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dollar, in 1903 to two dollars, and in object to purposes that were never in1907 to four dollars. In 1909 the immi- tended. grant fund was abolished, and the head- The dreadful European conflict will tax receipts were dumped into the Trea- not have been without its service if the sury, the regulation of immigration being United States, alarmed by the persistence forced to depend upon such annual allow- of the hyphen in American life, adopts an ances as Congress saw fit to make. The immigration policy that in its essence will $10,000,000 balance belongs to the immi- be a policy of hope, justice, aspiration, and grants, and even if their need were less

progress for all the oppressed and unbitter, it would still be unfair and dishon- happy, whether they be native-born or est to divert a trust fund from its avowed strangers within the gates. 1 (The illustrations accompanying this article are reprinted from The Century for

February, 1898, and March, 1903.)


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dwellings, we are close to the ancient about our dwellings, for their shade, mother still. Go out some day into the we say, or their charm, their protection, wild places, let night come on, or a storm, their architectural value. But at bottom, and see how you turn like a homing bird I believe, all our reasons are the saine: to the shelter of the hemlock thicket! we demand trees about our dwellings be- Even on my own little place of a few acres cause deep within us— deep, perhaps, as there is a grove of pines near the house, the primal instincts of the race-is a great murmurous like the sea, and beside it and trustful affection humorously akin to three gnarled old apple-trees which put a the dog's trust in the table beneath which green roof over that bit of the lawn; and he lies, whether to escape the heat of sum- to them I return a dozen times a day out mer or the Fourth of July fire-crackers. of the sunshine or the moonlight on the For all the centuries of upward develop- garden, as a man returns to the welcome ment, for all our tall cities and snug of his roof and hearth.


"The sycamore . . . is large, dignified, masculine, and totally unaware of the

picturesque effect created by its tortuous branches”

Trees, of course, are the most beautiful as well as, perhaps, the most useful of growing things, not because they are the largest, but because they attain often to

the finest symmetry and because they have the most decided and appealing personalities. Any one who has not felt the personality of trees is oddly insensitive. I



cannot, indeed, imagine a person wholly through vistas that look like blue daggers incapable of such feeling, though the man of light between the solemn uprights, can who plants a Colorado blue spruce on a ever forget it? It is like nothing else on trimmed lawn east of the Alleghanies, earth. Yet the isolated pine, which has where it is obliged to comport itself with not fought upward in the crowded elms and trolley-cars, is admittedly pretty phalanx of its fellows, but has expanded callous. Trees are peculiarly the product laterally as well, is a totally different of their environment, and in a natural tree, with a totally different personality, state their personalities have invariably a a very noble and sturdy personality, too. beautiful fitness.

How characteristic of our Northern Take the white pine, for example, no- mountains is the ragged upland pasture, blest of all our common North American where the cattle wander through hassocks trees. The pine by nature is gregarious of grass and sweet-fern, and by some bit in the extreme. One old patriarch, if of gray stone wall a single pine stands up left alone, will in a few years breed about alone, its branches extended in angular its feet a family of seedlings half an acre parallels like a cedar of Lebanon, broken in extent, and this little stand of seedlings, and stunted on the side toward the preif they, too, are left alone, will in turn, vailing winter storms, streaming away in a single generation, begin to breed more more gracefully to leeward, and the masseedlings out to windward, and thus in a sive trunk, comparatively short and hundred years the patriarch, the grand- gnarled instead of tall and mast-like, infather of the forest, will perhaps be almost clined a little from the winter gales, as if hidden in the depths of an extensive wood. it had stood its ground and taken their As they begin to grow, the young trees buffets for a hundred years without more are crowded thickly together, and very than bending backward from the hips soon their lateral branches begin to touch, when the blows rained thickest! I know completely shading the ground beneath. such a pine on a hilltop which has been As soon as this happens, of course, all the carved by the storms of a century into lateral branches below the upper layers a quaint and splendid replica of the are shaded, too, and begin to die. Only Winged Victory, and there is no passer the tops of the trees get the sun; so they who sees it but pauses a moment to admire give up the natural effort to spread, and its rugged beauty, its suggestion of tridevote most of their attention to racing up- umphant, dogged strength. To deny that ward after more and more sunshine. The pine personality is to prove one's utter weaker trees, crowded in between the lack of imagination. strong, sooner or later give up the strug- The American elm is another common gle and die; but the strong ones keep go- native tree possessing both great beauty ing up and up, till all signs of their lower and a strongly marked personality. It is lateral branches have completely disap- recognized as the standard for town plantpeared, and the lofty trunks tower as ing because its personality so exactly comstraight as ruled lines for fifty, seventy- ports with geometrical street vistas, with five, and in primeval forests even for one the formal lines of architecture, with the hundred feet in air, before the trees throw orderliness and dignity of university cama single limb. It takes many generations puses and civic squares. The elm is essento make such a forest, though, alas! only tially a self-sufficient tree. It does not a few months to destroy it.

thrive in groves. It has a standard type What man who has ever entered the of its own, and it either attains this type hushed cathedral aisles of a mighty pine or is lost to view. The elm which comes grove, fragrant with that indescribable in- to maturity is usually the one which has cense, murmurous overhead with the whis- lodged in a favored spot where there is no per of surf upon a lonely shore, mysterious competition, such as

competition, such as a river meadow, with the tiny patter of pitch, illumined where the spring freshets have dropped


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“ These same trees [the elms) are scarcely less beautiful in winter"

the seed on fertile soil, and the roots can and then dissolving in those branches as get down to water.

a water jet might dissolve in many upWe all know the type, the noble trunk ward and out-curving streams, till the of massive girth tapering very gradually whole is lost in the spray of the foliage. upward to the first spring of branches, Like many other trees that grow alone, it

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