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boys and girls came crowding in, slip- a certain civil-service apprenticeship ping into their places at the long nar- which at least gave a degree of acrow tables that cut across the great quaintanceship with the general form dining-rooms; and, when I looked at of government organization and with him, his eyes had filled with tears. He traditionally approved method. watched Madame and her husband, a We of America, daughter of Engphysician, going from one child to land, have undoubtedly taken over another, examining their throats, or from the mother country the idea of their eyes, taking them out to the little

government service committed to a clinic for weighing, carrying the young- special class; but we have not taken est in their arms, comforting a sorrow- with it the idea of birth, means, or speing mother whose little Marie had just cial education, either in university or died — while all the time the dozen civil service, as necessary prerequisites white-uniformed young women hur- for admission to this class. And we ried up and down the long rows, ladling have probably not suffered very much the potato-stew and the rice dessert. by not doing so, for Great Britain, in

'I turned toward Mr. Hoover, and he her present great emergency, in this spoke these true words: “The Women modern trial by fire of her governmenof Belgium have become the Mother of tal form of organization and method, is Belgium. In this room is the Relief of rapidly casting her traditions aside Belgium.”'

just as we are. A new element of soci

ety has been called for, and has conV

spicuously entered both British and It has been for long our custom to American governments. It is being commit the affairs of government to more quickly and largely used in the hands of men whom we call states- Washington than in London, because men or politicians. Sometimes the men tradition's hold on us is weaker and of this class are indicated as belonging more easily broken. But we have no to it by a certain training, but too often more conspicuous illustrations of this only by a certain inclination. This in- element in our government service than clination does not always coincide with England's Geddes and Rhondda. special competence; in fact, it has so This new element, introduced to asoften been associated with incompe- sist and strengthen and speed up govtence that the name politician, even ernment, is that of the business man, that of statesman, usually leaves a bad or, to be exact, of a certain type of busitaste in the mouth.

ness man. It is to the men and methIt is unnecessary to try to point out ods of business, successful business, in detail how this condition has come that the world has turned in its stress to exist. If we look to Great Britain and great need. Washington to-day is we may find some explanation. There, a strange sight. Where, of old, Senagovernment has been, even more than tors of the Prince Albert coat, the large with us, a function of a class. But it soft hat, and the heavy gold chain, and has been a class possessing more ele- Congressmen of a basic bucolicness ments of presumable special fitness with a translucent veneer of the apand training than with us. Govern- proved ‘Meet Mr. Smith'type of genment service in Great Britain has been iality and cosmopolitanism, were the associated with birth, with inherited characteristic landfalls in any 'seeing means, with a 'gentleman's education' Washington' experience, now the megat Oxford or Cambridge, and with aphone is kept busy asking you to note


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the passing, with vigorous step or in in this calling on the proved business swift motor, of numerous less pictur- men and experts of the country to share esque-looking men in sack suits, who in the administrative responsibility in are Mr. Jones and Mr. Brown and Mr. this time of the nation's stress. It is a Robinson and Mr. Black, the heads of new phase of our cult of efficiency. And the National Red Cross, and War In- it is a splendid new illustration of the dustries Board, and Shipping Board, resources of democratic government. and Food Administration; and, at the The response of the business men, that same time, partner of J. P. Morgan, is, of the right type of business men, and president of this or that great rail- has been immediate and whole-hearted. way system, and great merchant, and They have dropped private affairs and great inventor and manufacturer, and money-making at the very moment great mining engineer. And so on, with when their undivided personal attensuccessive representatives of the suc- tion to these matters may mean more cessful business man introduced to your in the way of gain, or of minimizing astonished ears and eyes here in Wash- loss, than ever before in their lives, perington - not New York!

haps. They come as volunteers, regardThere are also, in less number, to be less of titles, of position, or popular sure, than the partners of Mr. Morgan, recognition, to do their part in public but still numerous enough to be notice- service, to help make our government able, certain men of yet another class more effective in time of great emerwho have been brought abundantly gency, to help save it in a crisis. And to Washington. You will meet them when the crisis is past, they will be willoften in the offices of the business men ing, and will prefer, to go back to their - more often, perhaps, than you will private affairs. meet senators and congressmen and But they will not all be allowed to do other traditional Washingtonians in this, and others, later, will be called for. these plain offices, more abundantly Because Washington and the country furnished with telephones and steno- are learning something. We are taking graphers and straight-backed chairs a new step in the organization of our than with rugs, deep leather rockers national administration. By a small and other temptations to reminiscential angle, but definitely, we are changing social converse. These other men are the direction of our national evolution. named to you as Professor X and Doc- It is going to be possible for our govtor Z. They are men of long study of ernment to have always at its disposal, this or that specialized branch of natu- hereafter, the aid of men of a type new, ral or political science. The governing with some notable exceptions, in pubbusiness men associate these experts, lic service, although as old in human on leave from their universities, with society as human society itself. For the them as advisers and helpers. They country is finding a new use for this do not ask them for aid in organization type, and the type is finding in public or administration, but they ask them service a new opportunity and aim and for special information, and to study satisfaction. this or that special problem on the

On the other hand, as a consequence basis of the fundamental scientific of the new experience, we are going, facts and methods with which they are without any reciting of ‘whereases’and already soundly familiar.

