Puslapio vaizdai






tendency of man's nature to good is like the tendency of water to flow downwards. There are none but have this tendency to good,

just as all water flows downwards.

3. Now by striking water and causing it to leap up, you may make it go over your forehead, and, by damming and leading it, you may force it up a hill;-but are such movements according to the nature of water? It is the force applied which causes them. When men are made to do what is not good, their nature is dealt with in this way.’



1. The philosopher Kâo said, 'Life is what we call

2. Mencius asked him, 'Do you say that by nature you mean life, just as you say that white is white?' 'Yes, I do,' was the reply. Mencius added, 'Is the whiteness of a white feather like that of

–literally, 'the goodness of man's nature,' but | THE PHENOMENA OF LIFE. 1. 'By 4,' says Chú

perceive and move,' and the sentiment, he adds,

we must take 善 as = ' tendency to good.’3. Hei, is intended that whereby men and animals 激, to provoke,' (to fret,' the consequence of dam. 激而行之一(dam and walk it'

i.e. by gradually leading it from dam to dam. Chú Hsi says:-This chapter tells us that the nature is properly good, and if we accord with it, we shall do nothing which is not good; that it is properly without evil, and we must violate it therefore, before we can do evil. It shows that the nature is properly not without a decided character, or that it may do good or evil indifferently.’


a is analogous to that of the Buddhistes, who make 作用, (doing and using,' to be the nature. We must understand by the term, I think, the phenomena of life, and Kao's idea led to the ridiculous conclusion that wherever there were the phenomena of life, the nature of the subjects must be the same. At any rate, Mencius here makes him allow this. a, 3. The i, 4th tone, all interrogative, and = 'you allow this, I suppose.'-We find it difficult to place ourselves in Sympathy with Kao in this conversation, or to



其我彼 彼曰外

長 也性


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white snow, and the whiteness of white snow like that of white

jade?' Kdo again said (Yes.’

3. Very well,' pursued Mencius. 'Is the nature of a dog like the

nature of an ox, and the nature of an ox like the nature of a man?' CHAP. IV. 1. The philosopher Kão said, 'To enjoy food and delight in colours is nature. Benevolence is internal and not external; righteousness is external and not internal.'

2. Mencius asked him, : What is the ground of your saying that benevolence is internal and righteousness external?' He replied, There is a man older than I, and I give honour to his age. It is not that there is first in me a principle of such reverence to age. It is just as when there is a white man, and I consider him white;according as he is so externally to me. On this account, I pronounce of righteousness that it is external.'

follow Mencius in passing from the second para- It is important to observe that by graph to the third. His questions in paragraph is denoted, the determining 2 all refer to qualities, and then he jumps to others about the nature.


what conduct in reference to them is required

by men and things external to us, and giving it to them.' Kão contends that as we are moved

DISCRIMINATIONS OF WHAT IS RIGHT ARE EQUALLY by our own internal impulse to food and colours,


食色-甘食悅色. We so we are also in the exercise of benevolence,

might suppose that here denoted 'the

but not in that of righteousness 2 長一

appetite of sex.' But another view is preferred. always 3rd tone. In it is the adjec

Thus the commentator 熙周 observes:一

tive, but in the other cases it is the verb.


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look at fire, which illustrates the text 食色心在我: The second 白 is also a verb.



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外也日 異於白馬之白

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3. Mencius said, 'There is no difference between our pronouncing a white horse to be white and our pronouncing a white man to be white. But is there no difference between the regard with which we acknowledge the age of an old horse and that with which we acknowledge the age of an old man? And what is it which is called righteousness ?——the fact of a man's being old ? or the fact of our giving honour to his age ?’

4. Kdo said, 'There is my younger brother;-I love him. But the younger brother of a man of Ch'in I do not love: that is, the feeling is determined by myself, and therefore I say that benevolence is internal. On the other hand, I give honour to an old man of Ch'u, and I also give honour to an old man of my own people: that is, the feeling is determined by the age, and therefore I say that righteousness is external.'

