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CHAP. XX. 1. Mencius said, Yü hated the pleasant wine, and loved good words.

2. "Trăng held fast the Mean, and employed men of talents and virtue without regard to where they came from.

3. 'King Wăn looked on the people as he would on a man who was wounded, and he looked towards the right path as if he could not see it.

4. King Wa did not slight the near, and did not forget the distant.

5. The duke of Cháu desired to unite in himself the virtues of those kings, those founders of the three dynasties, that he might display in his practice the four things which they did. If he saw anything in them not suited to his time, he looked up and thought about it, from daytime into the night, and when he was fortunate enough to master the difficulty, he sat waiting for the morning.' governmental achievements of Shun related compassionate tonderneet. TTT is to be read in the Shu-ching.

#p, with which, according to Cha Hai, 20. THE BANK BUBJECT ;-ILLUSTRATED IN Yö, TXwG, WXx, WO, AND CHÂU-KUNG. I. In the

it was anciently interchanged. See the Sha.

ching, V. xvi. 11, 12, for illustrations of Wan's Chan Kwo Toro (PD), which fills up care of the people, and the Shi-ching, III. i in a measure the space between the period of Ode VI,.for illustration of the other character the Ch'un Ch'it and the Flan dynasty, Part VI, istic. 4 itt, read hsich (a ) and defined the Ti (probably Y&o or Shun)caused I-ti tomake by Chảo Ch'i as mearing JW, 'to slight' wipe (i spirits), and presented it to Yü, who The adjectives are to be understood both of drank some of it, and pronounced it to be pleasant. Thon, however, he frowned on 1-ti, and persons and things. 5三王-ice. Th, forbade the use of the pleasant liquor, saying, Tăng, and the kings Wån and Wů, who are "In future ages, rulers will through this liquor often classed together as the one founder of ruin their States.' Yü’s love of good words is the Chau dynasty. The four things'are what commemorated in the Shu-ching, II. ii. 21. have been stated in the preceding paragraphs.

the # may be understood with reference #has for its antecedent. 1 Ź:to class or place ;-compare the Shd-ching, IV." apprehended it,' understood the matter in its ii. 5, 8. 3.

• As he would on one who was principles, so as to be able to bring into his wounded,' i.e. he regarded the people with own practice the spirit of those ancient sages. and prominent place in them.





世而斬小人之澤五世 二學日君子之澤五


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CHAP. XXI. 1. Mencius said, “The traces of sovereign rule were extinguished, and the royal odes ceased to be made. When those odes ceased to be made, then the Ch'un Ch'id was produced.

2. The Shăng of Tsin, the Tao-wû of Ch'd, and the Ch'un Ch'id of LQ were books of the same character.

3. The subject of the Ch'un Cb'id was the affairs of Hwan of Ch'i and Wăn of Tsin, and its style was the historical. Confucius said, “ Its righteous decisions I ventured to make.”

CHAP. XXII. 1. Mencius said, “The influence of a sovereign sage terminates in the fifth generation. The influence of a mere sage does the same. 21. THE BABE SUBJECT ;--ILLUSTRATED IN Cor. the name of 'Spring and Autumn,' two seasons

1. The extinction of the true royal for the whole. 3 refers only to the annals rule of Chau dates from the transference of of Lū. They did not contain only the affairs the capital from Fang and Hao to Lo by the of Hwan and Wån, but those occupied an early sovereign Pring, B. O. 769. From that time, the sovereigns of Châu had the name without the

1-see Bk. rulo By the ** is intended, not the Book II. Pt. I ii sa Th makes the expression of Poems, but the ya (9) portion of them, the judgments from the historians, and not

still more humblo, as if Confucius had 'taken' descriptive of the royal rule of Chan, and to made thom himself. be used on great occasions t does not mean 22. THE SAME SUBJECT; ILLUSTRATED IN MEX. that the Ya were lost, but that no additions OIUS HIMSELF. 1. Here 君子聖賢有 were made to them, and they degenerated into the to, the sage and worthy, who has posidescriptions of the present. Confucius edited tion,'i. e. who occupies the throne, and Soe Bk. III. Pt. 11. ix. 8. 2. Each state had - , 'the sage and worthy, its annals. Those of Tain were compiled under who has no position.' We might suppose that the name of Shăng (4th tone), The Carriage;' the influence of the former would be more those of Ch'à under that of Tão-vou, which is permanent, but Mencius is pleased to say their explained as the name of a ferocious animal

, influence lasts the same time is to be and more anciently as the denomination of a vile and lawless man. The annals of LQ had taken as=

= 'influence,' it being understood to

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於道以無取孟 有是思蒙無與取子 罪殺天學與傷

法 焉郭下射死傷廉可請 公孟惟於傷患可以人為 明子郭勇。可以取也孔 儀日為盡以與可 子 日是愈


2. ‘Although I could not be a disciple of Confucius himself, I have endeavoured to cultivate my virtue by means of others who were.'

CHAP. XXIII. Mencius said, When it appears proper.to take a thing, and afterwards not proper, to take it is contrary to moderation. When it appears proper to give a thing and afterwards not proper, to give it is contrary to kindness. When it appears proper to sacrifice one's life, and afterwards not proper, to sacrifice it is contrary to bravery.

