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dred men. The mode of life is curious as a relic of the age, and as rare even then. It is the beau-ideal of the social system of


ble I The mansion was inhabited by several other families, connected by blood and marriage; and they consorted in


difficult to give or to form an Mea! Their mornings were employed by each in their respective occupations; the culture of a large farm+the clothing trade, then in a flourishing state-the producing and manufacturing teasels, woad, madder, and all dyeing materials-the making of bricks and tiles in immense quantities, to supply the demand occasioned by rebuilding the rumed city and suburbs. The labours of the day over, they repaired for refreshment to one common table, in the great hall of the old nunnery, where seldom fewer than twenty or thirty relations and friends of the families assembled daily, and spent their evenings in the utmost Cheerfulness and conviviality. The products of the farm, the supplies of fish and game, and viands of every kind, received constantly from their country connexions, nished their table with abundant plenty, and entitled such contributors to a place at it without ceremony or reserve. The annual slaughter of two brawns marked the festivity of Christmas."? I ut # it i A j*

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"With us it is a national reproach that authorship has rather been despised and discountenanced by the great, and it has been deemed somewhat discreditable for a man to earn his bread, or to rise into celebrity, by his pen. A successful lawyer, or a Parliamentary debater, may overcome all the disadvantages of an obscure origin, or of early poverty, but no degree of mere literary eminence leads to political promotion. In subsequent times Addison would not have risen to a post of higher distinction than that of editor of a journal. But although he could not open his mouth in Parliament, Somers and Montague justly appreciated his inimitable powers as a writer, and being fur-courted and caressed by them and the other leaders of the Whig party, he became chief Secretary to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, a Privy Councillor, and Secretary of State. The fashion which they set was adopted by Harley and the Tories. Swift was received at the table of the Lord Treasurer with as much distinction as if he had been decorated with the Garter, and Prior was employed as an ambassador to negotiate the peace of Utrecht. literary reputation, and to discover rising genius. When Lord Somers was ever eager to do homage to established Pope, lisping in numbers,' gave his boyish compositions to the world,

Somers was entered at the Middle Temple, and patronised by the young Earl of Shrewsbury, whose estates had been managed by his father. Introduced by the Earl to men of letters and statesmen, Somers felt the deficiencies of his education, and, at twenty-four, voluntarily returned to o Oxford, where he remained for some time an assiduous student. He appears to have had the ambition of universal accomplishment. He studied the modern languages, and the art of English composition, and politics as a science. He soon became the associate of all the leading Whigs, and a distinguished politician and political writer. Lord Campbell expatiates with evident delight upon the character and literary performances of the great Whig Chancellor and statesman. He dwells fondly upon every step of his career-the unimportant, and those of the last importance, to constitutional freedom. Somers was, in brief, the author of the "Revolution SetHlement," that Whig Palladium; nor can too much merit be ascribed to his sagacity, foresight, and firmness at one of the most momentous

periods of English history. But Lord Campbell admits, that in bringing the sovereign authority and privileges within proper bounds, he sometimes attempted to push those of Parliament too far. Our limits will not permit even the briefest notice of half this great statesman's career. His "greatest glory" his biographer considers his patronage of Addison and Steele. With Lord Campbell, the patronage of poets and men of letters makes a Chancellor as famous as ever was the Knight of old, who freely dealt forth largesses to the bards and minstrels. Thus obscure Chancellors - those who "died without their fame"-have themselves only to blame for lacking immortality:

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They had no poet—and they died,” Even Thurlow is redeemed by having once given money to Crabbe, when a friendless, unknown, young poet; and having, though he neglected his early and illustrious friend, Cowper, been kind to Johnson.

The remainder of the biography of Somers, like


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"The courtly Talbot, SOMERS, Sheffield read." In his own age, Somers was so tolerant as to have laid himself open to the easily-made charge of indifference to all religion; and his discouragement of the extravagant pretensions of the clergy drew on him the obloquy of infidelity, though Lord Campbell considers him to have been a sincere believer in the great truths of revealed religion. And, if he were reckoned too tolerant in the 17th century, it can be said in the 19th—

"The most curious consideration, in looking back to those times, is, that, from a general feeling among English Protestants, with respect to Roman Catholics,-resembling that which now prevails in the United States of America, among the whites, with respect to the negroes, the authors of such measures had no consciousness them selves of doing anything wrong, and did not at all thereby injure their character for liberality with the great body of their countrymen, We can only lament that Lord Somers was not, on this subject, in advance of his age. Such


contemplations should make us alarmed lest some laws and practices, which seem to us very harmless, may be reprobated by our posterity.”

