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aiding the establishment and development of Inter- to the Industrial Arts by his investigations in organic national Exhibitions, the Department of Science and chemistry, and for his successful labour in promoting Art, and the South Kensington Museum."
the cultivation of chemical education and research in In 1872, to Mr. (afterwards Sir) Henry Bessemer, England.” F.R.S., “ for the eminent services rendered by him In 1882, to Louis Pasteur, Member of the Institute to Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce, in developing of France, For. Memb. R.S., “for his researches in the manufacture of steel.”
connection with fermentation, the preservation of In 1873, to Michel Eugène Chevreul, For. Memb. wines, and the propagation of zymotic diseases in R.S., Member of the Institute of France, “for his silkworms and domestic animals, whereby the arts chemical researches, especially in reference to saponi- of wine-making, silk production, and agriculture fication, dyeing, agriculture, and natural history, which have been greatly benefited.” for more than half century have exercised a wide In 1883, to Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, K.C.S.I., influence on the industrial arts of the world."
C.B., M.D., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., “ for the In 1874, to Mr. (afterwards Sir) C. W. Siemens, eminent services which, as a botanist and scientific D.C.L., F.R.S., “ for his researches in connection traveller, and as Director of the National Botanical with the laws of heat, and the practical applications Department, he has rendered to the Arts, Manufacof them to furnaces used in the Arts; and for his tures, and Commerce by promoting an accurate knowimprovements in the manufacture of iron; and gener- ledge of the floras and economic vegetable products ally for the services rendered by him in connection of our several colonies and dependencies of the with economisation of fuel in its various applications Empire.” to Manufactures and the Arts.”
In 1884, to Captain James Buchanan Eads, “thə In 1875, to Michel Chevalier, “the distinguished distinguished American engineer, whose works have French statesman, who, by his writings and persistent been of such great service in improving the water exertions, extending over many years, has rendered communications of North America, and have thereby essential services in promoting Arts, Manufactures, rendered valuable aid to the commerce of the world." and Commerce."
In 1885, to Mr. (afterwards Sir) Henry Doulton, In 1876, to Sir George B. Airy, K.C.B., F.R.S., “in recognition of the impulse given by him to the Astronomer Royal, “ for eminent services rendered production of artistic pottery in this country.” to Commerce by his researches in nautical astronomy In 1886, to Samuel Cunliffe Lister (now Lord and in magnetism, and by his improvements in the Masham), “ for the services he has rendered to the application of the mariner's compass to the navigation textile industries, especially by the substitu:ion of of iron ships.”
mechanical wool combing for hand combing, and by In 1877, to Jean Baptiste Dumas, For. Memb. R.S., the introduction and development of a new industry Member of the Institute of France, “the distinguished -the utilisation of waste silk." chemist, whose researches have exercised a very In 1887, to Her MAJESTY QUEEN VICTORIA, “in material influence on the advancement of the commemoration of the progress of Arts, Manufactures, Industrial Arts."
and Commerce throughout the Empire during the In 1878, to Sir Wm. G. Armstrong (afterwards Lord fifty years of her reign.” Armstrong), C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S., “because of his In 1888, to Professor Hermann Louis Helmholtz, distinction as an engineer and as a scientific man, For. Memb. R.S., “in recognition of the value of and because by the development of the transmission his researches in various branches of science and of of power-hydraulically-due to his constant efforts, their practical results upon music, painting, and the extending over many years, the manufactures of this useful arts." country have been greatly aided, and mechanical In 1889, to John Percy, LL.D., F.R.S., “ for his power beneficially substituted for most laborious and achievements in promoting the Arts, Manufactures, injurious labour.”
and Commerce, through the world-wide influence In 1879, to Sir William Thomson (now Lord which his researches and writings have had upon the Kelvin), LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S., "on account of progress of the science and practice of metallurgy." the signal service rendered to Arts, Manufactures, In 1890, to William Henry Perkin, F.R.S., " for and Commerce, by his electrical researches, especially his discovery of the method of obtaining colouring with reference to the transmission of telegraphic matter from coal tar, a discovery which led to the messages over ocean cables."
