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思之夜以繼日幸而

爭其有不合者仰而

公思兼三王以施加

王不泄邇不忘遠周

傷望道而未之見武

賢無方文王視民如

而好善言湯執中立

孟子 日禹惡

行非行仁義也

〇五

四節

者以

CHAP.XX.

loved good words.

優賢

王禹

酒,

I. Mencius said, Yu hated the pleasant wine, and

ii. 5, 8. 3. ‘As he would on ons who was wounded,' i.e. he regarded the people with

也。

2. Tăng held fast the Mean, and employed men of talents and virtue without regard to where they came from.

3. 'King Wăn looked on the people as he would on a man who was wounded, and he looked towards the right path as if he could not see it.

4.‘King Wa did not slight the near, and did not forget the distant.

"

5. The duke of Châu desired to unite in himself the virtues of those kings, those founders of the three dynasties, that he might display in his practice the four things which they did. If he saw anything in them not suited to his time, he looked up and thought about it, from daytime into the night, and when he was fortunate enough to master the difficulty, he sat waiting for the morning.'

governmental achievements of Shun related compassionate tenderness. is to be read in the Shû-ching. as, with which, according to Chû Hai, it was anciently interchanged. See the Shuching, V. xvi. 11, 12, for illustrations of Wän's

20. THE SAME SUBJECT;—ILLUSTRATED IN YÜ, I. In the TĂNG, WAN, WÔ, AND CHÂU XUNG.

Chan Kwo Ts'e (戰國策), which fille up

care of the people, and the Shd-ching, III. i

in a measure the space between the period of

Ode VI,.for illustration of the other character

the Ch'un Ch'id and the Han dynasty, Part VI,

istic. 4 泄,read hsien (a洩), and defined

Article 11, we read that anciently a daughter of the Ti (probably Yão or Shun) caused I-ti to make by Chao Ch'i as mearing, 'to slight.' wine (? spirits), and presented it to Yu, who The adjectives are to be understood both of drank some of it, and pronounced it to be pleas5. 三王—ie. Ya, ant. Then, however, he frowned on f-ti, and persons and things. forbade the use of the pleasant liquor, saying, Tăng, and the kings Wăn and Wû, who are 'In future ages, rulers will through this liquor often classed together as the one founder of ruin their States.' Yü's love of good words is the Châu dynasty. The four things' are what commemorated in the Shu-ching, II. ii. 21. have been stated in the preceding paragraphs.

2.

無方 may be understood with reference 其 has 事 for its antooedent. 得之一

to class or place;--compare the Sha-ching, IV.

apprehended it,' understood the matter in ite

principles, so as to be able to bring into his own practice the spirit of those ancient sages.

一个

世而斬小人之澤五世

子孟子 日君子之澤五

其義則丘竊取之矣

桓晋文其文則史孔子

之春秋一也其事則齊

作晋之乘楚之檮杌急

而詩亡詩亡然後去

世五

事、橋 後乏

一个

孟子曰王者之迹熄

得之坐以待旦

春迹

齊魯和

魯秋熄

CHAP. XXI. 1. Mencius said, 'The traces of sovereign rule were

extinguished, and the royal odes ceased to be made. When those

odes ceased to be made, then the Ch'un Ch'it was produced.

"

2. The Shang of Tsin, the Tao-wd of Ch'a, and the Ch'un Ch'id

of Lu were books of the same character,

3. The subject of the Ch'un Ch'it was the affairs of Hwan of Ch'i and Wăn of Tsin, and its style was the historical. Confucius said, " Its righteous decisions I ventured to make.”

999

CHAP.XXII. 1. Mencius said, 'The influence of a sovereign sage terminates in the fifth generation. The influence of a mere sage does the same.

