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of Augsburgh, of Cologne, and of Bohemia. The doors are enriched with hunting emblems and arms. Groups of arms and trophies are hung round, testifying to the perfection of the smith, the cutler, and the chiseller; specimens of the tools and implements used by artists and workmen, and instruments employed in navigation and in the study of astronomy. Specimens of pottery and of glass, and of the art of the joiner and other handicraftsmen, are here exhibited, as also portraits of the most noted travellers of the time.
purpose of taxation. This feeling I believe to exist with many, and it is not to be wondered at, for it is a lamentable reflection that, from the days of the Romans up to the present time the statistical information that has been obtained upon industrial subjects has been not so much for the purposes of improvement, of science, or of benefitting the public, as for the purpose of seeing what amount of taxation they would bear. In the days of Imperial Rome we read that the land was accurately measured by proper officers, who reported its produce, whether arable or in pasture-in vineyards or in woods; the number of cattle, and the number of slaves-and an average estimate was made of the gross produce for five years, of which a fixed portion was exacted by the State. This was, probably, the origin of the Agricultural Survey which was carried out by William the Conqueror, and is still to be seen in that valuable and curious register of the time-the "Doomsday Book."
A very complete arrangement of Chinese porcelain comes next in order, also of Japanese porcelain; near them the European imitations, partly after their models, partly after the Marjolicas, and the designs of the Netherland potters-then finer works, with reliefs of hunting scenes and groups-then the endeavour to improve in modelling and arrangement of figures. Examples are also shown of the attempts to produce a clay equal to the Chinese porcelain. Also specimens of the products of This Statistical Survey appears to have been used for the this class of Venice, Germany, Bohemia, England, &c. Here are also mosaics, metal works, carved wood, ivory, like results have generally followed like inquiries. Notsame purpose; and since that time up to the present day, mother of pearl from the workshops of Venice. The withstanding this probable cause of hesitation with the produce of the needle and loom are represented by stuffs farmers generally, I am inclined to think that, on a from China, Japan, India, Persia, Arabia, and Turkey, little consideration, they will see their own interests so of great beauty aud splendour, and by tapestries from directly concerned in the inquiry, that less difficulty in the Another compartment is appropriated to the period from prosecution of it will be met with from them than from a the commencement of the 18th century to the French higher class of those connected with land. This belief is Revolution, with its decline of taste, but important dis-strengthened by my own experience, to which I shall precoveries in science and art. Furniture mirrors, consoles sently allude, and also by the tone of the recent discussions and pictures, carved wood and ivory marqueterie and on the subject which have taken place at the Royal AgriculHere is to be seen an interesting series of European por-manufactures, it becomes doubly so when it affects a subject Rococo exhibit the overloaded decoration of the period.tural Society and at the Farmers' Club. Valuable as correct information is in reference to every manufacturer or dealer in celain, beginning with the experiments of "Böttcher and the white Saxon porcelain to the perfect works of Kändler and the end of the period; fine specimens of Berlin porcelain, and some excellent works from Sevres; examples of Wedgwood ware, from the full size bust and vase to the smallest relief and vessel. Around the room
are specimens of fine works in bronze, ivory, and the finer metals, and a large collection of glass; crystals and state glasses from the workshops of Venice, Germany, England, and Bohemia; mirrors and looking glasses; ornaments in feathers and shells, &c., &c.