‘resolveds,' or any formulation of rules There is much importance for the or regulations, to release ourselves to present, and significance for the future, some extent from government by talk

ers, wire-pullers, and favorite sons. The And I much doubt, indeed, whether we test in business organization is capac- shall ever again try to get on without ity, and so it is in government. And them. our government is now put, for the This is what I mean when I speak of first time in a long period, rigidly to Herbert Hoover as 'type.' He reprethe test. Managing our government sents typically a class we are discoverfor the rest of our generation — we can ing in a new light; men of affairs willing see so far, at least, plainly -- is going to to be men of public service, not for be a stressful undertaking of big busi- salary or glory or named position, but ness, expert administration, and will- for the satisfaction of doing something ing and self-sacrificing national loyalty. for country and humanity. It seems Strong policies more than politics, ac- hard to reconcile our carefully cultitive doing more than spellbinding, and vated ideas of 'big business' with our resourcefulness more than tradition, ideas of public service. But we have are going to be characteristic of it. before our eyes the material evidence Hen we shall need the Hoovers and that some big-business men can be willHurleys, the Davisons and Baruchs, ing and generous and honest public the Willards and Rosenwalds, and servants. Washington these days is others like them, in governmental and not only a strange sight - it is an innational affairs for a long time to come. spiring sight.

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Then, as I dreamed, the billowy darkness broke
At some soft, slow, insinuating stroke,
And lo! a little core of light began

To waken softly, and its rays outran,
And, by insensible degrees, increased
Into the semblance of a phantom East;
And the whole night gathered and overflowed,
Flood upon flood, until a shining road
Of level water lay out endlessly
Into the outer reaches of the sea.
I floated forth lightly upon it, and
Suddenly, round me, there was no more land,
But rioting from the depths of the sea's caves,
The shining floor broke into hollow waves,
And rocked the house about me, and drove me on
Into the night of waters. Land was gone,
The whole live Earth shrank like a startled snail
Into the shell of heaped-up waters, pale
As moonlight in the moonlight, and now curled
Under and over and round about the world.
And the waves drew me, and the treacherous night
Into the circle of its infinite
Would fain have sucked me, and I saw the moon
Laughing an evil laugh, and the stars swoon
Into an ecstasy of merriment.
Then, knowing I was wholly lost, I sent
A great cry shouting up into the sky,
And leapt upright, and with an echoing cry
Over my head I heard the waters hiss;
And I fell slowly down the sheer abyss,
Age after endless age of such intense
And unimaginably sharp suspense,
That soul and body parted at the stroke;
And with the utter anguish I awoke,
And saw the night grow softly into day
Outside my windows on the Zattere.



GERMANY is, to all intent, mistress to that profound failure of insight in of Central Europe and the Balkans, respect to the conduct of the war which of Turkey, and of Russia. As I write has befallen all the leading men of the these lines (in December, 1917), the Entente without exception. This faillast part of the German scheme which ure, which is wholly independent of their I set forth in the June Atlantic is in will, is due mainly to the fact that the preparation. All the disposable forces present leaders of the Entente, having of Pan-Germany are concentrating on one and all been firmly convinced that the Western front. If such a state of the war would never take place, had affairs is possible when the Entente not trained themselves intellectually to has an abundance of admirable troops carry it on when it should break out. and boundless resources, it is because, Moreover, for we must set things as Mr. Lloyd George declared in his down as they are, the majority of these speech of November 12, with his wont- leaders of the Entente knew the polited and most salutary frankness, after ical geography of Europe only in the more than three years of war the En- most superficial way. As for the ethtente has no strategic plan. What is nographic detail which plays in this the cause of this unfortunate condi- war a fundamental part that is still tion? That is what it is most important far from being understood, they know to ascertain first of all, for the Allies absolutely nothing about it. It is the cannot think seriously of winning a same with the practical political econdecisive victory unless the problem of omy of Central Europe, of the Balkans, the strategy which is an indispensable and of Turkey, and with their national necessity of their position is stated psychology. Now, these sciences — in such terms that it can readily be geography, ethnography, political econsolved. But it has not yet been so omy, and national psychology - are stated. To be sure, Mr. Lloyd George absolutely indispensable to the wise dwelt upon

the extreme gravity of the conduct of the war; and they do not situation but, despite the fact that he teach themselves. It is altogether imis certainly the most keen-sighted of possible to become familiar with them the leaders of the Entente in Europe, without hard work, long continued. he did not point out definitely the pos- That is why, even assuming that all itive remedies capable of putting an the guiding spirits of the Entente are end to a state of affairs which is in- endowed with innate genius, it is abtolerable because it is infinitely dan- solutely impossible for them, held fast gerous.

as they are at every moment by the The reason for this absence of con- daily, always urgent, demands of a war crete suggestions on Mr. Lloyd George's which took them entirely by surprise part is that, notwithstanding his great and in which they had to improvise natural intelligence, he too is subject everything, to acquire during the con

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