21. THE SAME SUBJECT ;—ILLUSTRATED IN CON- | the name of 'Spring and Autumn,' two seasons FUCIUS. 1. The extinction of the true royal for the whole. 3. refers only to the annals rule of Châu dates from the transference of of Lû. They did not contain only the affairs the capital from Fang and Hão to Lo by the of Hwan and Wan, but these occupied an early sovereign Pring, B.0.769. From that time, the sovereigns of Châu had the name without the and prominent place in them. 1,-see Bk. rule. By the is intended, not the Book II. Pt. L. ii so makes the expression

of Poems, but the Ya (雅) portion of them,

| still more humble, as if Confucius had 'taken'

the judgments from the historians, and not

descriptive of the royal rule of Châu, and to be used on great occasions.

made them himself. does not mean 22. THE SAME SUBJECT;-ILLUSTRATED IN MEX

that the Ya were lost, but that no additions CIUS HIMSELF. 1. Here 君子-聖賢有

9

were no

were made to them, and they degenerated into the sage and worthy, who has posimere records descriptions of the present. Confucius edited tion,' i. e. who occupies the throne, and the annals of Lû to supply the place of the Ya.

See Bk. III. Pt. II. ix. 8. 2. Each State had, the sage and worthy, its annals. Those of Tain were compiled under who has no position.' We might suppose that the name of Shăng (4th tone), 'The Carriage; the influence of the former would be more those of Ch'û under that of Táo-wû, which is permanent, but Mencius is pleased to say their explained as the name of a ferocious animal, and more anciently as the denomination of is to be vile and lawless man. The annals of Lû had taken as = = (influence,' it being understood to

a

influence lasts the same time.

[graphic]

亦已之靈可以無
耀於道逄可以 無取
有是思蒙 與 取
罪殺天學死與傷
焉羿下射死傷廉
公孟惟於傷惠可
明子羿4勇可以取
儀日為盡

以與可

曰,是愈

死可以

〇二節

也予私淑諸人也

而斬予未得為孔子徒

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2. ‘Although I could not be a disciple of Confucius himself,

I have endeavoured to cultivate my virtue by means of others who were.'

CHAP.XXIII.Mencius said, When it appears proper.to take a thing, and afterwards not proper, to take it is contrary to moderation. When it appears proper to give a thing and afterwards not proper, to give it is contrary to kindness. When it appears proper to sacrifice one's life, and afterwards not proper, to sacrifice it is contrary to bravery.'

CHAP. XXIV. I. Pang Măng learned archery of f. When he had acquired completely all the science of 1, he thought that in all the kingdom only I was superior to himself, and so he slew him. Mencius said, 'In this case I also was to blame. Kung-ming f indeed said, "It would appear as if he were not to be blamed," but

be of a beneficial character. a. From the death we must supplement them by introducing of Confucius to the birth of Mencius there would | ‘afterwards.

be nearly a hundred years, so that, though 24. THE IMPORTANCE OF BEING CAREFUL OF Mencius could not learn his doctrines from the WHOM WE MAKE FRIENDS. The sentiment is sage himself, he did so from his grandson Taze- good, but Mencius could surely have found

sze, or some of his disciples. - in last better illustrations of it than the second one which he selected. 1. Off, see Analects, XIV.

xiv.

=

chapter. 淑-善 taken actively. 諸人於人, the 人 referring to Teze-sze and his school. This and the three preceding chapters

should be considered as one, whose purpose is refer to I's servants(), but one man is

much the same as Bk. III. Pt. II. ix, showing us that Mencius considered himself the successor evidently denoted by the name. Î's servants of Confucius in the line of sages. did indeed make themselves parties to his 23. FIRST JUDGKENTS ARE NOT ALWAYS CORRECT. Murder, but P'ang Mang is the same, I suppose, IMPULSES MUST BE WEIGHED IN THE BALANCE OF with Han Tsu, the principal in it. Z

REASON, AND WHAT REASON DICTATES MUST BE FOL

LOWED. Such is the meaning of this chapter, see Bk. II. Pt. II. ii. 4, and Analects, VII. xviii. in translating the separate clauses of which, 日薄乎云爾, saying, (meaning to say,

(Pang, as formed with, not)

is said both by Chao Ch'l and Chú Hei to

庾夫

庾公之斯至日夫子何爲不執弓曰

子其誰以追
日僕也。執之
吾曰其弓

[graphic]

庾僕吾濯 皇天

者可斯鄭宜

日端他何 何公曰死
日死獳孺

也斯

日侵

衞 之問

為取他庾之斯其日

斯其日衞爾

公善也。僕我使惡 射之射 日日疾 3、疾 庾得 弓。端於斯者 吾追 作公無

我學也生我不

犯罪。

he thereby only meant that his blame was slight. How can he be held without any blame?'