3. 異於, at the commencement, have crept 楚人, indifferent people, strangers. 以 by some oversight into the text They must be 我爲悅以長爲悦-the meaning dinregarded 白馬白人長馬長 no doubt, as in the translation, but the use 人白and 長 are the verbs, =the 長之 of悅 in both cases occasione some difficulty. below. 且調云云, ‘and do you say? Here again I may translate from the 日講

&c.,' but the meaning comes out better by ex- which attempts to bring out the meaning of

panding the words a little. The says:-1- I love my younger brother and do not

The recognition of the whiteness of a horse is love the younger brother of a man of Ch'in ; not different from the recognition of the white that is, the love depends on me. Him with ness of a man. So indeed it is. But when we

acknowledge the age of a horse, we simply whom my heart is pleased, I love (悦乎我 acknowledging, however, the age of a man, 之心則愛之), and him with whom

with the mouth pronounce that it is old. In

there is at the same time the feeling of respect my heart is not pleased, I do not love. But in the mind. The case is different from our the reverence is in both cases determined by

recognition of the age of a horse.' 4. 秦人, the age. Wherever we meet with age, there we





長日則 則內




在人敬長 :行都


非敬酌伯敬日, 由在則兄故何

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5. Mencius answered him, Our enjoyment of meat roasted by a man of Ch'in does not differ from our enjoyment of meat roasted by ourselves. Thus, what you insist on takes place also in the case

of such things, and will you say likewise that our enjoyment of a roast is external ?'

CHAP. V. 1. The disciple Măng Chi asked Kung-ti, saying, On what ground is it said that righteousness is internal ?'

2. Kung-tû replied, 'We therein act out our feeling of respect, and therefore it is said to be internal.'

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3. The other objected, ' Suppose the case of a villager older than your elder brother by one year, to which of them would you show the greater respect ?) (To my brother,' was the reply. But for which of them would you first pour out wine at a feast?' For the villager.' Mang Chi argued, 'Now your feeling of reverence rests on the one, and now the honour due to age is rendered to the other; -this is certainly determined by what is without, and does not proceed from within.'

have the feeling of complacency (5. THE SAME SUBJECT; THE DISCRIMINATIONS OF WHAT IS RIGHT ARE FROM WITHIN. . Măng 皆在所悅), and it does not necessarily Chi was a younger brother of Măng Chung,

proceed from our own mind. After reading| mentioned in Bk. II. Pt. II. ii. 3. Their relaall this, & perplexity is still felt to attach to the tion to each other in point of age is determined

use of . 5. #-#-Mencius silences by the characters fi and

Măng Chi had

bis opponent by showing that the same diffi- heard the previous conversation with Kao, or culty would attach to the principle with which subject he applied to Kung-t0 (Bk. II. Pt. IT. heard of it, and feeling some doubts on the he himself started; namely, that the enjoy. v.4) for their solution. (On what ground is it ment of food was internal, and sprang from the said?'-i.e. by our master, by Mencius. 3. The inner springs of our being. questions here are evidently by Măng Cht.





外敬 亦叔彼日子


之 日父將敬日都

夏 夏內則在位彼敬


日也敬故將弟曰能 則公敬人也日子弟乎答 日為敬

飲都弟季庸在 水子則子敬位


4. Kung-td was unable to reply, and told the conversation to Mencius. Mencius said, 'You should ask him, "Which do you respect most, your uncle, or your younger brother?" He will answer," My uncle." Ask him again, "If your younger brother be personating a dead ancestor, to which do you show the greater respect,to him or to your uncle?" He will say, "To my younger brother." You can go on, “ But where is the respect due, as you said, to your uncle ?" He will reply to this, "I show the respect to my younger brother, because of the position which he occupies," and you can likewise say, "So my respect to the villager is because of the position which he occupies. Ordinarily, my respect is rendered to my elder brother; for a brief season, on occasion, it is rendered to the villager."

5. Măng Chi heard this and observed, 'When respect is due to my uncle, I respect him, and when respect is due to my younger brother, I respect him;--the thing is certainly determined by what is without, and does not proceed from within. Kung-td replied, 'In winter we drink things hot, in summer we drink things cold; and

1 is in the general sense of elder.' the descendants, if possible—was made the ♬, 4. The translation needs to be supplemented, or 'personator of the dead,' into whom the spirit to show that Mencius gives his decision in the of the other was supposed to descend to receive

form of a dialogue between the two disciples the worship 惡在其敬—the其

a father's younger brother,' but used -the-2

generally for ‘an uncle.’弟爲尸-inmori. you said' 斯須-暫時; compare the

ficing to the departed, some one-a certain one of 'Doctrine of the Mean, i. 2. 5., ‘hot

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