draft protocol, were not communi

, gravitation met with no resistance, and cated by the Japanese to the British Govthe disappearance of an economically un- ernment in the same way as the rest of profitable nation evoked only perfunctory the proposed articles, that the fact of their valedictory articles in the press.

having been presented was officially deYet the matter was of importance and nied, and that the Chinese Government significance. First, it proved once again was repeatedly warned against publishing that a defenseless people's national inde- them or even of disclosing their terms. pendence is never more seriously endan- Nevertheless, the facts were published, gered than when the great powers think and despite the concentration of public infit to guaranty it by solemn treaties. Sec- terest in the war, a considerable amount ondly, it proved the Japanese to be past- of pressure was brought to bear upon the masters in the adroit use of the diplomatic British Foreign Office both in Parliament fictions by means of which politicians and and outside it. Timely remonstrances governments cloak the brutal realities of were consequently addressed from Lonthe eternal struggle for supremacy and don to Tokio, with the result that the survival. Thirdly, the nicely graduated most arbitrary of these contingent deseries of administrative, economic, and po- mands were excluded from the Japanese litical measures whereby Japanese ascen- government's final "proposals” of the dancy led swiftly to the annexation of twenty-sixth of April, and from the deKorea are extremely instructive, if only mands of the ultimatum of the seventh of because the procedure adopted "in a spirit May. But it is important to note that of pure fricndship for the Koreans" at they have not been unreservedly withSeul between 1905 and 1910 is now be- drawn. They stand on record as having ing pursued, mutatis mutandis, at Peking. been presented, and Japan merely post

This statement may possibly surprise pones them for future considerationthose who have not followed the course of clearly a case of reculer pour mieux sauter events in the far East since the taking of whenever the time and place for jumping Kiao-chau by the Anglo-Japanese forces shall occur. last October. It is none the less true. The “negotiations” forced upon China The demands put forward by the Japan- by the Japanese Government arose out of ese minister at Peking on the eighteenth the fact that after the fall of Kiao-chau of January, 1915, negotiated by him de the Foreign Office at Peking had ventured haut en bas for three months with the to ask for the withdrawal of the Japanese Chinese Foreign Office, and finally em- troops from Chinese neutral territory in bodied, with some modifications, in a per- Shan-tung, beyond the borders of the emptory ultimatum on the seventh of leased zone of Tsing-tau. In view of May, point not only to the rapid disap- China's declared neutrality, no more natpearance of China's sovereign rights in ural or legitimate request could have been


made. Yet the Tokio press, with ominous for the last ten years by the all-pervading unanimity and alacrity, denounced it as activities of Japanese financiers and secret ungrateful and unfriendly, and called agents. But be this as it may, the imporupon the Government to proceed swiftly, tance of the Foreign Office statement lies with a high hand, at Peking. There was in the fact that it recognizes and accepts certainly nothing of sweet reasonableness in advance the expansion of Japanese inor amity about the proceedings of Mr. terests in China proper.

In very similar Hioki at the Chinese capital. His atti- words Sir Edward Grey had declared in tude and actions alike proclaimed the hard June, 1911, that his Majesty's Governfact that the forces which had heretofore ment recognized the "special rights and enabled the Chinese to evade the penalties interests” of Russia and Japan in Manof their parlous inefficiency were no longer churia and Mongolia. On that occasion available to protect them, and that Japan the Treaty of Portsmouth went quietly by would avail herself to the utmost of the the board. Mr. Primrose's declaration opportunities created for her by the war has now jettisoned the preamble of the in Europe.

Anglo-Japanese Treaty of Alliance, toReplying to questions in the House of gether with a large and interesting collecCommons on the eleventh of March, tion of international guarantees for the 1915, Mr. Neil Primrose, under-secre- protection of defenseless China. In other tary of state for foreign affairs, made a words, British diplomacy has perceived curiously significant reference to Japan's the virtue of necessity and bowed grace"contingent” demands. He described fully to the inevitable. them as “an attempt to see what attitude Because of the complete absorption of the Chinese Government would take up public interest in the war, and also beif Japan formulated certain demands cause the censorship has prevented any diswhen the war arrives at a conclusion." cussion of Japanese policy in the British

Needless to say, there was no word press, it is safe to say that not one Engeither in the original protocol or during lishman in a hundred, even among those the negotiations to justify this description, who usually study foreign affairs, knows but the statement has been gratefully ac- what has taken place at Peking during the cepted by the Chinese Government as an last year. Since the expulsion of the Gerassurance that the contingent demands mans from their beloved Eastern colony, will not be renewed until the end of the scarcely any attention in England has been