This concludes the industrial collection,-a faithful picture of the immense abundance of the products of the human mind, and of its power of production in the field of art-workmanship, and ample materials for studying new
of such importance as the food of the people. Nothing tends so much to counteract the great fluctuations of the market, and to keep corn at an equable price as legitimate speculations, and this can never be carried on safely to the individual and with benefit to the public, unless upon the sound basis of statistical facts. It has been remarked that individuals have, by inspecting the growing crops, collecting information, and comparing and registering their observations, been able to deduce certain estimates, and then use them successfully as the basis of subsequent transactions. These statistics, incorrect as they may be, are found to be better than none. They are not influenced by political or theoretical views, but solely commercial-founded upon a simple view of facts, regulated and strengthened by experience. If we look back, we find that most of the great There are, however, other rooms for the exhibition of fluctuations in prices have arisen more from the influence works of art, as pictures, miniatures, engraving, &c. of a want of correct statistical information upon commercial Among them are works of Raphael, Boltraffio, Guilio speculation than upon the fact of an abundant or a scanty Romano, B. Garofalo, Guido Reni, Guercino, Andrea del harvest. There is much curious and valuable information Sarto, Michel Angelo, Caravaggio, Schidone, Titian, on this point to be gleaned from the early history of our Paolo Veronese, Padovanino, C. Maratti, Albano, Poussin, markets, as recorded by Stowe, and also by Tooke "On S. Rosa, Rubens, Vandyk, Van du Helst, Lely, Van High and Low Prices." In 1813 the crop was of the most Helst, Le Brun, Jacques Von Artois, F. Clouet, Murillo, abundant character; in 1814 it was a full average; in Velasquez, Q. Mastys, Wohlgemuth, Solzius, and L. 1815 again very abundant; but in 1816 it was most calaKranach. In these rooms is arranged a collection of ex-mitous: the excess, however, of the three preceding years amples of the latest works of industry which have been produced under the influence of the fine models of antiquity.
SIR,-As I was unable, from previous engagements, to take a part in the adjourned discussion last evening on Mr. Leone Levi's valuable paper on Agricultural Statistics, I venture to ask permission to make a few remarks through the medium of your Journal. I should hardly think it necessary to refer to the importance to the farmer as well as to the public of a good system of Agricultural Statistics, were it not for some remarks which fell from some of the speakers, who seemed to question their appreciation of it, and to express a fear that difficulties would arise from a prevailing idea that the information was desired for some
being in store, lessened the scarcity which would have occurred in 1817 if the produce of the last harvest had been all that there was in the country. As it was, the legislation (corn law) of the preceding year (1815) was suspended, and the ports opened for the admission of foreign corn without restriction or duty. The evil had, however, been done; in the absence of any correct statistical knowledge it had checked the tendency of commercial speculation in grain. The intermediate possessors of wheat were lessened, so that a very small deficiency raised the prices enormously, as was seen in 1817, when the price rose from 70s. to 130s. per quarter, while a small surplus in 1822 depressed it to 38s. per quarter.
Let not my meaning be prejudiced by the ordinary acceptation of the word speculation. I wish to use it merely as implying the intermediate possession of corn between the producer and the consumer, whether it be by the mer
chant or by the farmer; for I hold that a farmer who keeps his crop over a second harvest does so in the hope of a better market, and thus leaves the legitimate part of farming for that of speculation. We are indebted to Adam Smith for our knowledge of the true philosophy of commerce. His views of the principles of productive and distributive industry carry conviction with them, by the force and yet simple form of his arguments. Since his time statistical knowledge has gradually been increasing in importance until it has arrived at its present position -a pure deductive science. Its application to agriculture, the immediate subject of our discussion, may be seen in the "Statistical Account of Scotland," the result of a series of simultaneous inquiries into the land in cultivation, and its produce, the clergy contributing the account of their respective parishes. These were all sent up to Sir J. Sinclair, who super-than be tacked on to any other branch of the public intended their arrangement and publication. The next movement seems to have taken place in 1816 and 1817, when "An Inquiry into the Agricultural State of the Kingdom" was instituted in a statistical form, by the Board of Agriculture. In 1832 a Statistical Department was established at the Board of Trade. In 1833 a Statistical Section was formally acknowledged at the British Association meeting. In the same year a Statistical Society was organised at Manchester, and in the year following the Statistical Society of London was established, having originated in the successful result of the Statistical Section at the meeting of the British Association, at Cambridge. At these meetings, the importance of agricultural statistics has frequently been discussed. In 1834. Lord Fitzwilliam, at the Edinburgh meeting, observed "that accurate information, from even a small number of places, would furnish more safe grounds for correct inferences than could be obtained from a more widely extended, but less precise inquiry."