6

66

2. The people of Chang sent Tsze-cho Yü to make a stealthy attack on Wei, which sent Yu-kung Sze to pursue him. Teze-cho Yu said, " To-day I feel unwell, so that I cannot hold my bow. I am a dead man!” At the same time he asked his driver, " Who is it that is pursuing me?" The driver said, "It is Yü-kung Sze," on which he exclaimed, " I shall live.” The driver said, “ Yu-kung Sze is the best archer of Wei, what do you mean by saying 'I shall live ?" Yü replied, "Yu-kung Sze learned archery from Yin-kung T'o, who again learned it from me. Now, Yin-kung T'o is an upright man, and the friends of his selection must be upright also." When Yu-kung Sze came up, he said, " Master, why are you not holding your bow?” It was slighter than... simply.' a. 侵,(to names一) -庾公之斯 and尹公之佗 ittack stealthily. An incursion made with are mere vocal particles. ALL,-read to. The music, and the pomp of war, is called 伐 and name is elsewhere found 尹公佗: In the one without these, 侵The 之 in the 左傳, under the fourteenth year of dukc

[graphic]

人、人 金我子不尹 子不尹日今 孟嚄不難 谁忍

戒掩 敢然

人齊戒沐浴則可以祀上

八皆掩鼻而過之雖有惡

墨子曰西子蒙不

金發乘矢而後反

oil &

上惡則

廢今夫他

日子

後矢 之之射

今日我疾作不可以執弓。

輪君反夫

有潔 法事害子之執

其也夫我他弓。

Yü answered him, "To-day I am feeling unwell, and cannot hold my bow." On this Sze said, " I learned archery from Yin-kung To, who again learned it from you. I cannot bear to injure you with your own science. The business of to-day, however, is the prince's business, which I dare not neglect." He then took his arrows, knocked off their steel points against the carriage-wheel, discharged four of them, and returned.'

CHAP. XXV. 1. Mencius said, 'If the lady Hst had been covered with a filthy head-dress, all people would have stopped their noses in passing her.

2. "Though a man may be wicked, yet if he adjust his thoughts, fast, and bathe, he may sacrifice to God.'

囊 we havu a narrative bearing some like- on the western bank of a certain stream. If

ness to this account of Mencius, and in which we may receive the works of, however,

尹公佗 and庾公差 figure as famous

as having really proceeded from that scholar

archers of Wei. It is hardly possible, however, to suppose that the two accounts are of the same thing. 4th tone, 'a team of four horses,' here used for a set of four arrows.

beauty named Hsi-taze, two hundred years and statesman, there had been a celebrated before the one of Yüeh. In translating

不深, I have followed Chao Ch1.

2.

25. IT IS ONLY MORAL BEAUTY THAT IS TRULY both by Chao Ch' and Cha Hat, is taken in the sense of 'ugly,' in opposition to the beauty EXCELLENT AND ACCEPTABLE. 1. Hai-taze, or •Western lady,' was a poor girl of Yüeh, named intended it in the sense of 'wicked,' and that of the lady Hal. I cannot but think Mencius

his objeot was to

Shih (施夷), of surpassing beauty, preencourage men to repentance sented by the king of Yüeh to his enemy the and well-doing. -read chdi. See Analects, king of Wû, who becan.e devotedly attached VII. xii, et al. By the laws of China, it was to her, and neglected all the duties of his competent for the sovereign only to sacrifice government. She was contemporary with to God. The language of Mencius, in conConfucius. The con.mon account is that she nexion with this fact, very strikingly shows the was called 'The wes ern lady,' because she lived virtue he attached to penitent purification.

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