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along the thoroughfares of many of the large cities of America could not be accommodated, even as foot passengers, in the narrow streets of the best of Chinese cities.
Another fact to be taken into the account is, that there are no houses in Chinese cities built higher than two storeys-at least none that I have seen. Hence the same amount of population cannot possibly exist on the same area as is the case in our home cities where houses are built from three to ten storeys high.
I will conclude this paper with an account of a somewhat famous (among Suchow people) Taoist temple, known among foreigners as
THE CITY TEMPLE.
This is perhaps the most noted and popular pleasure resort and place of worship in the city. It is situated near the centre of the city, and is called by the Chinese Yuen Miao Kwan (). The grounds of the temples (there are two) embrace perhaps two acres, in the form of an oblong square. The two temples occupy one end of the enclosure. The one in front-"The Temple of the Three Pure Ones "—besides containing a very large idol, and the one hundred and twenty gods worshipped, each one by persons of a given age, has also very extensive picture galleries in the hall or outer room running around the central room which contains the idols. In these galleries may be obtained numerous specimens of Chinese fine art, pictures in water colors of flowers and pretty women, sages and genii, holy Buddhas and kitchens. gods, temples, pagodas and landscapes innumerable, which though utterly devoid of perspective, and presenting many grotesque-looking combinations, still give a pretty correct idea of the object represented, and at all events have the merit of cheapness as compared to the works of Western masters.
Behind the temple of the Three Pure Ones, is the "Mi Lo" Precious Pavillion. This has long been in ruins, but is now being repairedalmost rebuilt-by Mr. Wu, the wealthy banker of Hangchow, at a cost of Tls. 180,000. A large open space in front of the first temple is used as a kind of bazaar, and a large ground rent is derived from it by the Taoists. Here "all sorts and conditions" of pedlars and dealers in every kind of knick-knacks and toys "most do congregate." Many matsheds are built about in various places which are used for teadrinking and story-telling and doctors' shops. Punch and Judy, peep shows-many of the pictures of the latter are foreign-mountebanks, monkey shows, comic singers, &c., &c., may always be seen there. It is the place where every body goes that has nothing else to do. The haughty literateur, the clerk on a furlough, the artisan having a holiday, the devout woman leading her child and bringing her offering of
incense and paper money, the loafer, the riff-raff, the scum and dregs of the city--all go there from time to time to drink tea and “talkee talkee,” burn incense and seek their fortune, buy a curio, hear a story, or see a show. At times, when the crowd is not large, it is a good place to preach and distribute books, especially if one stands near the entrance on the street. But generally it is unpleasant, and some times unsafe for a foreigner to stop long in the place. Especially is this the case in the afternoons of fine days, and on the Chinese holidays. A fun-loving and impudent crowd will gather around a foreigner in an instant, and their boisterous language soon leads on to pulling and pushing, and sometimes to throwing brickbats.
The History says that a temple was first built on this site in the reign of Hien Ning of the Tsin, A.D. 275. The Mi Lo Pavillion was built A.D. 1435. The temple of the Three Pure Ones was built A.D. 1177. These temples have undergone many vicissitudes since they were first built, having been at various times more or less injured or nearly destroyed by soldiers, fire or lighting, and again repaired, sometimes from Imperial donations, sometimes by the governor and other officials, and sometimes by the people. The emperor Kien Lung, during his southern progresses, visited the temple several times, and had three altars built there at which he worshipped. He also bestowed upon the temple Tls. 300 and three Imperial autographs. Wonderful stories are told in the History of the miracles that were wrought when these temples were being built or repaired.
When the Mi Lo Pavillion was to be repaired at one time, the contractor sent two men to Chinkiang to procure the necessary timbers. On their return to Suchow, a violent storm arose and their raft of timber was broken and scattered. In great consternation they appealed to heaven, saying, “We have bought this timber to build a Pavillion with for the Gemmy Emperor, but now it is all scattered and lost, how can the Pavillion be built ?” Immediately, it is said, the wind ceased and the waves became quiet, a Taoist divinity appeared in the sky and the men reverently worshipped him and went on their way. They had not gone far till they found their timbers all gathered together again, not one piece missing. They proceeded with the raft to its destination and the Pavillion was repaired with great reverence and amid great rejoicings.
When the Three-Pure Temple was to be repaired the last time in 1817, after it had been struck by lightning, a large pillar was needed but could not be obtained, and the work had to be abandoned in consequence. The next year, a fisherman of Chang Sbuh, while fishing in the Yang-tz river, caught a heavy object in his net which he supposed to be a great fish. But on obtaining assistance and hauling it ashore at Fuh Shan he found it to be a large log of timber, seventy feet long and perfectly round and straight. The contractor at Suchow was notified of this strange occurrence, and he immediately proceeded to have the wonderful timber brought to Suchow, and found it to be just what was wanted to repair the temple with. Hence it was called “The Divine Timber produced by the Efficacy of Mountain and Sea” (uit *).
The two buildings, as they now stand, were thoroughly repaired, the Pavillion in 1675, and the Temple in 1818. They were very much injured by the Tai Ping rebels, who used many of the timbers with which to construct a look-out stand for use in watching the movements of the Imperial forces outside the city.
(To be continued.)