In 1849, Mr. Danson, (Birmingham meeting) in a paper Agricultural Statistics, and Fluctuations of Prices of Wheat in France," gives it as his opinion" that the history of prices (especially as regards the food of the people) ought, in the order of practical importance to mankind, to take precedence of the history of politics." I could quote from several other papers of the same character if my time and your pages would permit. I must, however, leave these few and somewhat irregular observations in reference to the importance of agricultural statistics, and venture a few remarks on what passed at the first evenings discussion, as to the mode of carrying them out.
I fear, with Mr. Sidney, that the proposition of sending Commissioners round the country to persuade the farmers into a favourable view of the Government measure, would excite their suspicions rather than their assistance. At the same time, I think much valuable information as to details might be obtained by some such mode of application to the provincial market towns-say those in which the corn averages are struck. They might be taken as the centres of dispersion for their respective districts. With most of Mr. Caird's observations I quite concur, especially those in reference to the importance of correctness and exactitude. Upon this point Lord Fitzwilliam's paper also bears. If he, as an individual, could do it on a limited area, it surely cannot be difficult to organise machinery equal to more extended operations. As regards his (Mr. Caird's) proposition, that a knowledge of the breadth sown with any particular crop will give the earliest and most reliable indicatious of what produce may be expected, I hope I may, without any impropriety, allude to some inquiries of my own, which were made last year, and which strongly confirm his proposition. In an industrial tour to the north, in the early part of the spring, the condition of the crops was one of the principal objects of my inquiry, and the results I obtained appeared to me so important that I felt it my duty immediately on my return to communicate them to the President of the Board of Trade. On inquiry into the breadth sown in wheat in the different corn-producing districts through
which I passed, I was led to the conclusion, that the area sown was, on an average, from one-third to two-fifths less than that of ordinary years; while the wet and ungenial weather of the previous season had had such a debilitating effect upon that which was sown as would probably reduce its yield from 5 to 10 per cent. Thus, it appeared to me that we should have to meet a deficiency in our harvest of about 40 per cent. upon our ordinary returns. This communication was made on the 20th March-how far my estimate proved correct we unhappily know too well. Mr. Caird's suggestions, as to the machinery to be employed and the details of working it, I think are open to serious objections. If the inquiry is of that vital importance which I believe it to be, it appears to me that it should be conducted by a special department, with machinery of the best character, and specially adapted to its particular requirements, rather service, especially one which carries with it a title so little grateful to a farmer's ear as that of the Tithe and Inclosure Commission. The first consideration in such an inquiry is, that it be efficiently and accurately carried out; the question of expenditure is a secondary consideration, and I should be inclined to think Mr. Caird's estimate far below what such an inquiry would amount to. On one other point in his details-the relation between productiveness and locality and climate in any particular season-I would remark, that some observations were made, during twelve successive years, in reference to the causes, whatever they may be, affecting productiveness, and it was found that, taking one year with another, they were pretty equally distributed over the whole of England. Thus, the same years which show the maximum production in Durham and Northumberland were found to yield the largest returns in Somerset and Hampshire, and the years that were least productive in the South and West showed a like deficiency in the North. From the suggestions of Mr. Jadis I am sorry to have to differ on all points. 1st. The clerks of Union Boards are lawyers, and ill calculated, both by professional pursuits and habits, for the duties suggested. 2nd. The parochial clergy have happily other and more important duties to perform, which ought to fully occupy their time; and 3rdly, the mode proposed of working and remunerating paid Inspectors I cannot think at all likely to secure the object desired; the payment, £50 per year for the responsible survey and registration of 50,000 acres, surely should never be attempted. At the same time, I think the suggestion of defraying the whole cost by a charge on the county rates, would meet with general dissent and opposition.
