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士天下之善士斯友天 國之善土斯友一國之善

上國 善官孔君履道是

孟職子命小如路

而非名人底
謂以與不所

日侯承


友鄉 官孔萬如

之 日召子而章矢也。 善一

一之 當行日君詩 士鄉也。 任然孔子云 善一之 有則子所周 Now, righteousness is the way, and propriety is the door, but it is only the superior man who can follow this way, and go out and in by this door. It is said in the Book of Poetry,

“The way to Châu is level like a whetstone,
And straight as an arrow.
The officers tread it,

And the lower people see it." 9. Wan Chang said, 'When Confucius received the prince's message calling him, he went without waiting for his carriage. Doing so, did Confucius do wrong?' Mencius replied, Confucius was in office, and had to observe its appropriate duties. And moreover, he was summoned on the business of his office.'

CHAP. VIII. 1. Mencius said to Wan Chang, .The scholar whose virtue is most distinguished in a village shall make friends of all the virtuous scholars in the village. The scholar whose virtue is most distinguished throughout a State shall make friends of all the virtuous scholars of that State. The scholar whose virtue is most distinguished throughout the kingdom shall make friends of all the virtuous scholars of the kingdom. eastern States, mourning over the oppressive TAGES OF FRIENDSHIP, AND THAT IT IS DEPENDENT and exhausting labours which were required ON ONE'S SELF. 1. “The virtuous scholar of one from the people. The royal highway'presonts village, -he shall make friends of the virtuous itself to him, formerly crowded by officers scholars of (that) one village :'-the first hastening to and from the capital, and the people hurrying to their

labours, but now is in the superlativo degree, and is not toiled slowly and painfully along. 9. See Ana- only 'to be fri ds with,' but also 'to loots, X. xiii. 4.

the uses of friendship.' The eminence attained 8. THE REALIZATION OF THE GREATEST ADVAN. I by the individual attracts all the others to him, ministers will overlook smal faults. To anim.

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則有聊不聊論讀未

未之 易大王同之齊其其足善 位過日有問世書又士。 王則請貴也。王也不改 勃諫問威王問 知論友

反貴之 日卿 古天 變覆 戚卿 卿孟 人 之 乎之 之不 不子也可人之 色。 而異 同日 乎頌善 日不日姓乎。王 是其土 王聽君之日 以詩為

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2. When a scholar feels that his friendship with all the virtuous scholars of the kingdom is not sufficient to satisfy him, he proceeds to ascend to consider the men of antiquity. He repeats their poems, and reads their books, and as he does not know what they were as men, to ascertain this, he considers their history. This is to ascend and make friends of the men of antiquity. CHAP. IX.

1. The king Hsüan of Ch'i asked about the office of high ministers. Mencius said, “Which high ministers is your Majesty asking about ?' 'Are there differences among them ?' inquired the king. There are,' was the reply. There are the high ministers who are noble and relatives of the prince, and there are those who are of a different surname.' The king said, 'I beg to ask about the high ministers who are noble and relatives of the prince.' Moncius answered, 'If the prince have great faults, they ought to remonstrate with him, and if he do not listen to them after they have done so again and again, they ought to dethrone him.'

2. The king on this looked moved, and changed countenance. and he has thus the opportunity of learning their age. We are hardly to understand the from them, which no inflation because of his poetry and books hore generally. Mencins own general superiority prevents him from seems to have had in his eye' the Book of doing. 2. -E X ), ho proceeds Poetry, and the Book of History. and ascends. ,'to repeat,' 'eroon over: 可乎 - 可否: proper or not ?

HIGH MiniSTER 1. 君有大過,一

過such 1 th, their age,' i. e. what they were in /advert on them would be inconsistent with

9. THE DUTIES OF THE DIFFERENT CLASSES OF

則 則之則日異然對敢問 去。而謙君 君姓後

後王不 異 不反有之請色以臣也 聽覆過卿問定正不王 王

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3. Mencius said, 'Let not your Majesty be offended. You asked me, and I dare not answer but according to truth.

4. The king's countenance became composed, and he then begged to ask about high ministers who were of a different surname from the prince. Mencius said, 'When the prince has faults, they ought to remonstrate with him; and if he do not listen to them after they have done this again and again, they ought to leave the State their consanguinity. No distinction is made effects. Chù Hsî notices that the able and vir. of faults, as great or small, when the other class of ministers is spoken of. Great faults tuous relatives of the tyrant Chan (**) are such as endanger the safety of the State. not able to do their duty as hero laid down, 3 , don't think it strange,'but = 'don't while Ho Kwang, a minister of another surbe offended.'-We may not wonder that duke name, was able to do it in the case of the king Hotian should have been moved and surprised of Ch'ang-yi (

II), whom he placed by the doctrines of Mencius as announced in this in B.O. 74, though not the proper heir, on the chapter. It is true that the members of the family of which the ruler is the Head have the throne in succession to the emperor Chao. Dearest interest in his ruling well, but to teach His nominee, however, proved unequal to his them that it belongs to them, in case of his not position. See the Memoir of Ho Kwang in the taking their advice, to proceed to dethrone Thirty-eighth Book of the Biographies of the him, is likely to produce the most disastrous first Han dynasty.

wero

BOOK VI.