Many scandalous stories were circulated, by party malice or policy, against this great man; and Lord Campbell always considers it a duty to refute such tales, whether he considers them worthy of credit

or not. Somers was one of the few chancellors who were not eager to amass wealth. He acquired a high reputation in his own time, and posterity has confirmed it.

Lord Keeper Wright may be passed as one of the illustrious obscure. And, for his successor, Lord Cowper, so great a mass of materials has been obtained from the Cowper family, in letters and diaries, that we have more personal and private history than the importance of this respectable but not remarkably bright public character required.

The correspondence and diaries of the second Lady Cowper, a woman of wit and spirit, form, to general readers, the most agreeable part of this


biography. The State trials which arose out of
the abortive attempt of the Stuarts, in what is
familiarly, in Scotland, called "Mar's Year," or
1715, are thus noticed by her, in reference to Lord
Cowper passing sentence upon the "Rebel Lords"
implicated in the Earl of Mar's mad enterprise :-
"Feb. 9th, the day of the trials.-My Lord was named
Lord High Steward, by the King-to his vexation and
mine; but it could not be helped, and so we must submit,
though we both wished heartily it had been the Earl of
Nottingham. The form of the attendance was this from
hence the servants had all new liveries; ten footmen;
four coaches with two horses, and one with six; eighteen
gentlemen out of livery, and Garter-at-Arms and Usher of
the Black Rod in the same coach-Garter carrying the
wand. I was told it was customary to make fine liveries
on this occasion, but had them all plain. I think it very
wrong to make a parade upon so dismal an occasion as that
of putting to death one's fellow-creatures, nor could I go
to the trial to see them receive their sentences, having a
relation among them-my Lord Widdrington. The Prince
was there, and came home much touched with compassion
for them. What pity it is that such cruelties should be

was done.'

for no other cause but for the lies which you, and such as you, have invented and told of me. Lord Cowper had advised the Cabinet Council against this step, so they did not acquaint him with it when it My Lord fell ill again the Saturday following, and continued so a great while, which occasioned a report that he was going out of his place. Some said he had not health to keep in; others, more truly, said the Lords of the Cabinet Council were jealous of his great reputation, and had a mind to have him out, so were resolved to weary him out of it; which last was very true, for they had resolved among themselves, without acquainting Baron Bernstorff with it, to put my Lord Chief Justice Parker into his place.' 'I kept house all this time, and saw nobody, and had enough to do to keep my Lord Keeper from giving up, and I'm sure the disputes and arguments we had upon that subject were wholly the occasion of his staying in, and it was at least three weeks before I could prevail.' 'My Lord Cowper is so ill that he has a mind to quit office. I have made a resolution never to press him more to keep his place.'15th. My Lord mighty ill, and still had a mind to quit office. I told him I never would oppose any thing he had a mind to do, and after arguing calmly upon the matter, I offered him, if it would be any pleasure done him, to retire with him into the country, and quit too, and what was more, never to repine at doing it, though it was the greatest sacrifice that could be made him. I "I am delighted beyond measure to hear my Lord's believe he will accept it.'16th. My Lord still ill. speech (at the pronouncing sentence) so commended by Mr. Woodford wishes I should let him hint to old Mr. everybody, but I esteem nobody's commendation like Dr. Craggs that my Lord Keeper's office was too hard for Clarke's, who says, 'Tis superlatively good, and that it him, and mention the former offer, that, if my Lord was is impossible to add or diminish one letter without hurt- weary, he might be Privy Seal, and that my Lord Chief ing it.' Horace Walpole thus amusingly alludes to the Justice Parker would come into my Lord Cowper's recollection of Lord Cowper's cloquence on this occasion: place. 17th. My Lord better, and not so much of After the second Scotch rebellion Lord Hardwicke pre-talk of quitting to-day, though I fairly laid it in his way." quitting. 18th. My Lord better, to my great joy. No sided at the trial of the rebel Lords. Somebody said to Sir Charles Wyndham-Oh, you don't think Lord Hardwicke's speech good, because you heard Lord Cowper's.' No,' he replied, but I do think it tolerable, because I heard Serjeant Skinner's.' [Lord Campbell subjoins] I have often been tickled by George I.'s quaint saying, when he heard how Lord Nithsdale had escaped:-'It was the very best thing a man in his condition could have done.' The entry in Lady Cowper's diary is very amiable: It's confirmed that Lord Nithsdale is escaped. I hope he'll get clear off. I never was better pleased at anything in my life, and I believe everybody is the