Thus far, I have ventured freely to comment upon the suggestions of others, without bringing forward any myself; want of time rather than want of inclination has been the cause. As a proof of my intentions I may mention, that I had made some practical progress in the matter, in the spring of last year, when I was unexpectedly honoured by being appointed an Industrial Commissioner to the United States. This took me from home, and prevented me from the attempt which I was about to make, on my own responsibility and at my own cost, to obtain the statistical account of each acre comprised in the Union in which I reside. It would have been a fair test of what could be done, both as regards work and cost, as the Union contains 19 parishes, all of which are purely agricultural.
In conclusion I would call attention to a fact which
seems to have escaped the notice of all those taking part in the present discussion-namely, the proportion of our supply of food for which we have to rely upon the produce of other countries.
I have no figures before me to quote from, but must use round numbers, which will, in the absence of reliable statistics, perhaps be the best. Under the most favourable circumstances, we only grow a quantity of wheat equal to five bushels per head of our population; whereas the consumption amounts to eight bushels; and we con
Libraries, and Picture Galleries;" this, however, does not aid us much, for it has reference to buildings of greater magnitude than the one we contemplate.
In conclusion, we venture to suggest that the Society of Arts collect detailed information from the Institutions in Union, respecting their buildings, to guide those who, like ourselves, being without a building, are resolutely determined to raise money for the purpose, and feel anxious wisely to expend the same. I remain, Sir, truly yours,
sequently have to purchase three bushels per head from
JOHN WARREN, Hon. Sec.
ERRATUM. In last Number, col. i. line 22, for G. Gore, M.D., read
I must plead for some indulgence for any errors in these hastily written observations, which I am anxious to have ready for your Journal of this week, so that they TUES. may appear with the adjourned discussion.
I am, Sir yours faithfully,
Iver, Bucks, April 6th.
Mechanics' Institute, Royston, Herts.
SIR,-Your journal is especially valuable as a vehicle for making known the wants of institutions.
In order that we may the more efficiently fulfil our mission, we are endeavouring to raise 1,000l. for the erection of a building, to contain a large hall for lectures, entertainments, &c., with rooms for a museum, library, reading, class instruction, &c, a matter of no small difficulty in a town with a population of little more than 2,000.
It becomes, then, a question of the greatest importance to us how can we most advantageously spend 1,000l. in the erection of a building?
The choice of materials for building must be regulated chiefly, we apprehend, by the resources of the locality. Our chief difficulty, which we press upon the attention of your readers, is with respect to the large hall; for we are anxious not only to provide a room suitable for lectures and entertainments, but also for public meetings, such a room being a desideratum in our town. superficial area of the large hall, must be at least 1,800 square feet. What is the best proportional size for a room to be used for such a variety of purposes? Some persons stoutly advocate the double cube shape, as being the best for good acoustical effects, viz:-For the room we want, 60 feet long, 30 feet broad, and 30 feet in height. really should be glad to learn the experience of some of your readers on this point.
With us, the large hall and its ante-room would occupy one floor, and the remaining rooms another floor. Should the large hall be on the ground-floor, or above the other rooms? If above, which is to be preferred— the plastered ceiling or the open wood roof?
You see then, sir, we seek information on the best proportional size, the position in the building, and the best kind of roof, for a large hall. We earnestly solicit your readers to aid us, either through the medium of your journal, or by private letter if preferred.
We are not aware of any work on the subject, except a valuable one by the Messrs. Papworth, on " Museums,
MEETINGS FOR THE ENSUING WEEK.
London Inst., 7.-Mr. W. H. Monk, " On Chamber Music."
Geographical, 8.-1. Lieut. Col. Lloyd, "Account of an
Civil Engineers, 8.-Discussion "On the Management of
Railways-Reports upon the Principal Accidents.
Railways-Reports of the Inspecting Officers upon certain
Turnpike Trusts-Second Report by the Secretary of State.
Delivered on 4th April, 1854. 117. Newspaper Stamps-Return. 128. Metropolitan Improvements (Advances out of the Consolidated Fund, &c.)-Statement.
