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官孔君履道是 職子命小女 路 而非名人
孔駕 萬 如
Now, righteousness is the way, and propriety is the door, but it is only the superior man who can follow this way, and go out and in
by this door. It is said in the Book of Poetry,
"The way to Châu is level like a whetstone,
And straight as an arrow.
The officers tread it,
And the lower people see it."
9. Wan Chang said, When Confucius received the prince's message calling him, he went without waiting for his carriage. Doing so, did Confucius do wrong ?' Mencius replied, ' Confucius was in office, and had to observe its appropriate duties. And moreover, he was summoned on the business of his office.'
CHAP. VIII. I. Mencius said to Wan Chang, The scholar whose virtue is most distinguished in a village shall make friends of all the virtuous scholars in the village. The scholar whose virtue is most distinguished throughout a State shall make friends of all the virtuous scholars of that State. The scholar whose virtue is most distinguished throughout the kingdom shall make friends of all the virtuous scholars of the kingdom.
eastern States, mourning over the oppressive TAGES OF FRIENDSHIP, AND THAT IT IS DEPENDENT and exhausting labours which were required ON ONE'S SELF. 1. "The virtuous scholar of one from the people. The 'royal highway' presents village,-he shall make friends of the virtuous itself to him, formerly crowded by officers scholars of (that) one village:'-the first hastening to and from the capital, and the
people hurrying to their labours, but now is in the superlative degree, and is not toiled slowly and painfully along. 9. See Ana-only to be friends with,' but also 'to realize lects, X. xiii. 4. the uses of friendship.' The eminence attained 8. THE REALIZATION OF THE GREATEST ADVAN-by the individual attracts all the others to him,
HIGH MINISTERS. I.
2. 'When a scholar feels that his friendship with all the virtuous scholars of the kingdom is not sufficient to satisfy him, he proceeds to ascend to consider the men of antiquity. He repeats their poems, and reads their books, and as he does not know what they were as men, to ascertain this, he considers their history. This is to ascend and make friends of the men of antiquity.'
CHAP. IX. 1. The king Hsüan of Ch'i asked about the office of high ministers. Mencius said, 'Which high ministers is your Majesty asking about ?' ' Are there differences among them ?" inquired the king. 'There are,' was the reply. There are the high ministers who are noble and relatives of the prince, and there are those who are of a different surname.' The king said, 'I beg to ask about the high ministers who are noble and relatives of the prince.' Mencius answered, 'If the prince have great faults, they ought to remonstrate with him, and if he do not listen to them after they have done so again and again, they ought to dethrone him.'
2. The king on this looked moved, and changed countenance.
and he has thus the opportunity of learning their age.-We are hardly to understand the from them, which no inflation because of his poetry and books here generally. Mencius own general superiority prevents him from seems to have had in his eye the Book of
doing. 2. 尙=上又尙che proceeds Poetry, and the Book of History.
9. THE DUTIES OF THE DIFFERENT CLASSES OF
and ascends’頌-誦, (to repeat,' (oroon
over: 可乎可否 ‘proper or not?”
ministers will overlook small faults. To anim.
其世, their age, ie. what they were in advert on them would be inconsistent with
則之則曰異然對敢問勿 去。而 諫 君姓後王不臣異 不仅有之請色以臣也 聽 過卿問定正 王
3. Mencius said, 'Let not your Majesty be offended. You asked me, and I dare not answer but according to truth.'
4. The king's countenance became composed, and he then begged to ask about high ministers who were of a different surname from the prince. Mencius said, 'When the prince has faults, they ought to remonstrate with him; and if he do not listen to them after they have done this again and again, they ought to leave the State'
their consanguinity. No distinction is made effects. Chû Hsî notices that the able and vir
of faults, as great or small, when the other tuous relatives of the tyrant Chau (村)
class of ministers is spoken of. Great faults'
are such as endanger the safety of the State. not able to do their duty as here laid down,
3. 勿異,‘don't think it strange,'but = 'don't while Ho Kwang, a minister of another surv be offended.'-We may not wonder that duke name, was able to do it in the case of the king Hetian should have been moved and surprised of Ch'ang-yi(昌邑王) whom he placed by the doctrines of Mencius as announced in this in B.C. 74, though not the proper heir, on the chapter. It is true that the members of the family of which the ruler is the Head have the throne in succession to the emperor Chao. nearest interest in his ruling well, but to teach His nominee, however, proved unequal to his them that it belongs to them, in case of his not position. See the Memoir of Ho Kwang in the taking their advice, to proceed to dethrone Thirty-eighth Book of the Biographies of the him, is likely to produce the most disastrous first Han dynasty.