Of her husband's speech on this memorable occasion, Lady Cowper afterwards says:


When the quarrel between George I. and the Prince of Wales grew violent, Lord Cowper, looking forward to the rising sun, attached himself, though not openly, to the Prince; and Lady Cowper, being, at this time, in the household of the Princess, and a great favourite, the suspicions of the King were drawn upon her husband, and paved the way for his downfall. Lady Cowper's diary, illustrating, and Lord Campbell's text in referring to, the intrigues of this period, present a complete picture of court and official life; of pitiful plottings and counter-plottings; and the vacillation, and extreme reluctance, under all circumstances, with which a great minister resigns office :

"In October, 1715, she says, They had done a world of things to force Lord Cowper to quit, who was their superior in everything, because they were afraid of his honesty and plain dealing.' My Lord was visited by the Duke of Somerset, who repeated all the conversation he had with Lord Townshend upon his dismission. Lord Townshend came to the Duke of Somerset, and, with a sorrowful air, told him he was sorry to tell him that the King had sent him to tell his Grace that he had no farther occasion for his services. The Duke of Somerset said, Pray, my Lord, what is the reason of it? Lord Townshend answers he did not know. Then, says the Duke of Somerset, by G-, my Lord, you lie; you know that the King puts me out

This hitch was got over, and Lord Cowper retained the Seals and did the State good service for three years afterwards. After he had resigned, or been forced to resign, he divided his time between his seat in the country and his public duties as a Peer; while his lady still retained her appointment and influence with the Princess of Wales.

Among the many charges which party malice brought against Lord Cowper, was being married to two wives, which gained him the nickname of "Will. Bigamy." Lord Campbell takes pains to refute a charge which might have been left to Lady Cowper's diaries, and the private correspondence of the husband with his one affectionate and very clever wife, to whom he was devotedly attached.

The life of the Tory Chancellor, Lord Harcourt, the successor of Cowper, is chiefly interesting, as it permits the reader to see the other side of the question, and the characters that performed the principal parts among the Tories or Jacobites, and also the literary men of that party, of whom Harcourt was the munificent patron. He was of a very ancient and distinguished Saxon family. Lord Campbell, who has great faith in the uses of adversity, and in every young lawyer being left to fight his own unaided way to fortune and fame, records the eminent success of Cowper, the son of a baronet, and of Lord Harcourt, as exceptions to his general rule.

We find nothing in the life of Harcourt of more interest than the account of De Foe, sent to the pillory by him, as Attorney-General, for the publication of "The shortest way with the Dissenters," a seditious and "blasphemous libel." This libel was called forth by the afterwards notorious sermons of Sacheverell; and we cannot do better

than quote Lord Campbell's account of the whole | The mob drank the health of De Foc, and cursed the



Attorney-General. The culprit was pelted with roses,
and covered with garlands. The people were expected
to treat me very ill,' he tells us, but it was not so.
the contrary, they wished those who had set me there
placed in my room, and expressed their affections by loud
shouts and acclamations when I was taken down.' There
was no foundation for the report that his ears were cut
I have been reluctantly obliged to men-
tion this prosecution, and to censure Harcourt's share in
it, but we must chiefly blame the spirit of the age in
which he lived, and we should remember in mitigation
that more than a century afterwards, and in our own
generation, sentence of the pillory was pronounced upon
Leigh Hunt, a poet admired by many, and on Lord Coch-
rane, admitted by all to be one of the most gallant and
skilful officers who ever adorned the naval service of
England, neither of whom had committed any offence
deserving punishment."