CHAP. XXIV. 1. Pang Mång learned archery of f. When he bad acquired completely all the science of I, he thought that in all the kingdom only I was superior to himself

, and so he slew him. Mencius said, 'In this case I also was to blame. Kung-ming I indeed said, "It would appear as if he were not to be blamed," but be of a beneficial character. 2. From the death we must supplement them by introducing of Confucius to the birth of Mencius there would afterwards.' bo nearly a hundred years, so that, though 24. THE DIPORTANOR OF BEING CAREFUL OF Mencius could not learn his doctrines from the WHOM WE MAKE FRIENDS sage himself, he did so fro his grandson Toze- good, but Mencius could surely have found uza, or some of his disciples e in last better illustrations of it than the second one

which he selected. s. of 1, see Analects, XIV. chapter. #taken actively. X, the reforring to Taze-sze and his

. (Pang

, as formed with, not $) school. This and the three proceding chapters * is said both by Chào Ch'l and Chu Hst to should be considered as one, whose purpose is refer to f's servants (*), but one man is much the same as Bk. III. Pt. II. ix, showing us that Mencius considered himself the successor

evidently denoted by the name. I's servants of Confucius in the line of sages.

did indeed make themselves parties to his 23. FIRST JUDGMENTS ARE NOT ALWAYS CORRECT. murder, but Pang Mang is the same, I suppose, IXPULSES MUST BE WELCRED IN THE BALANCE OF with Han Tsa, the principal in it. EWREASON, AND WHAT REASON DICTATES MUST BE FOLLOWED. Such is the meaning of this chapter, see Bk. II. Pt. II. ii. 4, and Analects, VII. xviii. in translating the separate clauses of which,' WFZ saying, (meaning to say)

The sentiment is


東夫射夫矣者可斯鄭宜 尹於子其誰以追


生、陳榮吾温湿焉 日端何

何公日死孺 痛 夫人: 謂之風矣子:



之斯其日衛爾 公善也。僕我使惡

射之射日日疾陳得 只端於斯者吾追作公無 日矣。我學也生 我不 罪


he thereby only meant that his blame was slight. How can he be held without any blame?'

2. The people of Chăng sent Tsze-cho Yü to make a stealthy attack on Wei

, which sent Yu-kung Sze to pursue him. Teze-cho Yü said, “To-day I feel unwell, so that I cannot hold my bow. I am a dead man!" At the same time he asked his driver, “Who is it that is pursuing me?” The driver said, “It is Yü-kung Sze," on which he exclaimed," I shall live.” The driver said, “ Yu-kung Sze is the best archer of Wei, what do you mean by saying 'I shall live ?'” replied, " Yu-kung Sze learned archery from Yin-kung T'o, who again learned it from me. Now, Yin-kung T'o is an upright man, and the friends of his selection must be upright also.When Yü-kung Sze came up, be said, “Master, why are you not holding your bow?” It was slighter than ... simply.' 2.

随公之斯ad公之, ittack stealthily: An incursion made with are mere vocal particles. Alread to. The music, and the pomp of war, is called Hi and name is elsewhere found #ATE. In the one without these, P. The Ź in the under the fourteenth year of dukc

'to names


尹今 齊皆發不難忍 小 戒掩 乘敢然之 济 日 廢。今夫她學疾 密而

日子學 則過子 後矢之

之之射於 可之蒙 事道於丹可 以雖不 輸君反夫

有潔 法事害子之執 上惡則 其也夫我子。




Yü answered him, "To-day I am feeling unwell

, and cannot hold my bow.On this Sxe said, “I learned archery from Yin-kung To, who again learned it from you. I cannot bear to injure you with your own science. The business of to-day, however, is the prince's business, which I dare not neglect." He then took his arrow, knocked off their steel points against the carriage-wheel, discharged four of them, and returned.'

CHAP. XXV. 1. Mencius said, 'If the lady Hsi had been covered with a filthy head-dress, all people would have stopped their noses in passing her.

2. Though a man may be wicked, yet if he adjust his thoughts, fast, and bathe, he may sacrifice to God.' 裹, we bavy a narrative bearing some like-on the western bank of a certain stroana. I near to this account of Mencins, and in which wo may receive the works of Fr, however, #AfE and Aligare as famous as having really proceeded from that moholar archers of wei . It is hardly possible, however, beauty named Hoi-taze, two hundred year

and statesman, there had been a celebrated to suppose that the two acoounts are of the before the one of Yüeh. In translating same thing. Bith tone, “a team of four horses,' hore used for a set of four arrows.

不漂,I have followed Chao Oh a 25. IT E OMLY MORAL BEAUTY THAT IS TRULY both by Chao Ch'i and Cha Ha, is taken

1. Hai-taze, or

the sense of ugly,' in opposition to the beauty • Wastorn lady,' was a poor girl of Yleh, Damed intended it in the sense of wicked,' and that

of the lady Hs. I cannot but think Mencius Shih 1 (e), of surpassing beauty, pre. bis object was to anooarago mon to repentance sented by the king of Yüob to his enemy the and well-doing. -read chai. Soo Analectes king of Wů, who becan.o dovotedly attached VII. xii, et al. By tho laws of Ohid, it was to her, and neglected all the duties of his competent for tho sovereign only to morifios government. She was contemporary with to God. The language of Mencias, in OORConfucius. The con.mon account is that she nexion with this fact, very strikingly shows the was called 'Tho wer ern lady,' because sho lived virtue be attached to ponitent puritaation.


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