KẢO TSZE. PART I.

而乎性子為仁機電 後將而能義也柳苦告 攻戰以順機。猶以也子子 為賊窩杞孟以人義 栖梧柳子性猶性句 穩柳檐之日柳為猶上

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CHAPTER I. 1. The philosopher Kào said, 'Man's nature is like the ch't-willow, and righteousness is like a cup or a bowl. The fashioning benevolence and righteousness out of man's nature is like the making cups and bowls from the ch't-willow.'

2. Mencius replied, 'Can you, leaving untouched the nature of the willow, wake with it cups and bowls? You must do violence and injury to the willow, before you can make cups and bowls with

Kdo, from whom this book is named, is the the view of the philosopher Hoin (T) that same who is referred to in Bk. II. Pt. I. ii. His name was Pa-bas (), spooulatist of

human nature is evil (PN) This is Mencius's day, who is said to have given him- putting the case too strongly. It is an induoself equally to the study of the orthodox doc- tion from his words, which Kao would probably trines and those of the heresiarch Mo (BK. IIL have disallowed. Hgün (200 the prolegomena, and Pt. I. v; Pt. II. ix). Soe the 19th

Morrison under the character F) accounted on Mencius. Vol

. L Art aix
. Ho appears Confucian school, appears to have maintained

by many the most distinguished scholar of the from this Book to have beon much perplexed positively that all good was foreign to the nature respecting the real character of human nature in its relations to good and evil. This is the of man ;- 一人之性惡,其善者個 principal mbject discussed in this Book Fair te, 'man's nature is bad ; his good is artiMoncius is mainly indebted for his place among ficial.' 1. The te and the top are taken by the Sages of his country. In the first Part," some as two troos, but it is better to take them mys the dy of the engine, be treats first together, the first character criving the species of the nature, then of the heart, and then of of the other. It is desoribed as growing by instruction, the whole being analogous to the the water-side, liko a common willow, the leaf lessons in the Doctrine of the Mean. The course and white, with the veins small and second part continues to treat of the same reddish' a , according with,' 'follow. found between the views of the parties there ing,"..e. leaving untouched,' doing noviolence combated, and those of the scholar Klo.' o'贱贱人,人人性:mml

1. THAT BENEVOLENCE AND RIGHTEOUSNESS ARE | nature, humanity. Kao had said that man's NO UNSATURAL PRODUCTS OP HULAS NATURE. There nature could be made into benevolence and underlies the words of Kao here, says Chů Hsi, I righteousness, and Mencius exposes the error

東西不則請雪七 二 西 西也善西東苦義 義桅、女 無盡地流方 者典 分子猶人則

日必

率亦戰 於 日: 水性東 子天將賊 上水之之流之下装和 下信無無决滞言 言之戰 乎無分分諸水夫 夫。人 人分於於西 而 性於東善方決 禍為為

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it. If you must do violence and injury to the willow in order to make cups and bowls with it, on your principles you must in the same way do violence and injury to humanity in order to fashion from it benevolence and righteousness! Your words, alas ! would certainly lead all men on to reckon benevolence and righteousness to be calamities.'

CHAP. II. 1. The philosopher Kåo said, 'Man's nature is like water whirling round in a corner. Open a passage for it to the east, and it will flow to the east; open a passage for it to the west, and it will flow to the west. Man's nature is indifferent to good and evil, just as the water is indifferent to the east and west.'

2. Mencius replied, : Water indeed will flow indifferently to the east or west, but will it flow indifferently up or down? The by hero substituting tett for in doing ora (3.2. 53-4. D. 18). We have the following which he is justified by the nature of the action sentence from bim :-'In the nature of man that has to be put forth on the wood of the good and evil are mixed. The cultivation of the

good in it makes a good man; the cultivation of willow. To Et, calamitize benevolence the evil makes a bad man. the pamaion-nature and righteousness. I take the meaning to be in its movements may be called the horse of good as in the translation. If their nature must be or evil' (+FTFR hacked and bont to bring those virtuee from ) is the sum of the it, men would certainly account them to be

chapter on Mencins spart. Hisopponent's views

were wrong, but did he himself have the wholo AND EVIL. ITS PROPER TENDENCY IS TO GOOD. That truth ? 端水, as explained in the dic. man is indifferent to good and evil, or that the tionary, 'water towing rapidly,' and 'water tendencies to these are both blended in his rippling over the sand.' Chio Ch'i, followed by nature, was the doctrine of Yang Hsiung (His cortainly better adapted to the passage.

Chů Hsi, explains it as in the translation, which !!), a philosopher about the beginning of our fas an adverb, “truly: 1

calamities.

2. Max's NATURE IS NOT DIDIFFERENT TO GOOD

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