We have, after all, no very great reason to exult in the progress of civil government from the era of Queen Anne to that of William IV.

"Sacheverell, beginning to preach the course of sermons which at last brought him into such notoriety, had lately, with great applause, announced from the pulpit to the enlightened University of Oxford, that the priest could not be a true son of the Church who did not hang out the bloody flag and banner of defiance' against all who questioned her doctrines or her discipline. This discourse being hawked about in the streets for twopence, was very generally read, and was making a very deep impression on the public mind. The celebrated Daniel De Foe, one of the greatest literary genuises the island of Great Britain has ever produced, at this period of his checkered career. carrying on a prosperous trade and keeping his coach, was roused by the love of civil and religious liberty, which ever burned in his bosom, and saying that he would make an effort to stay the plague,' wrote and published anonymously his celebrated tract entitled The shortest way with the Dissenters.' It affected to personate the opinions and style of the most furious of the ultra High Churchmen, and to set forth, with perfect gravity and earnestness, the extreme of the ferocious intolerance to which their views and wishes tended. A finer specimen of serious trony is not to be The Tory and Jacobite Chancellor, Harcourt, found in our language, and it may be placed by the was in his tastes and habits more like the munifiside of Swift's Argument against the Abolition of Chris- cent Wolsey than the greater number of the motianity,' .. Such was the existing state of society, that for some time both sides were taken in. Timid non-ney-hoarding and parsimonious persons who have conformists were struck with the dread of coming perse-held the Great Seal; as, for example, his immecation; valorous supporters of the Divine obligation of diate successor, Thomas Parker, Lord Macclesimposing episcopacy on all Christians loudly shouted field, who fought his way from the attorney his applause. A Cambridge fellow wrote to thank his Lon- father's office, in Leake in Staffordshire, to the don bookseller for sending down such an excellent treatise, which was considered in the combination rooms there, woolsack, from which he was precipitated on evinext after the Holy Bible and the Church Liturgy, the dence of the most gross and open corruption in the most valuable book ever printed! But when the hoax sale of offices. It probably did not help the imwas discovered, both parties were equally in a rage peached Chancellor when on trial by his Peers, against the unlucky author; and when his name was "that noble lords" might not consider the coundiscovered, there was a general cry that he should be The remaining pilloried. In this the Presbyterian fanatics joined, be- try attorney's son their peer. cause they owed him a grudge for having on former consolation of Macclesfield was the large fortune occasions ventured to laugh at some of their absurdities. that remained to him after his fine of £30,000 They pretended to say that such a pamphlet was a scurhad been paid. Lord Campbell conjectures that rilous irreverence to religion and authority, and they would have none of it. Nay, a puritanical colonel said, | his old age must have been listless and cheerless, 'be'd undertake to be hangman rather than the author and that he may have regretted that he ever left should want a pass out of the world.' his original profession of an attorney; and thus, with some naiveté he moralises on the ex-chancellor's life and death; his last illness, and "his pious end.”

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The prosecution was commenced; and a verdict was obtained by craft and quibble. The Jury, being restricted in the exercise of those rights and functions, which give to Trial by Jury all its constitutional value, found the fact of publication proved; and judgment being craved by Harcourt, the Judges gave forth the law and sentence.

"In this state of listless existence Lord Macclesfield

languished nearly seven years. At last, on the 28th
day of April, 1732, he was relieved from his sad reflec-
tions on the sale of masterships, and from the wretched-
ness of non-official life. While at his son's house in Soho
Square he had a severe access of strangury-a complaint
from which he had before often suffered, but which was
now so violent and painful that he was immediately im-

His mind being weakened to superstition, he foretold that
'as his mother had died of that disease on the eighth day,
On the morning of the eighth
he should do the same."
day he declared that he felt himself drowning inwardly,
and dying from the feet upwards.'

