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his weight from one foot to another, so that each time he was approaching a fraction of an inch nearer the weapon that lay in the drawer.

Over in the other building some one was looking in perplexity from the window at the spectacle of the learned Dr. Wing Shee holding tight on a cord from the cell port. It might be friend or foe. The doctor jammed his slouch hat over his eyes, and felt for the revolver that was strapped to his forearm under his large sleeve. Soon the enemy would be down and out and at him, and there would be pistol shots and the hurry of the squad in the night.

In the hospital the two men were gazing intensely into each other's eyes. Ok Hut was beginning to move by greater units, and his confidence began to return.

"Stop!» said Chow, putting out his hand. «If you pass that crack in the board->>

But Ok Hut made a leap for the table. In a twinkling Chow, with all his might, hurled the pot of doom.

tor.

«Conceal your cut,» commanded the doc«Stand as though you were one of the crowd. In a moment the squad will be here, and then the ruthless water-snake men, with their chu-chu monster.>>

When the police thrust them aside, the two crossed to the door of a friendly merchant, and soon were hidden in the collecting throng. They stayed to see Ok Hut brought out insensible and bleeding from many wounds, and all the other inmates brought out safely. When Chow and the doctor knew that the building was doomed, they issued unmolested from the back of the store to another street, and made their way in the early light toward where little Fay lay awake, with her heart beating fast at the shouts and the clang of the fire-engines, with littlest slumbering Oo clasped tight to her bosom.

THAT evening they sat about the dinnertable, with Sum Ah and the helper Yang, who listened in admiration, while happy little Fay sat behind her spouse, and littlest Oo enchanted herself with the tip of the doctor's cue.

«You-you risked your life for me!» said Chow, with something glistening in his eye.

A terrific explosion in Chinatown startled the hills of San Francisco, followed by cries, the jingle of window-glass, and the chattering of scared Chinese, and soon by compar- «And what is amusing,» said the learned ative stillness. Sum Chow, with a flesh-wound Dr. Wing Shee, who would have risked it in his cheek, came bounding down from the again, is that they have amputated one of hospital into the arms of the doctor. Mingled Ok Hut's legs at the knee. So that the omen cries were rising from the sick wards. The (one and a half meant simply that he was Run was filling with a crowd of all races that doomed to issue from this with only one and seemingly had sprung from nowhere. a half of his two original legs! I have to Already smoke was pouring from the hos- thank you for these very interesting and expital windows.

citing days.>>

Chester Bailey Fernald.

ON READING WILLIAM WATSON'S SONNETS
ENTITLED «THE PURPLE EAST.»

RE

ESTLESS the Northern Bear amid his snows
Crouched by the Neva; menacing is France,
That sees the shadow of the Uhlan's lance
On her clipt borders; struggling in the throes
Of wanton war lies Spain, and deathward goes.
And thou, O England, how the time's mischance
Hath fettered thee, that with averted glance
Thou standest, marble to Armenia's woes!
If 't was thy haughty Daughter of the West

That stayed thy hand, a word had driven away
Her sudden ire, and brought her to thy breast!
Thy blood makes quick her pulses, and some day,
Not now, yet some day, at thy soft behest
She at thy side shall hold the world at bay.

Thomas Bailey Aldrich.

LIFE OF NAPOLEON BONAPARTE.

BY WILLIAM M. SLOANE.

THE WESTERN EMPEROR ON THE DEFENSIVE.

THE EVACUATION OF MOSCOW-THE RETREAT FROM RUSSIA-THE HORRORS OF THE
BERESINA THE PRODIGAL'S RETURN-THE REVOLT OF THE NATIONS-THE
FIRST CAMPAIGN IN SAXONY-THE NATIONS IN GRAND ARRAY-
THE LAST IMPERIAL VICTORY.

DRAWN BY H. A. OGDEN.

NAPOLEON IN A GREEN VELVET SABLETRIMMED OVERCOAT.

THE EVACUATION OF MOSCOW.