establishment of a new and important industry, and In 1880, to James Prescott Joule, LL.D., D.C.L., to the utilisation of large quantities of a previously F.R.S., “ for baving established, after most laborious worthless material." research, the true relation between heat, electricity, In 1891, to Sir Frederick Abel, Bart., G.C.V.O., and mechanical work, thus affording to the engineer K.C.B.,D.C.L., D.Sc., F.R.S., “in recognition of the a sure guide in the application of science to industrial manner in which he has promoted several important pursuits."
classes of the Arts and Manufactures, by the application In 1881, to August Wilhelm Hofmann, M.D., of Chemical Science, and especially by his researches LL.D., F.R.S., Professor of Chemistry in the in the manufacture of iron and of steel; and also in University of Berlin, “ for eminent services rendered acknowledgment of the great services he has rendered
to the State in the provision of improved war material, eight years' Presidency of the Society of Arts, by and as Chemist to the War Department.”
undertaking the direction of important exhibitions In 1892, to Thomas Alva Edison, “in recognition in this country and the executive control of British of the merits of his numerous and valuable inventions, representation at International Exhibitions abroad especially his improvements in telegraphy, in tele- and also by many other services to the cause of phony, and in electric lighting, and for his discovery British Industry.” of a means of reproducing vocal sounds by the phono- In 1902, to Professor Alexander Graham Bell, “ for graph."
his invention of the Telephone.” In 1893, to Sir John Bennet Lawes, Bart., F.R.S., In 1903, to Sir Charles Augustus Hartley, K.C.M.G., and Sir Henry Gilbert, Ph.D., F.R.S., "for their “in recognition of his services, extending over 44 joint services to scientific agriculture, and notably for years, as Engineer to the International Commission the researches which, throughout a period of fifty of the Danube, which have resulted in the opening up years, have been carried on by them at the Experi- of the navigation of that river to ships of all nations, mental Farm, Rothamsted."
and of his similar services, extending over 20 years, In 1894, to Sir Joseph (now Lord) Lister, F.R.S., as British Commissioner on the International Tech“for the discovery and establishment of the antiseptic nical Commission of the Suez Canal." method of treating wounds and injuries by which not only has the art of surgery being generally promoted, and human life saved in all parts of the world, but extensive industries have been created for the supply Proceedings of the Society. of materials required for carrying the treatment into effect." In 1895, to Sir Isaac Lowthian Bell, Bart., F.R.S.,
INDIAN SECTION. “ in recognition of the services he has rendered to Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce by his metal
Thursday afternoon, February 11, 1904; The lurgical researches and the resulting development of
Rt. Hon. Sir J. WEST RIDGEWAY, G.C.M.G., the iron and steel industries."
K.C.B., K.C.I.E., in the chair. In 1896, to Prof. David Edward Hughes, F.R.S., “in recognition of the services he has rendered to The paper read wasArts, Manufactures, and Commerce, by his numerous inventions in electricity and magnetism, especially
OUR COMMERCIAL RELATIONS WITH the printing telegraph and the microphone.” In 1897, to George James Symons, F.R.S., “for
AFGHANISTAN. the services he has rendered to the United Kingdom BY COLONEL SIR THOMAS HUNGERFORD by affording to engineers engaged in the water HOLDICH, R.E., K.C.M.G., K.C.I.E., C.B. supply and the sewage of towns a trustworthy basis
The present time, when our relations both for their work, by establishing and carrying on
political and commercial with countries which during nearly forty years systematic observations
lie beyond the border land of India are more (now at over 3,000 stations) of the rainfall of the British Isles, and by recording, tabulating, and
or less under public discussion, is not an inapt graphically indicating the results of these observa
opportunity for passing in review the condi. tions in the annual volumes published by himself.”
tions which govern our commercial relations In 1898, to Professor Robert Wilhelm Bunsen,
with at least one of them, and that one the M.D., For. Memb. R.S., “in recognition of his nearest, and, in so.ne respects, the most numerous and most valuable applications of Chemistry important. Persia, Afghanistan, Tibet, and and Physics to the Arts and to Manufactures." China flank each other in line from West to
In 1899, to Sir William Crookes, F.R.S., “for East beyond our Indian frontier ; and behind his extensive and laborious researches in chemistry them all lies Russia ; and somehow or other and in physics ; researches which have, in many in. whenever men commence to discuss what stances, developed into useful practical applicaticns in
might or might not be done to facilitate our the Arts and Manufactures.”