KÀO TSZE. PART I.
以戕以順棬猶以也子 為賊為杞孟以入義 梧杞栝柳子杞性猶性句 卷柳卷之 棬之日柳為 『為栢猶上 招
CHAPTER I. I. The philosopher Kao said, ‘Man's nature is like the ch't-willow, and righteousness is like a cup or a bowl. The fashioning benevolence and righteousness out of man's nature is like the making cups and bowls from the ch't-willow.'
2. Mencius replied, ‘Can you, leaving untouched the nature of the willow, make with it cups and bowls? You must do violence and injury to the willow, before you can make cups and bowls with
same who is referred to in Bk. II. Pt. I. ii. His
Pa-hai (不 (), a speculatist of Mencius's day, who is said to have given him. self equally to the study of the orthodox doctrines and those of the heresiarch Mo (Bk. III. Pt. I. v; Pt. II. ix). See the 四書拓餘 說 on Mencius. Vol. I. Art. xxix. He appears Confucian school, appears to have maintained
KAO, from whom this Book is named, is the the view of the philosopher Heün () that human nature is evil (性惡) This is putting the case too strongly. It is an induotion from his words, which Kao would probably have disallowed. Hsün (see the prolegomena, and Morrison under the character, accounted by many the most distinguished scholar of the
from this Book to have been much perplexed positively that all good was foreign to the nature
respecting the real character of human nature
in its relations to good and evil. This is the of man ;- -人之性惡,其善者僞
principal subject discussed in this Book. For 也,‘man's nature is bad; his good is arti.
nature as here
Mencius is mainly indebted for his place among ficial.' I. The 杷 and the 柳 are taken by
the Sages of his country. In the first Part,' some as two trees, but it is better to take them says the, he treats first together, the first character giving the species of the nature, then of the heart, and then of of the other. It is described as 'growing by instruction, the whole being analogous to the the water-side, like a common willow, the leaf lessons in the Doctrine of the Mean. The coarse and white, with the veins small and
second Part continues to treat of the same reddish.' 2.順, according with,' 'follow. subject, and a resemblance will generally be ing,'i.e. 'leaving untouched,' 'doing no violence found between the views of the parties there
combated, and those of the scholar Kão.' to戕賊人一人一人性,(man
1. THAT BENEVOLENCE AND RIGHTEOUSNESS ARE nature,' humanity. Kao had said that man's NO UNNATURAL PRODUCTS OF HUMAN NATURE. There nature could be made into benevolence and underlies the words of Kao here, says Chû Hsi, righteousness, and Mencius exposes the error
分子猶人則 必率亦戕 三子天將贼 水之之流猶之下戕杞 下信無無決 決》 之賊 乎無分分諸
人分 • 於於
it. If you must do violence and injury to the willow in order to make cups and bowls with it, on your principles you must in the same way do violence and injury to humanity in order to fashion from it benevolence and righteousness! Your words, alas! would certainly lead all men on to reckon benevolence and righteousness to be calamities.'
CHAP. II. 1. The philosopher Kao said, ' Man's nature is like water whirling round in a corner. Open a passage for it to the east, and it will flow to the east; open a passage for it to the west, and it will flow to the west. Man's nature is indifferent to good and evil, just as the water is indifferent to the east and west.'
2. Mencius replied, Water indeed will flow indifferently to the east or west, but will it flow indifferently up or down? The
by here substituting for in doing which he is justified by the nature of the action that has to be put forth on the wood of the willow. 禍仁義,‘oalamitize benevolence the evil makes a bad man. The passion-nature
era (B.c. 53-A.D. 18). We have the following sentence from him:-'In the nature of man good in it makes a good man; the cultivation of good and evil are mixed. The cultivation of the
in its movements may be called the horse of good
and righteousness.' I take the meaning to be
as in the translation. If their nature must be or evil' (十子全書揚子修身
hacked and bent to bring those virtues from 篇)人無有不善 is the sum of the
it, men would certainly account them to be calamities.
chapter on Mencius's part. His opponent's views were wrong, but did he himself have the whole truth? I.
湍水 as explained in the dic
tionary, 'water flowing rapidly,' and 'water
2. MAX'S NATURE IS NOT INDIFFERENT TO GOOD AND EVIL. ITS PROPER TENDENCY IS TO GOOD. That man is indifferent to good and evil, or that the tendencies to these are both blended in his nature, was the doctrine of Yang Hsiung ( 雄), a philosopher about the beginning of our