OTHER MOSCOW, as runs the caressing Russian phrase, is indeed the source of all Muscovite inspiration. Watered by the winding stream of the same name, its heart is the Kremlin, a citadel of Russian architecture, Russian orthodoxy, Russian authority, and Russian learning. Clustered about this are the various quarters of the town, which cover a space equal to the area of Paris, and contain about one fourth as many inhabitants. The epithet of holy city» is justified by the sanctuary of the Kremlin, but its aptness is further sustained by the three hundred and sixty churches, each with its tower and onion-shaped cupola, which are scattered through all the districts. In the beginning of this century Moscow from within appeared

like a congeries of villages surrounded with groves and gardens, each with its manorhouse and parochial church. Around the whole was a girdle of country-seats, and the beauty of the scene as viewed by the approaching traveler was such as to kindle. enthusiasm in the coldest breast. The inhabitants had hoped that the «victory » of Borodino would spare their home the shame of foreign occupation. When the governor announced that in a council of war it had been decided to abandon the city, there was first dismay, then fury, then despair. The long trains of departing citizens wailed their church hymns with sullen mien and joyless voices.

The evacuation was marked by barbarous conduct on the part of the civil authorities. By a military convention the Russian rearguard had been permitted to withdraw unmolested after Borodino, in return for a promise not to destroy Moscow. But already on September 14, the day of the French occupation, fires had been kindled in the suburbs, whether by accident or design cannot be determined. On receipt of the notice to evacuate, such stores as in the short interval could be reached were destroyed; the prison doors were opened, and a horde of maddened criminals was set free in the streets. Nevertheless there was fair order throughout the 15th. Next day a raging conflagration burst forth. At the time, and long afterward, this was attributed as a deed of dastardly incendiarism to the invaders; with the growth of modern ideas about ruthlessness in warfare, Russian historians have begun to attribute it to the inhabitants as a heroic measure. It is now asserted that the governor cast the first brand into his own country-seat. More probably, the fanaticism of the populace, heightened by the criminal rage of the escaped prisoners, led to the almost simultaneous firing of many buildings in various quarters.

[graphic]

A possibility of method in the destruction of the city begins to dawn, however, when it is remembered that the devastation of the surrounding country by the fleeing Russians was equally thorough, and was carried out according to plan.

The entry of the French into Moscow has been compared to the appearance of great actors before an empty house. When the conflagration broke out, every effort was made to stop it, and eight hundred fire fiends were summarily punished. But as the burning walls of the storehouses fell, the rabble seized the barrels of spirits thus revealed, and drank themselves into blind fury; the French soldiery pillaged with little restraint, not sparing even the Kremlin. Finally the flames were checked and order was restored, but not until three quarters of the city proper were destroyed; the Kremlin and the remaining fourth were saved. On the evening of the fourth day the French army was disposed in rude comfort within or about the site of Moscow, and Murat's riders began to bring in reports concerning Kutusoff's army. To soothe the peasantry of the neighboring districts, one of the old insidious proclamations was issued, appealing to their manhood against the tyranny of their rulers. Die for your faith and the Czar!» was the answering cry, as they seized the French stragglers, surprised the garrison of Wereja, and beset the Smolensk road. Day by day the people labored, the townsfolk helping to gather the peasants' goods, both classes waylaying the French supply-trains, and hiding every article of use in vast underground chambers constructed for the purpose. Consternation filled the invaders, and their plight became desperate when they learned of the Russian military dispositions, and understood how Kutusoff already menaced their safety.