There are a number of passages of the Word of God, which are of such special interest and importance to us missionaries that they need to be kept in special remembrance, and their correct meaning to be always presented. One of these passages is the one quoted by St. Peter from the Prophet Joel, on the day of Pentecost, “And it shall come to pass, that whosoever shall call on the name of the Lord shall be saved.” Acts. ii. 21. The same passage is also quoted by St. Paul in his epistle to the Romans, chapter x. 13. The Apostle Paul from the manner and connection of which he quotes makes it plain how he understood this text. Under the Jewish dispensation the blessings of redemption were in a measure restricted to the Jews; but under the Gospel dispensation this restriction is entirely done away and the blessings of salvation are as freely offered to the Gentiles as to the Jews. "For” as St. Paul says, “ there is no difference between the Jew and the Greek; for the same Lord over all is rich unto all that call upon him. For whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved.” Notwithstanding St. Peter quoted this passage of the prophesy, it required a special revelation to enable him to understand the full import of the passage, viz., that under the Gospel dispensation the blessings of salvation were free to the Gentiles as to the Jews. But the enlightening influences of the Holy Spirit in connection with the vision from heaven led him to comprehend the truth and he expressed it thus “Of a truth I perceive that God is no respecter of persons. But in every nation le that feareth him, and worketh righteousness, is accepted with him.” Act. x. 34–35. Cornelius, who by the direction of an angel had sent for Peter, was originally a Gentile, a Roman centurion, and by birth a heathen. But through his residence in Judea he had come to the knowledge of the true God
and worshipped him with all his house. When therefore St. Peter uuderstood the whole facts of the case, viz., that God had sent his angel to this Gentile directing him to send for Peter—and the Spirit of God had said to Peter “ go with them nothing doubting,” he was fully convinced of the truth that the Gentiles were called to be fellowpartakers with the Jews of the blessing of the Gospel. This revelation to St. Peter and the reasoning of St. Paul are our full warrant, as missionaries to preach the Gospel to the Chinese and the people of all nations in the full assurance that “whosoever shall call on the name of the Lord shall be saved.” It is a full and all-sufficient salvation and all are earnestly invited to come and accept of its gracious provision of mercy and salvation.
But these passages are sometimes quoted to sustain the opinion that persons who worship the God of their respective countries, and act according to the light around them, shall be saved. These passages, taken according to their connection and the scope of their meaning, afford no support to any such opinion. In the passage as it occurs in Joel ï. 32, it reads “Whosoever shall call on the name of the Lord shall be delivered ;" and in Romans x. 14, in the immediate context, St. Paul says, “llow then shall they call on him in whom they have not believed ? and how shall they believe in him of whom they have not heard ?" It is therefore clear that the meaning of the passage is, that those who call upon Jehovah, the true God, the Creator of the heavens and the earth, shall be saved. The meaning, as expressed by St. Peter, is precisely the same: “Of a truth I perceive that God is no respecter of persons.” Peter, as a Jew, of course believed that there was only one true God, Jehovah. He used Theos in this passage as referring to Jehovah.
“But in every nation he that feareth him, (i.e. Jehovah) and worketh righteousness, is accepted with him.” What were the facts that were before his mind at this time? They were these : He himself while engaged in prayer to God had been favored with a vision and been directed to go where he was invited to go. He had just learned from the statement of Cornelius, as well as before from his messengers, that he, though a Roman by birth, worshipped God according to the teachings of the Old Testament, and that God had sent an angel to him when he was engaged in prayer and fasting. Thus this Roman, while worshipping Jehovah, had a direct revelation from God, as Peter himself, a Jew, had under similar circumstances. What else could he say but what he did say “But in every nation he that feareth him (i.e. God, the true God) and worketh righteousness, is accepted with him.” The expression worketh righteousvess in this connection obviously refers to the performance of such duties as God requireth of men.
As sustaining the view of the passage which I have expressed above, I am happy to quote from ihe commentary by Dr. Lange as edited by Dr. Schaff on Acts. x. 35. “These words are often misapplied by those who allege that it matters not what a man believes, if he only fears God, and does that which is right, avoids sin and leads a correct life. The Apostle does not, however, here authorize any indifference on the subject of religion, but proclaims the universal
love of God to all nations, in consequence of which he will have all men to be saved; but they must (as Paul adds 1 Tim. ii. 4.) all come unto the knowledge of the truth, (and to repentance as 2 Pet. iii. 9.). He does not say that the man whose natural feelings prompt him to fear God, to adopt some measures for his salvation, to avoid gross sins, and to lead a correct life externally is already acceptable to God and in a state of grace (for he can attain to this only in Christ. Eph. i. 6.). Not all religions, but all nations are placed on the same level. Bengel says Peter means to say; 'I now comprehend that there is no sectarianism in God, and that he does not intend to save the Jews only, or another particular nation, and condemn all others, as I had hitherto so erroneously supposed he would do.' I. It is neither a charter granted to the infidelity of the world, nor a repudiation of the zeal of faith existing in the Church. II. It is, however, an invitation addressed to all who seek salvation, and a warrant for missionary labors among all nations." A STUDENT.
Births, Marriags & Deaths. Ar Trinity Cathedral, Shanghai, on
October 10th, by the Rev. W. L.
AT Hankow, on September 24th, the beloved wife of Rev. W. J. MAWBEY, M.D., London Mission.
AT Swatow, on September 7th, the wife
AT Kinwha, on September 16th, the
AT Ningpo, on October 23rd, the wife
Ar Chefoo, on September 6th, by Rev.
AT Hangchow, on October 14th, 1882,
ARRIVALS.-Per str. Tokio Maru, on
September 28th, Rev. C. M. Cady,
Per str. Anadyr, on October 2nd,
Per str. Kashgar, on October 5th, Rev. and Mrs. Webster, Dr. and Mrs. Christie, of the United Presbyterian Mission, Newchwang.