121. Tithe Commutation-Returns.
Agricultural Returns of Ireland for the year 1853.
135. Islands of Arran-Copy of Correspondence.
142. Brevet Promotions-Return.
Dated 13th March, 1854.
598. L. Whitaker, J. Diggle, and G. Howarth, Haslingden-Spinning cotton.
599. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's inn fields-Cannon. (A communication.)
600. B. Latchford, St. Martin's lane-Saddlery. 601. J. Glenny, 152, Strand-Camp bed.
602. E. Haeffely, Radcliffe-Mordaunt for dyeing and bleaching. 603. E. Haeffely, Radcliffe-Stannates of soda.
604. J. Wright, 16, Park street, Kennington-Furnace for consuming smoke.
605. J. Walker, City road-Raising stamps for crushing, and rams for pile driving.
606. G. Hopper, Houghton-le-Spring Iron Works-Pins for railway chairs.
607. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's inn fields-Sewing machines. (A communication.)
608. A. E. L. Bellford, and P. Riston, 16, Castle street, Holborn Inflating life belts, &c. (A communication.)
Dated 15th March, 1854.
615. P. A. le Comte de Fontaine Moreau, 4, South street, Finsbury -Waterproof stuffs. (A communication.)
617. T. Kaye, Huddersfield-Manufacture of gas. 619. J. P. Oates, Lichfield-Bricks, &c.
621. J. Houston, jun., Glasgow-Steam-boilers.
623. W. Weatherley, and W. Jordan, Chartham, near Canterbury -Steam boilers.
825. T. W. Keates, Chatham place, Blackfriars-Turpentine and drying oils.
627. M. Binns and J. Pollard, Bradford-Combing wool, &c.
Dated 16th March, 1854.
628. C. Poisson and L. J. Martin, Paris-Printing fabrics. (A communication.)
629. B. Weare, Plumstead common-Galvanic batteries. 630. D. Bethune, Toronto-Steam vessels.
631. F. W. Emerson, Penzance-Pulverizing, &c., gold quartz. 632. J. Kavanagh, Liverpool-Sails.
633. J. Lilley, Birkenhead-New material for spinning, and for manufacture of felt.
634. J. G. Marshall and P. Fairburn, Leeds-Combing flax, &c. Dated March 17th, 1854.
625. J. Gerrard, Guernsey-Cutting and stamping soap. 636. W. Holt, Bradford-Organs.
637. R. W. Harris, and T. Patstone, Birmingham-Lamp shades. 639. T. W. Scott, Plymouth-Devonian limestone. 640. A. Hendry, Port Glasgow-Bakers' ovens.
641. G. H. Barth, 4, Mornington crescent, Hampstead road-Administering gasses for certain diseases.
642. T. Bassenett, Liverpool-Ships' compasses.
643. J. Hughes, James street, Bethnal green road-Jacquard machine.
644. G. W. Reynolds, Birmingham-Stays.
656. J. Hyde and J. Harper, Stockport-Spindles and flyers for roving machines.
647. W. Thorne, Barnstaple-Reducing metallic ores. 648. W. Dantec, Liverpool-Purifying water.
Dated 20th March, 1854.
650. P. R. Hodge, Moorgate street-Reducing metallic ores. 652. R. Tempest, J. Tomlinson, and H. Spencer, Rochdale Cleansing wool.
654. H. Moore, Junction Foundery, Hull-Template for iron ship building.
656. F. Loret, Vermeersch, Malines-Looms.
660. J. Longbottom, Leeds-Combining air with hydro-carbons. (A communication.)
662. J. Perkins, Kennington-Metal blocks for printing fabrics. 664. R. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet street-Sewing machines-(A communication.)
WEEKLY LIST OF PATENTS SEALED.
2244. Edward Davies, of Bradford-Improvements in carrier-comba to be used in combing wool, cotton, silk, flax, or other fibrous substances.