Qui vivra verra. Meanwhile it is directed to the course of events in the far important to observe, as an indication of East. The few articles which have apcoming events, that in the same statement peared, chiefly in the monthly reviews, Mr. Primrose declared: "His Majesty's have been of a nature to suggest intelliGovernment has no objection to the ex- gent activities on the part of the Japanese pansion of Japanese interests in China, press bureau. Nevertheless, the situation provided that the expansion in no way in- deserves serious consideration not only in Alicts injury upon British interests.” It is view of the political and economic consepossible that Japanese predominance, or quences of the latest Peking protocol, but even a Japanese protectorate in China, if because of the latest developments of party established under commercial and fiscal politics at Tokio and the policy repreguarantees broader than those given in the sented by Count Okuma's cabinet. case of Korea, might not be seriously In view of the probability that the farprejudicial to British interests, that is, to Eastern question, with many others, will British trade. In any case, it could eventually have to be settled at a postscarcely aggravate the actual condition of bellum international conference, it is eviaffairs in Manchuria, and even in the cen- dently desirable that public opinion in tral Yang-tse provinces, where British en- England and America should be formed terprise has been persistently hampered upon accurate knowledge of the main facts


of the actual situation. So long as the under the Manchus. Eloquent platform censorship continues to function as at enthusiasm for representative government, present, this knowledge will not be gener- and the profession of high moral ideas by ally available in England; this makes it political adventurers and place-seekers, the more necessary that all possible pub- can no more make for good government licity should be brought to bear on the in China than in Mexico. The men and subject in America. In view of the mis- machinery are completely lacking for the understandings and mutual suspicions production of honest administration and which have been created between Tokio military efficiency from the official corrupand Washington on more than one occa- tion and ignorance of China's rulers. All sion by the reckless sensationalism of yel- our instincts of justice and respect for the low-press writers on the one hand and, on rights of nations, all our sympathy for the the other, by the American public's indif- misfortunes of the Chinese people, patient ference to foreign affairs, it is a matter of victims of misgovernment from time imno little importance to the future of the memorial, are powerless to avert from world's peace that the far-Eastern ques- them the destiny which sooner or later tion should be carefully studied and overtakes a passive, non-resisting race widely discussed by leading publicists in menaced by the necessities of earth-hungry the United States. The creation of an neighbors in arms. enlightened public opinion, based on accu- Deeply as we may sympathize with the rate knowledge, is essential to the conclu- Chinese, we should not hastily criticize or sion of a general agreement between the condemn the expansionist policy of Japan. powers interested in the future of China In considering the causes and possible reand the trade routes of the Pacific.

sults of that expansion, certain fundamenIn the formation and education of such tal truths are often overlooked by writers a body of opinion certain venerable shib- who approach the far-Eastern question boleths of diplomacy and catchwords long from a sentimental point of view. In the current will need to be gently, but firmly, first place, it must be borne in mind that relegated to the limbo of creeds outworn. the Japanese nation differs radically from All the political ideas underlying the open- the typically passive Oriental races of Indoor conventions and the international dia and China. It is, in the words of guarantees for the maintenance of China's John Stuart Hill, an "active, self-helpterritorial integrity must be frankly rec- ing” people, a people inspired not only by ognized as obsolete, for the simple reason ideals of imperialism, but possessed of that they have been abrogated by Russia strong martial instincts. When in India and Japan with the tacit consent of all or China the pressure of population upon concerned. The resultant grouping of food supplies becomes acute, the patient rival forces and interests at Peking, both toiling millions accept death with fatalisbefore and after the Russo-Japanese War, tic resignation. By thousands and tens of conferred on China the protective benefits thousands, almost uncomplaining, they go of a period of equilibrium; but this period to their graves as to beds, accepting came to an end with the definite conclu- plague, pestilence, and famine as part of sion of the Russo-Japanese entente. Opti- the inevitable burden of humanity. Only mistic belief in the possibility of China's in the southern maritime provinces the effectively setting her own house in order more virile inhabitants in China have enmust also be abandoned. It is a belief deavored to lessen this burden by emigrathat gained many sentimental adherents tion, by seeking work and wealth overin America as the result of Young China's seas; but individually and collectively the so-called Republicanism in 1911, but the race is lacking in the "self-helping" inprospect of organizing honesty and effi- stinct which solves such problems of exciency out of any class of officialdom in pansion by warfare and the survival of the China is just as remote to-day as it was fittest.

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