He is said to have

"Mr. Attorney-General instantly prayed judgment, and the judges who, happily for them, are forgotten, sentenced him whose name will be remembered with affection as long as our nation or language remains, to pay a fine of 200 marks, to be imprisoned during the Queen's plea-pressed with the conviction that it would prove mortal. sure, to stand three times in the pillory, and to find sureties for his good behaviour for seven years.' He returned to his cell in the firm belief that he was forthwith to be pardoned and liberated; but he was told, the next day, that he must prepare to undergo his punishment. Undismayed, he sat down, and composed his most felici-received, in a very exemplary manner, the consolations of tous poetical effusion, entitled, 'A llymn to the Pillory,' religion, and to have taken leave of his family and housewith a view to be reverged of his prosecutors. The fol- hold with the same calm cheerfulness as if he had been lowing stanza is evidently aimed at the Attorney-General, setting out upon a journey with the prospect of a speedy A little before midnight, whom he suspected, however unjustly, of having deceived re-union with those he loved. being informed that the physician was gone, he said faintly and I am going also, but I will close my eyelids myself.' He did so, and breathed no more. Thus, in the sixty-sixth year of his age, he piously closed a career long eminently prosperous-at last deeply disastrous. Who can tell whether he would have made so good an end if cut off without having experienced any reverse?


'Tell them, the men that placed him here,
Are scandals to the times;
Are at a loss to find his guilt,

And can't commit his crimes.'

This was published, and sold in thousands the day he stood in the pillory before the Royal Exchange; and it was in everybody's mouth the two following days, when he stood in the pillory in Cheapside and at Temple Bar.

-to add greater honours to his age Than man could give him, he died fearing God.'"

Macclesfield's successor, Lord King, the founder of a noble family, as so many English chancellors have been, was a man of very different character. He was the son of a grocer in Exeter, a man of respectable character, and a Presbyterian, who had married the sister of the philosopher, John Locke. His son, Peter King, was for some years ""in the shop," but the strong inclination which he displayed for reading induced his uncle to send the youth to the University of Leyden, whom neither Oxford nor Cambridge, by their constitutions, could have received. Law was ultimately chosen as his future profession, and he was distinguished, if not by brilliant talents, by great industry and unblemished virtue. Locke appears to have taken a constant and hearty interest in the studies and prospects of his young kinsman; and his letters addressed to his "cousin" form a delightful feature in the Life. As a necessary step in his progress, and also for great public ends, the philosopher had wished to see the young barrister in the House of Commons; and, fairly in the House, he thus wisely cautioned and congratulated him on his maiden speech:

"Feb. 29th, 1702.

"Dear Cousin,-I am very glad the ice is broke, and that it has succeeded so well; but now you have showed the House that you can speak, I advise you to let them see you can hold your peace, and let nothing but some point of law, which you are perfectly clear in, or the utmost necessity call you up again."

King, from this time, wisely attended much more to law than politics and made rapid advances in his profession. In intervals of leisure he visited his aged uncle at Oates, repaying by almost filial devotion the attention and kindness bestowed upon his education by the venerable friend who had been to him more than a father.

The lawyer, now thirty-four, and at the head of his profession, was engaged to be married to a young lady of "sense and wit," but even this tender engagement did not prevent him from obeying this pathetic summons from his dying


"June 1st, 1704.

"I remember it is the end of a term, a busy time with you, and you intend to be here speedily, which is better than writing at a distance. Pray, be sure to order your matters so as to spend all the next week with me; as far as I can impartially guess, it will be the last week I am ever like to have with you; for, if I mistake not, I have very little time left in the world. This comfortable, and to me usually restorative, season of the year, has no effect upon me for the better: on the contrary, all appearances concur to warn me that the dissolution of this cottage is not far off. Refuse not, therefore, to help me to pass some of the last hours of my life as easily as may be, in the conversation of one who is not only the nearest but the dearest to me of any man in the world. I have a great many things to talk with you, which I can talk to nobody else about. I, therefore, desire you again deny not this to my affection. I know nothing at such a time so desirable and so useful as the conversation of a friend one loves and relies on."

His visit in June helped to restore the old man to temporary health, and in the following September Locke, considerably revived, was able to ongratulate the bride and bridegroom.cve to Locke all the ennobling titles that Lord

-Let us

Campbell delights to heap upon the venerable philosopher.

"He could not move from home, but he insisted on an immediate visit from the new-married pair; and on their wedding day thus wrote the author of the Essay on the Human Understanding, the Analysis of the Principles of Free Government, the Apostle of Toleration, the first intelligent advocate of useful Education, the founder of Free Trade in England :'Oates, 16th Sept., -04.