William Joseph Thompson, of North Shields-Improvements in heating reverberatory and other furnaces.
John Wright, of Rochester-Improvements in apparatus tof facilitate the landing and embarking of passengers from steam-boats and other vessels.
2304. Henry Kraut, of Zurich-Improvements in stands for casks and barrels.
194. Thomas Wicksteed, of Leicester-Improvements in the manufacture of sewage manure, and in apparatus for that purрове. Scaled 4th April, 1854.
2274. James Thomson Wilson, of Falkirk-Improvements in the manufacture of alum.
2279. John Mason, of Rochdale-Improvements in preparing cotton for spinning, and in machinery or apparatus for effecting the same.
2282. Julius Schonemann, of 89, Great Portland street-New constructions of weighing machines.
2780. James Alexander Manning, of the Inner Temple-Improvements in the treatment of sewerage and other polluted liquids and the products thereof.
3022. Alfred Vincent Newton, of 66, Chancery lane-Improvements in the manufacture of screws.
10. David Kennedy, of Reading, U.S.-Certain compositions of matter to be used in the manufacture of leather. 88. William Edward Newton, of 66, Chancery lane-Improved machinery for dyeing, washing, and bleaching fabrics. 142. Robert Angus Smith and Alexander M'Dougall, both of Manchester-Improvements in treating, deodorizing, and disinfecting sewage and other offensive matter, which said improvements are also applicable to deodorizing and disinfecting in general.
166. John Getty, of Liverpool-Improvements in the manufacture of tubular bridges, part of which improvements is applicable also to the preparation of plates for covering iron ships, for constructing boilers, and for other analogous uses.
186. William Edward Newton, of 66, Chancery lane-Improvement in violins and other similar stringed musical instruments.
No. 73. Vol. II.] JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY OF ARTS.
Journal of the Society of Arts.
FRIDAY, APRIL 14, 1854.
The Council desire to call the attention of the Carpets of all kinds. Institutions in Union to the following Circular, believing, that the subject to which it refers is one in which they will take considerable interest, and can render material assistance :
SIR,-Her Majesty's Commissioners for the Great Exhibition of 1851 having, conjointly with the Society of Arts, appointed me to commence the formation of a General Collection of the raw Produce and Manufactures of all Countries, as se forth in the Second Report of the Royal Commission, I am now occupied in forming a collection of raw and manufactured ANIMAL PRODUCE of every description; and I am, therefore, desirous of inviting the aid and co-operation of all who are interested in the pursuits of Trade, Commerce, and Manufactures.
The Collection, with the formation of which I am thus charged, will contain samples of the Produce of Great Britain and Ireland, the British Colonies, and also of all Foreign Countries. It will hereafter be arranged and exhibited in the most convenient and instructive manner; and, when complete, will represent the productive resources of each country, accompanied by such statistical and scientific information as may be desirable.
The object of the present circular is to invite Producers, Merchants, Manufacturers, and others, who are disposed to aid, by contributing samples of raw or manufactured animal produce to the Trade Museum, to communicate with me on the subject. The specimens should in all cases, if possible, be accompanied by written descriptions, stating where from, by whom produced, collected, or manufactured, the cost of production, collection, or manufacture; and should be forwarded to me at the Society's House. It is hardly possible to specify exactly the best size for each sample; the collection is formed for practical use, and therefore each specimen should be large enough to show the distinguishing characters or properties of each article in a clear and satisfactory manner. Specimens of all kinds of animal produce will be valuable, whether at present used in the Arts or not. Samples of the same articles showing peculiarities of manufacture, nature, or preparation, or derived from different sources or localities will also be received, as it is an essential feature in the collection now forming, that the productions of different countries or localities shall be contrasted and shown side by side.
Yours, &c., EDWARD SOLLY.
The following list is by no means complete, and migh be very considerably extended; it is merely given asa nt indication of the class of articles which are desired:
Dog fish skin.
Doe skin (cloth).
Feathers of all kinds.
Hair of all kinds.