commercial relations with any one of those In 1900, to Henry Wilde, F.R.S., "for the dis.
countries by improving our communications or covery and practical demonstration of the indefinite increase of the magnetic and electric forces from
adjusting our boundaries, Russia invariably quantities indefinitely small, a discovery now used in
finds a place in the discussion. And with all dynamo machines ; and for its application to the
very good reason. For were it not for Russian production of the electric search-light, and to the
activity in the same commercial fields we electro-deposition of metals from their solutions.” might be content to let matters drift, satisfied
In 1901, to His MAJESTY THE KING, "in that we have rounded off the corners of the recognition of the aid rendered by His Majesty to British Empire with quite sufficient precision ; Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce during thirty. that we have gone quite far enough, and that
we are now concerned above all things in avoid- and to have been in every province of it, and ing further expansion which may lead to further in direct communication with one or two of its political complication. This is only the natural leading men. I know a little (not much per. result of the processes by which the Empire haps, but rather more than most Englishmen) has been built up, processes of trade expan- of the temper of the Afghan people, and I do sion unassisted for the most part by conquest ; not think that it is impossible to effect the processes which, in their uneventful issues, improvement we desire. Can we in any way have not appealed to the imagination or the teach the new Afghan generation respect for sympathies of a great body of Englishmen, our position without risking the peace of the and which have left the nation divided in border ? If it is to be done at all it is only by opinion as to whether it is a good thing or a convincing the Afghan son of Israel (who is bad thing that we should have expanded into not always either intolerant or thick-headed) Empire at all. But we cannot tell what the that it is to his advantage as much as ours alternative might have been. All we see is that his trade and communications should be that we have suffered from that sincerest form improved, but that under any circumstances of flaitery which takes the form of imitation. we know our mind on the subject, and We are no longer alone in the adoption of possess a policy as definite as that of Russia. commercial methods of expansion. We have Remember that whoever first threatens the powerful rivals in the field; and for most, if integrity of Afghanistan as she is to-day, will not quite all that affects the Asiatic field, that stir up a veritable wasps' nest. Twenty-five rival is Russia. Russian commercial policy years have consolidated the Afghan army ; has always appeared to me to run consistently armed her troops with modern weapons; given on the same lines. First establish communi. her an abundant artillery ; wiped out the cations; spread out railways into untraversed wretched old traditions of buying up the spaces; capture such trade as there may enemy in the field, and have introduced someto capture, and then, if necessary, support the thing akin to patriotism in the ranks. In commercial interests thus created by force of short, that quarter of a century has done everyarms; combine the military with the com
thing except find leaders for a campaign, and mercial policy, and so expand the Russian perhaps we are not quite sure even of that borders and increase Russian wealth. It is defect. We do not want another Afghan war not a case of trade following the flag with on our hands. Equally certainly may we take Russia, nor has it been altogether so with us. it that Russia does not; but it does not appear Far more frequently trade has preceded the to me that there is in this fact any reason for flag, which, however, is never slow to follow allowing a nation which should be entirely at one in the tracks of trade.
with our interests, to block the way successfully These things being so, I need not apologise and for ever to any scheme of civilised progress, for introducing the subject of Afghanistan. such as should improve our eastern trade Our relations with that country now are not and bring ourselves and Russia into better entirely satisfactory, although it is said to be accord. quite beyond the pale of practical politics at At any rate, the subject opens up many present to alter them. We have made Afghan- matters of interest with which I propose to istan what it is-a very solid buffer between deal shortly (and I fear but sketchily) to-day. ourselves and our northern neighbour, and it In the first place, in reviewing commercial is in every way desirable that it should remain relations with Afghanistan, we may enquire,
Nevertheless I think that a candid and What is there in the country which we can get plain statement of our determination eventually out of it, and what is there not which might to extend and improve our own commercial be added to her present development ? relations would tend to strengthen our political Trade with Afghanistan is represented by relations even with Afghanistan, whose rulers very poor figures if we are to trust Indian for a long time have been watching the statistics. There are but three avenues of rapid progress of advancing railways and trade with Afghanistan across the Indian expanding commerce
side their frontier, and about one of them we have very border from Persia to China, wondering little information. Indeed, there is no system after their manner, what fashion of com
tion of exports and imports which mercial repartee was
to be made on the can be considered sufficiently accurate to give other. I have had the luck (good or bad) to positive results on any of them. It is possible. spend some years of my life in Afghanistan, however, to make a general estimate which
will indicate the progress of trade for better or regarded it as a violation of the Treaty of
Gandamak, which fixed the frontier boundary The three chief trade routes connecting at the northern foot of the range, and as a India with Afghanistan across the frontier, direct menace to Kandahar. He consequently
maintained an attitude of hostility to the line (1) The northern route, by the Khaibar Pass itself, ignoring its existence beyond that point to Kabul, from Peshawar.