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Dear Cousin,-I am just rose from dinner, where the bride and bridegroom's health was heartily drank, again and again, with wishes that this day may be the beginning of a very happy life to them both. We hope we have hit the time right; if not, it is your fault who have misled us. I desire you to bring me down twenty guineas. wooden stand-dish, and the Turkish travels of the Exeter man, I know you will not forget. But there are other things of more importance on this occasion, which you ought not to omit, viz. :-4 dried neat's tongues. Partridges that are fresh and will bear the carriage, and will keep a day after they are here. 4 pheasants. The same I said of the partridges the same I say of the pheasants. 4 Turkey poults ready larded, if they be not out of season. 4 fresh auburn rabbits, if they are to be got. Plovers, or woodcocks, or snipes, or whatever else is good to be got at the poulterer's, except ordinary tame fowls. Chichester male lobsters, if they can be got alive-if not, 6 dead ones that are sweet. 2 large crabs that are fresh. Crawfish and prawns, if they are to be got. A double barrel of the best Colchester oysters. I have writ to John Gray to offer you his service. He was bred up in my old Lord Shaftesbury's kitchen, and was my Lady I got him to be messenger to the Dowager's cook. Council of Trade and Plantations, and have often employed him when I have had occasion in matters of this nature, when I have found him diligent and useful. I desire you also to lay out between twenty and thirty shillings in dried sweetmeats of several kinds, such as some woman skilful in those matters shall choose as fit and fashionable (excepting orange and lemon peel candied, of which we are provided). Let them be good of the kind, and do not be sparing in the cost, but rather exceed 30 shillings. These things you must take care to bring down with you, that I may, on this short warning, have something to entertain your friends, and may not be out of countenance while they are here. If there be anything that you can find your wife loves, be sure that provision be made of that and plentifully, whether I have mentioned it or no. Pray, let there be a pound of pistachios, and some China oranges, if there be any come in.”


Philosophers, it appears, can take some care for sublunary matters, especially where their affections are interested. Locke wished to present a set of toilet plate to his fair cousin as his wedding gift, and he hoped that John Gray would be able to prepare a dinner worthy of the joyous occasion. John Gray performed his part to admiration, showing that he had served under a great master in the sçavoir vivre. The philosopher himself could taste little beyond a crust of bread and a cup of water; but he was the most cheerful of the party, and felt true happiness in making others happy. The wedding-party had scarcely left him, when, the cold weather returning, his asthma and his other complaints were worse than they had ever been, and he knew But, in the consciousthat certainly his hour was come. ness of a well-spent life, and far more in a firm faith of the great truths of the Gospel, his serenity was unclouded. He had before executed his will, leaving King the bulk of his property; and now he wrote to him the following letter, more fully to explain his wishes, and to bid him a last farewell."

Locke's farewell letter to his nephew is worthy of his character, and of his “firm faith.” He writes:

"Oates, 4th Oct., 1704. "That you will faithfully execute all that you find i

my will I cannot doubt, my dear cousin; nor can I less depend upon your following my directions, and complyiug with my desires in things not fit to be put into so solemn and public a writing.

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honours and wealth, presents more attraction. Like Macclesfield, Philip Yorke was the son of a country attorney, and "thus to the manner born." He never was at any school, save a private one kept by a dissenter; nor at any university. But he was, as his biographer states, a "cute lad," and at fourteen, in spite of the remonstrances of his presbyterian mother, who wished him bred to some "honester trade," Philip was sent to his father's agent in London, who received him as an articled clerk, and, as a favour, without a fee. His assiduity and steadi

