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foreign music and take up the cast-off Chinese music ?
5. I think it is possible and wise to have choirs formed of both sexes—men and women-to be leaders in singing in churches. It is needless for me to point out that many hymns have been composed in such a way that part should be sung by one sex and part by the other, or with combination of both sexes in one hymn or anthem. It would be wise therefore to form choirs of both sexes as leading singers in church.
6. Improvement of music can be found in churches where schools are attached to them, as in the case of missionary schools all students must take up music or singing, and opportunity is afforded for training young men or girls to improve music and to show their musical talent. When churches have no nection with any schools I may venture to suggest that students from other schools should be asked to assist them as leaders in singing
BIBLICAL ABBREVIATIONS. To the Editor of
“THE CHINESE RECORDER.” DEAR SIR: By a strange coincidence I was at the point of mailing you the substance of what follows on the above subject when the April RECORDER came to hand with Mr. Luce's new list of abbreviations.
In working on a book of Bible Reading Outlines containing several thousand Scripture references, I followed the first table of abbreviations for the names of the books of the Bible I ran across, being under the impression that all such lists were the same, only to find afterwards that there are than half dozen different systems in use. I had practically decided to revise the work and follow the table of abbreviations given in the Mandarin Reference Testament issued by the B. and F. B. S. as probably being the system most used and therefore the one most likely to become standard, hoping also that Bishop Schereschewsky's new Mandarin Reference Bible would practically settle the matter by following the same system. I was therefore the more disappointed on receiving the latter recently to find that instead of contributing towards uniformity it adds to the confusion by following a new system of its owni, in which it introduces changes in four places where all the other systems are in agreement ! In addition to these two there is another used by the Wên-li Reference Testament (B. and F. B. S., Ed 303), making the third system followed by the Bible Societies themselves !
If the Chinese religious literature in my possession is fairly
representative, about 80 per cent. (reckoning roughly) of those books that give chapter and verse, print the names of the books of the Bible in full througliout; another 10 per cent. use at least six different systems of abbreviations and furnish a table showing which one they follow ; the remaining 10 per cent. use abbreviations, but fail to indicate the system-in some cases evidently following one of their own.
In comparing the different systems that have come under my notice, for which tables are furnished, it is seen that all are in agreement concerning the following 24 books of the 0. T.:
They differ from one another concerning fifteen books of the O. T. as follows :
New Mandarin Refer
母母 ence Bible.
拉帖伯歌結耳摩俄彌鴻該亞瑪 [A B. S. 1908.]
上下 Conference Commentary
on the New Testament. 以帖約雅西耳麼阿米翁基亚拉 (Chinese T. Soc. 1904.) ET Luce's “Record and Let- + hf ters of the Apostolic 喇以百歌結耳麼阿米翁基撒拉 Age.”
The Proposed Standard
* It would seem that thus far this system has been most largely followed. With one or two minor differences it is also used in the C. T. S. “ Bible Dictionary," Williamson's “Aids to the Understanding of the Bible,” Muirhead's “Topical Index of the Bible," Krantz's “ Important Doctrines of the Bible," etc.
In the N. T. they differ from one another concerning fifteen books as follows :
Wên-li Reference Testament. *
太教徒 [B and B F. S. Ed. 303.]
Testanment. [B. and B. F. S. Ed. 28.]
約約約 前後 壹武卷
New Mandarin Refer
撒撒 ence Bible.
太約從 迦西 們來雅 [A. B. S. 1908.]
SueluolesspILI 撒前撒前撒前 迦前 帖前迦前 帖前 tsuemoressolL II 撒後撒後撒後迦後 帖後迦後
TuolI 約壹約壹約壹翰一 ngofiII 約差約参約长 umof II 約武約武約武翰二翰二翰二翰二
on the New Testament. 馬翰使 [C. T. S. 1904.]
前後 Luce's “Records and Letters of the Apos- 太翰使 tolic Age.”
西赣 加歌還門希各 加西警
前後 The Proposed Standard
* See note, page 345.
Thus, may mean either Malachi Matthew ; fi either Ezra or Malachi ; i I either I Samuel or I Thessalonians;雅 either Song of Solomon or James ; parko either Song of Solomon or Colossians ; II either Ezra or Esther; Phy either Ezekiel or Colossians;約 either John or Job! To us these differences are confusing enough, even though we usually have a very fair idea from the context which book is intended, but to the majority of the Chinese they are simply bewildering, especially if several books (Reference Bible, Commentary, Bible Dictionary, Con
cordance, etc., each employing its own system) are studied side by side. To say the least it requires considerable mental effort to remember which is which, the necessity for which would be wholly obviated by uniformity.