where it touches the southern slopes of the (2) The southern route, by the Bolan, or range at Kila Abdulla ; and to this day I
Sind-Pishin Railway, to Quetta and believe that long strings of Afghan camels
are to be seen patiently toiling with their (3) The central route, by the Gomul Pass to burden of wool, hides, and fruit over the
Ghazni and Central Afghanistan. Kojak Pass, moving slowly and majesticFrom Kabul we receive a considerable ally alongside the railway line, which should amount of fruit and vegetables (together form- relieve them from the trouble of negotiating ing the largest item in the Indian import list), the only really difficult pass between Kandahar grain and pulse, ghi and other provisions, and Quetta. The estimated value of the trade asafætida and other drugs; wool, spices, thus maintained is about £200,000 exports to silk, and tobacco, as well as horses and cattle. Kabul, and £170,000 imports. With KanThe above appear to be recognised items in the dahar it may be rather greater; but if we import list ; but besides the above, there are to make the totals 6500,000 in value of exports be found in the bazaar at Peshawar, carpets to Afghanistan and £400,000 imports to India, and postins (the latter consisting of prepared we shall I think have a fair estimate of the sheepskins made into coats, and often highly value of trade in 1900, so far as it can be ornamented with silk) which are very much ascertained from authentic sources as mainin demand on the frontier in winter. Silks tained along the two principal trade routes. and embroideries from Bokhara
In 1891-92 these totals were considerably obtainable at Peshawar in small quantities; larger, nearly £900,000 exports and £546,000 but the heavy transit duties charged by the imports. But there was a great falling off Amir almost annihilate trade between India between 1891-92 and 1897-98. In the latter and countries north of the Oxus ; Bokhara year the exports were reduced to £355,000 in trade now finds its way chiefly to Russian value, and the imports to £362,000. To what markets. We send to Kabul, in return, cotton circumstances we should attribute this remark. goods (chiefly) with indigo, sugar, and tea able depression in the export figures I cannot (the latter mostly China leaf); and we could, no say. It could not have been due to any doubt, largely increase the tea trade passing increase of import duties, or to slackness of through Kabul to Central Africa but for the demand in Afghanistan, which was then at transit duties, which are said to amount to 106 peace, and under a firm and secure system of cupees per camel load of tea-say 4d. per administration. More probably it was due to pound. To Kandahar we send cotton-piece competition from the north, and the increase goods-European and Indian-which consti- of Russian goods in the markets of the country tute three-fourths of the whole list of exports which followed the completion of the railway along the southern trade route between Quetta to Kushk. It is, at any rate, satisfactory to and Kandahar; and we receive fruit and raw observe a certain tendency to recovery in the wool in about equal quantities together with a statistics for 1900, although they are very far few carpets and rugs. The Sind-Pishin Rail- from being altogether satisfactory, and do not way beyond Quetta terminates at New Chaman, compare well with the figures of ten years ago. which is a flourishing little frontier town It will be observed that we are only dealing beyond the Kojak range and about 70 miles with the trade passing through two avenues of from Kandahar. This would, under the approach to the principal markets of Afghan. ordinary circumstances, be the natural trade istan, and that there are others intermediate depot where the khafila traffic from which may add to the account. But the only Afghanistan should be shifted to the rail- intermediate trade route between India and way. But the late Amir never recovered Central Afghanistan of any consequence from his annoyance at the completion of the besides that of the Khaibar and the SindKojak tunnel, and the construction of the Pishin Railway, is that of the Gomul river conrailway for some seven miles beyond it down necting Ghazni with the frontier town of the farther slopes of the mountains. He Dera Ismail Khan. Down this route every year, there swarm a multitude of Ghilzai north-west. This band of mountain formation povindahs (or so-called merchants) bringing is the most important physical feature in their wives and families with them, to Afghanistan. On the extreme west (the spend the winter months in a congenial frontier of Afghanistan) it allows of the lowland climate, whilst