Instigated by Castlereagh, Bernadotte had released the Russian corps placed at his disposal for conquering Norway, and Wittgenstein, on the Russian right, thus suddenly acquired a force of 40,000 wherewith to menace Napoleon's outlying left on the north. By English mediation, also, a peace was arranged between Turkey and Russia, thus releasing Tchitchagoff, who promptly joined Tormassoff, and opposed Schwarzenberg onthe extreme French right with nearly two to one. Meanwhile Kutusoff had taken a position at Tarutino, where he commanded the left flank of the main French army, and daily received new recruits, who flocked to fill his depleted ranks. Napoleon had, since Borodino, been in daily expectation of some communi

cation from the Czar. His critical situation made him impatient, and on the 20th he wrote, informing his strangely silent foe that Moscow was burned, a misfortune which might have been averted had negotiations been opened after Borodino. There was no response. On October 5 Lauriston was despatched to Kutusoff's camp, nominally to secure an exchange of prisoners. The latter said that the matter must be referred to St. Petersburg; but the French general learned that the Russians had extended their line south toward Kaluga to secure the fertile base behind, and further threaten the long weak French flank.

Alexander's silent steadfastness was indeed remarkable. Hitherto in every crisis-as, for example, after Austerlitz and Friedlandhe had yielded. Why was he now so firm? Stein, the Prussian patriot, was at his side; but so was the trusted Rumianzoff, leader of the French party, which was for peace. The Old-Russian party, demoralized by Napoleon's advance to the heart of the empire, was also clamorous for peace negotiations. An English embassy, composed of Lord Cathcart and the body of English officers under Sir Robert Wilson sent to reorganize the Russian army, had so far been able to accomplish little, for by all accounts their influence was slight. The best information goes to show that Alexander moved and talked like one dazed, feeling himself to be a storm-tossed child of fate. Destitute of self-reliance, he appears to have been drawn toward Galitzin, whose piety was eminent, and verged upon mysticism. It is certain that in those days the Czar for the first time became an ardent Bible reader, and frequently exclaimed, «The hand of God hath done this!» On leaving St. Petersburg at last for the seat of war, his parting act was to found the Russian Bible Society. It was with little realization of the change in the military situation, and with a feeling of providential guidance, that he determined to renew the conflict.

Thus passed five weeks: interminable they seemed to the anxious conqueror at Moscow, who yawned even at the theater; who forgot the stern abstemiousness of his table habits, and, like a gourmet, spent hours at his meals merely to kill time; who threw himself into vicious ways, and contracted a loathsome disease; who lost all interest even in his troops, and finally, unkempt, preoccupied, and feverish, seemed indifferent to everything. The crown, scepter, and robe wherewith he had hoped to be invested as Emperor of the West, were not unpacked from the camp chests.

[merged small][merged small][graphic]

FROM THE CRAYON SKETCH BY GIRODET TRIOSON, IN THE COLLECTION OF COUNT A. D'HUNOLSTEIN.

NAPOLEON AT THE THEATER OF ST. CLOUD, APRIL 13, 1812.

last the captain in Napoleon awakened, the emperor vanished, the retreat was ordered, and universal empire, a dependent czar, the march from Tiflis to the Ganges, England humiliated, and the ocean liberated-all were forgotten in the presence of reality. Political considerations prompted a movement of withdrawal toward the northwest, as if against St. Petersburg, but military considerations prevailed, and between the two alternatives-a direct retreat to Smolensk through a devastated land, or a circuit southwestward, through fertile districts, toward Kaluga, as if to attack Kutusoff-the choice fell on the latter. The reason is clear. The seat of war was within a triangle marked by Riga, Brest-Litovski, and Moscow: from Riga to Moscow, the left flank, is 550 miles; from Riga to Brest, the base, is 375 miles; from Brest to

VOL. LII.-48.

forces available; the line of operation was equally weak. What safety was there for the army in retreat? None.