On the other hand, the narrow limits within which these differences are found, furnish a strong argreement in favor of entire uniformity, for at the outside they concern only 30 out of the 66 books of the Bible-less than one-half-and this number would be reduced to 22-one-third-if we include the books concerning
which all would be agreed were and all kinds of Christian literaa uniform system of translitera- ture are pouring in an ever tion used (viz., Joel, Amos, Oba- increasing stream from the diah, Micah, Nahum, Haggai, presses, and when revival fires Galatians and Philemon).
are burning more and more This last fact calls attention brightly in all sections of the to the lamentable want of agree- empire, creating a new love for, ment concerning the names of and giving a new impetus to, the books of the Bible them- the study of God's Word, even selves. For instance, the New these details of uniform names Mandarin Reference Bible differs for the books of the Bible and from the ordinary Bible (B. and a standard system of abbreviaF. B. S., Ed. 394) in its manner tion are worthy of serious attenof writing Job, Song of Solomon, tion and should not be difficult Amos, Obadiah, Matthew, Mark, of attainment. Romans, Galatians, Thessalo- I am glad that an effort in niaus, and Philemon ; while the this direction is being made, and “Conference Commentary on the earnestly hope that it may be New Testament” (see its list of crowned with success, but would abbreviations) again differs from like to ask if the approval of both of these in its way of writ- the various Bible, Tract, and ing Exodus, Chronicles, Ezra, Christian Literature Societies has Nehemiah, Esther, Daniel, been sought and obtained ? If Hosea, Amos, Obadiah, Micah, not, it seems a pity that the Nahum, Haggai, Malachi, and proposed new system, notwithPhilemon; and where these three standing the support of which do happen to agree concern- it is already assured, has not ing Zephaniah, Mr. Luce's list been held in abeyance a little
a gives a different way of writing longer until these societies, at it. Surely this ought not so to least, had also fallen into line be.
and the translation committees If a uniform way of writing had made what changes they the names of the books of the saw fit in the names of the books Bible and a standard system of of the 0. T., for, as Mr. Luce abbreviation were agreed upon, himself says most truly : “ The there would be no fear of mis- perfection of the list is not so imunderstanding, and therefore no portant as the agreement on some further need of writing or print- ONE list by those constantly using ing the names in full as is done abbreviations," which principle
' at present in 80 per cent. of also holds good regarding the the books that give references. names for the books of the Bible. It would doubtless surprise us if It certainly would be a mistake it were known how much valu- to add another system of abable time, labor, and space would ,
breviation without reasonable thus be economized in the ag- guarantees of its really becoming gregate.
Even the pages now the standard. That uniformity devoted the abbreviation in these matters may soon be tables might in time be omitted attained, is the earnest hope of without loss from all publications except the Bible.
Sincerely yours, In these days of federation and
F. C. H. DREYER. union, when revised versions, reference Bibles, a concordance, PING-VANG FU.
raised, but it does express un
equivocally the thought of the To the Editor of
original, Christ raised out from THE CHINESE RECORDER.”
(among) the dead.
In Mark vi, 14, exactly the DEAR SIR : The Union Version
same expression in the original of the New Testament, Kuan is rendered in the Revised VerHua translation, is to be com- sion, “Is risen from the dead,'' mended in one thing. It gives but in the 16th verse the revised a full and accurate translation text omits the “from the dead” to the words from the dead” and has only “He is risen." in various passages referring to Had the Revised Version fol. the resurrection of Christ. This lowed its more accurate rendering is a thing of no small impor- in I Cor. xv, 12, how would it tance, and yet it is a thing in sound to read in Mk. vi, 16, “He which many versions are sadly has been raised ?” Grain and defective. Take for instance Cor. cattle are raised on farms, and. XV, 12, Now if Christ be preached in rustic speech, even folks are that He rose (or has
raised there. No; the revisers raised) from the dead; for “ did well to use the more elegant from the dead," the Delegates' and technical phrase "is risen" Version has simply re- in Mark. It was only a matter turned to life. The new Easy of quoting Herod, and the Wên-li Version improves on this exact phase of thought in his with E * L. But this mind was not important. Yet seems a rather vague way of the use by him of the passive saying, "raised from the dead." voice was a tacit recognition of Yet it faithfully reproduces the the hand of God in the matter. passive form of the verb in the But Paul the Apostle had ceroriginal. E te would tain definite views in regard to have been an explicit rendering the resurrection of Christ, as of the ÉK VEKpov, from the dead, of did the other Apostles, which the original, yet the does not find expression in such words as make smooth reading. The Pe- " The God of our fathers raised king Mandarin Version reads up Jesus, whom ye slew;" thus, and Dr. Griffith John's “Him that raised up Jesus from Version has these same words, TE the dead ; Now the God of AECYE, while the Foochow peace that brought again from Colloquial tersely renders it to E the dead our Lord Jesus."
' W YE (the T here stands for Hence the revisers when they a colloquial word). In all these translated by the full form of the cases the word E refers to a passive voice in I Cor. xv, 12, state, or to the persons who are did rightly in thus preserving the in that state ; or may it loosely harmony between this passage be taken either of the persons or and all the Apostolic writings. of their condition ?
As to the use of st et for more loosely combine the two prophet, it is not really accurate, without attempting to explicit- but if there is a more appropriate ly indicate either one? But term current in the Chinese the new Union Mandarin Ver- language, will some one please sion has 從死人裏復活了, tell us what it is? In the Greek This does not reproduce the pas- classics a prophet is the intersive form of the verb has been preter of the gods, one who ex
Or may it