they lead their strings passage of the Hari Rud through to the of camels afar through the plains of India, desert of Russian Turkestan. Eastward of bent on a nomadic form of traffic with the this, the mountains are for many miles but the country, which takes little reckoning of central washed down and degraded relic of a far more marts or mercantile depots. Fruit is the chief imposing range which has gradually silted article of trade; but they bring lungis- its muddy soil downward from the crest and woven and embroidered in Afghanistan-with spread it into broad fans at its foot, until there the camel's hair material known as karak is little of the obstruction of rugged declivities or barak, and occasionally they have some- to bar the way across them. There are glens thing to show of the products of Bokhara with rounded slopes, leading upwards from in their bales; but it is very little now of the the extreme west of the Herat plain, which silks and embroideries of Bokhara that finds admit of wheeled vehicles being driven to the its way across the Oxus or over the northern hills crest; and even where, above the sources of the which separate the plans of Afghan-Turkestan Murghab river, the Band-i-Turkestan rises from those of Ghazni. I can find no statistics into significance and presents the appearance of this povindah trade, but it is probably incon- of an imposing range of mountains, there are siderable and not to be compared with that of few of its spurs which will prove inaccessible the routes already mentioned. It may, perhaps, to the Turkoman horsemen. To the northraise the value of Afghan trade to a total half ward this central watershed (for it represents the a million each way-an amount which is easy great orographic backbone of Asia) has been to remember, and probably not far from the washed down into an amazing sea of roundtruth. This is about one-sixth of the nominal headed sand waves, stretching away towards the value of our trade with Persia ; but Persia Oxus flats and called the Chol-a waving sea of possesses a population more than double that grass and flowers in summer, a blank wild of Afghanistan (say nine millions to four wilderness of marmot infested desert in winter. millions), and an area which is as 628,000 to Through the loess formations of the Chol the 215,000 square miles, or nearly three times as drainage from the mountains has cut its way great; and Persia possesses, moreover, sources in deep channels to the Oxus plains, but it of commercial wealth in her carpet making, never reaches the Oxus river. It is absorbed pearl fishing, and turquoise mining industries in vast central depressions or swamps (the which Afghanistan cannot hope to rival. home of the pheasant and the wild boar) which
I do not think that trade with Afghanistan, are cut off from communication with the Oxus even were its present value to be doubled or by a flexure in the level of the plain parallel quadrupled by the removal of the heavy with the Oxus, which appears to be in progress imposts placed upon it by the Amir, or by of formation at the present time. As, however, the development of internal resources, could the central water divide, or mountain band, ever rise to magnificent proportions. Let us trends eastwards, it gradually increases in consider Afghanistan somewhat in detail, and altitude and in breadth, rising to the dignity reckon up commercial possibilities by the light of snow-capped peaks and presenting most of what we
of Afghan geography. difficult passages through gorges of stupendous Afghanistan is a long, oval-shaped country, depth or over snow and ice-bound passes, until stretching through 700 miles of length from it merges into the S.W. extremity of the S.W. to N.E., with a general breadth of about Hindu Kush. Over the backbone of the 350 miles, narrowing to a point on the north- Hindu Kush, which, after dividing Badakshan east, where an arm is extended outwards to from the Kabul river basin, traverses the Pamirs. Right across it, from west to Kaffiristan and finally becomes the northern east (but curving upwards to touch this ex- boundary of Afghanistan to the Pamirs, are tended arm at its eastern extremity) is a band passes at intervals; but they are all formidable of mountains which separates the basin of the -all effectual barriers (in spite of the late Oxus on the north from that of the Indus and Amir's road-making) to steady traffic between the Helmund on the south ; but which still the Oxus basin and Kabul. Between the leaves space for a river (the Hari Rud, or River Oxus basin terminating in the Caspian, and of Herat) to form a basin of its own on the the chief markets of Afghanistan (Kabul,