There will never be complete agreement as to the causes of Napoleon's disaster in Russia. A comparison of the relative values of mass-formation, tactics, and organization in modern warfare, which uses railroads and telegraphs, with the distances practicable in present-day operations, must nevertheless reveal the chief cause-that the Napoleonic. organization had not kept pace with the development of Napoleonic strategy. The emperor had overweighted the general, the former having soared into an ether which would not sustain the pinions of the latter. The well-used plea of an act of God » will not stand. The autumn of 1812 was mild, the winter late in opening. Neither cheerless steppes,

nor phenomenal cold, nor unheard-of snows, nor any reversal of nature's laws,-not even the motley nationalities of the grand army, or an unhistoric migration from south to north, none of these was the chief cause of failure, which is to be found in the attempt monstrously to exaggerate the factors of a strategic system evolved for national, but not for continental, proportions. The first and natural thought of a direct retreat to Smolensk was momentarily entertained; but it had to be abandoned because, with weak flanks and a bare country, the distance was too far. The same was true in regard to the move toward St. Petersburg-the distance was too great for the conditions. The circuit toward Kaluga was first considered as a feint to throw the Russians off the scent; it became a necessity when they assumed the offensive. A long march had to be extended still farther in order to avoid exposing flank and rear to an advancing foe, and in order to secure sustenance from the country when the distances were too great for the workings of any feasible commissariat department. If the Russians should even momentarily be deceived into believing that the French had resumed the offensive, a line from Kaluga direct to Smolensk would still be open for retreat while the enemy was preparing for action.

The report was spread in Moscow that Napoleon was going out to overwhelm Kutusoff and then return. Accordingly Mortier, with eight thousand of the young guard, remained behind, his orders being to blow up the Kremlin before leaving. The main army advanced across the river Pachra and moved toward the Lusha. On the 24th the Russian van appeared. Had Kutusoff acted on his correct information and thrown forward his whole army, a decisive battle might have ended the invasion. As it was, Eugène, after a bloody conflict at Malojaroslavetz, remained master of the field, and the timid Kutusoff drew back his force. Meantime the truth leaked out in Moscow. Suspicion was excited, as the resident French observed not merely the immense booty packed in the officers' baggage, but also the loads of Muscovite art treasures under which the government wagons groaned. They were quick to act, and soon, accompanied by women and children, they joined the march with all the paraphernalia of their household goods. From the first this throng, uniting with the usual horde of stragglers and camp-followers, prevented all rapid movements by the army; in fact, but for them the half-senile Kutusoff would not have been

able to show even his van to the French line. Mortier's effort to destroy the Kremlin failed, and served no purpose except to exhibit the thirst for revenge of a savage nature brought to bay. In short, every plan of Napoleon's seemed ineffectual, and indecision marked him for its own. Eugène's terrible struggle had resulted in a list of wounded numbering 4000. The old Napoleon would have abandoned them and then have attacked Kutusoff even in the forest defiles where he was ensconced; or else he would have pressed on past Kaluga, or would have swiftly wheeled to regain the northern road toward Smolensk. The harried, sick, exhausted man of 1812 did none of these things, but called a council of war, and weighed the arguments there presented for nearly a week, when finally he decided, and with forced marches drove his columns toward the northern road to Smolensk. He wrote to Junot that his motive for delay was to provide for the suffering from his depot at Mozhaisk, but in fact he had not waited long enough materially to assist the wounded, and had secured no advantage from the bloody battle. In the absence of trustworthy information he took a long, circuitous road when once he did move. yet there was no cold except the usual sharpness of autumn nights; but the summer uniforms of the troops were tattered and their shoes worn. Germans, Italians, and Illyrians began to straggle, and the horrors of the approaching cold, as depicted by Russian prisoners, sank deep into the minds of the dispirited French, so far away from their pleasant homes.

THE RETREAT FROM RUSSIA.

As

FOR nine days the retreat went on. Mortier came in on October 27; Davout was assigned to keep the rear. Napoleon was no longer seen on horseback; sometimes he drove, but generally he trudged among the men, as spiritless as any. The road was lined with charred ruins and devastated fields, and the waysides were dotted with groups of listless, desperate soldiers who fell out and sank on the ground as the straggling ranks tramped on. Skirting the battle-field of Borodino, the marching battalions looked askance on the ghastly heaps of unburied corpses; but the wounded survivors, dragged by their comrades from field hospitals and other cavernous shelters to be carried onward with the departing army, were a sight which in some cases turned melancholy into madness. On the 30th Napoleon was informed that Schwarzen

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