You will find, amongst my papers, several subjects proposed to my thoughts, which are very little more than extempore views, laid down in sudden and imperfect drafts, which, though intended to be revised, and farther looked into afterwards, yet, by the intervention of business, or preferable inquiries, happened to be thrust aside, and so lay neglected, and sometimes quite forgotten. Some of them, indeed, did engage my thoughts at such a time of leisure, and in such a temper of mind, that I laid them not wholly by upon the first interruption, but took them in hand again as occasion served, and went on, in pursuance of my first design, till I had satisfied myself in the inquiryness were unparalleled; and he contrived to please I at first proposed. Of this kind is, 1-My discourse Of seeing all things in God; 2-My discourse Of Miracles; 3-My Conduct of the Understanding; 4Papers inscribed, Physica;' 5-MyCommentaries on the Epistle of St. Paul.' (After directions respecting their publication, the management of his affairs, and the payment of his legacies, he concludes in a tone of great tenderness :) Remember, it is my earnest request to you, to take care of the youngest son of Sir Francis and Lady Masham, in all his concerns, as if he were your ther. He has never failed to pay me all the respect, and do me all the good offices he was capable of performing, with all manner of cheerfulness and delight; so that I cannot acknowledge it too much. I must, therefore, desire you, and leave it as a charge upon you, to help me to do it when I am gone. Take care to make him a good, an honest, and an upright man. I have left my directions with him to follow your advice, and I know he will do it, for he never refused to do what I told him was fit. If he had been my own son, he could not have been more careful to please and observe me. I wish you all manner of prosperity in this world, and the everlasting happiness of the world to come. That I loved you, I think you are convinced. God send us a happy meeting in the resurrection of the just! Adieu !



Lord Campbell rightly pronounces this relationship more honourable to the future Chancellor than "to have been the son of a Duke, or a Knight of the Garter."

Lord Chancellor King, steadfast to liberal principles, and unblemished in public as in private life, held the Seals for eight years, and only resigned "the bauble" from impaired health, and, with little regret: he died soon afterwards. Of his four sons little is said, except that in another generation, the talent of the founder of the family broke forth with increased lustre. The late Lord King-not more remarkable for wit, eloquence, and every quality that attracts affection, than for that clear and penetrating understanding which placed him so far in advance of his age, and of nearly every individual among his Whig contemporaries was the grandson of the youngest of the Chancellor's sons. Lord Campbell says, very naturally and kindly, "the Chancellor is now represented in the direct male line by the Earl of Lovelace, whom I rejoice to see deservedly raised to the peerage, but whom, from my regard for the memory of old Sir Peter, I should have been still better pleased to have hailed as Earl King."

his mistress as well as he did his master, for the obliging Master Philip, afterwards the arrogant and haughty Lord Chancellor of England, did not hesitate to run her errands, and even to fetch home little articles for her housekeeping, from Covent Garden market. Wanting the usual advantages of education, he took to cultivating English composition, an accomplishment in which great lawyers are often exceedingly deficient; and it must have had important consequences on his future tastes, that Steele, having been either lazy or hard run for an article one morning, brought out a letter, dropt into the Spectator's Lion's head, which was the veritable composition of Philip Yorke, alias Philip Homebred. It is no great things in any view, and Lord Campbell is certainly right when he says

"Had he taken to literature as a trade, he would have had poor encouragement from Lintot and Cave, and he would hardly have risen to the distinction of being one of the heroes of the Dunciad. I fear me it will be said that a great lawyer is made ex quovis ligno, and that he who would starve in Grub Street from dullness-if he takes to Westminster Hall-may become the most illustrious of Chancellors.' He wisely adhered to juriridical studies, and laboured more and more assiduously to qualify himself for his profession."

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But the indifferent essayist became one of the most eminent Equity judges that England ever possessed, so that his Chancellorship was termed the Golden Age of Equity." He swept away and kept down arrears with a vigorous arm, and pronounced many sound judgments in important questions, affecting extensive legal rights. This must be set against that fearful addition to the severity of the penal code which originated with Hardwicke, who made many felonies capital which had till then been only transportable offences; and among the number, forgery. "But," adds Lord Campbell, to whom belongs the honourable distinction of being an ardent reformer of the penal law, this bloody code did not reach its full measure of atrocity till towards the close of the reign of George III., when it was defended and eulogized by Lord Eldon." What bad law did that learned Lord not eulogize?


Hardwicke, now Lord Chancellor, and, in his The life of the next Chancellor, Lord Talbot, own idea, a great statesman, sought to gratify the is not one of pre-eminent interest, though he was, court, or the Queen, by his extreme zeal, against as a private character, far above the average the citizens of Edinburgh, for the hanging of of state dignitaries. Porteous. His bill went to repealing the city Hardwicke's biography-that of an able, un-charter, razing the city gates, and abolishing the scrupulous, and lucky adventurer, in search of city guard. All this we notice to introduce Lord

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