Puslapio vaizdai

Foreigner Asylum and had thus learned the manner of treatment. Some of these being situated some distance from Foochow it was much more convenient for the victims of opium smoking to resort to them than to come to the Foreign asylum.

Dr. Whitney makes the same statement as other medical missionaries have made, that there is no diminu. tion in the quantity of the drug consumed. This fact presents a most sad future for China.

Report of the Medical Missionary Hospital at Fatshan, in connection with the Wesleyan Missionary Society, in charge of Charles Wenyen, M.D., M.Ch., (Q.U.Q.), L.B.C.P.Ed. For the year 1881.

THIS is the Report of a new Hospi-habit. He was extremely anaemic tal. The buildings were only ready and emaciated, was suffering severe for use at the middle of October neuralgic pain, and his stomach was of the past year. The Report of the unable to digest the simplest food. commencement of the work makes Seeing at once that it was too late it evident that the populous manu- to help him, we declined to admit facturing town of Teatshan presents him to the hospital; his friends, a most favorable field for medical however, refused to take him away, missionary work. We feel assured and at length left him in one of the that Dr. Wenyen's hopes for success unoccupied rooms. Shortly afterin his medical work at Teatshan wards he was found there dead, with will be fully realized during the the opium pipe in his hand, and the current year. We wish him every opium lamp burning by his side.” success in his arduous labors for And while we were writing these the good of his fellow men. Dr. lines a missionary of the London Wenyen relates one fatal case of Mission who had just returned from opium smoking which will be inter- a visit to stations in the country, esting from the pending discussion stated to me that he, in one of the of that subject. Dr. Wenyen says: passenger boats, had met a most "A fatal case of opium smoking pitiable case of the evils of opium also came before us a few weeks smoking. The man was reduced to ago. The patient was a man 35 nearly a state of idiocy as well as of years of age. He had been smoking abject poverty. He had sold two sons opium for about five years, and had to get money. His aged mother and consumed daily only a moderate wife were in great distress. His amount of the drug, but the pitiable neighbors were reproaching him for condition in which he was carried having brought all this misery by his friends to the hospital was upon himself. The reproaches of regarded by them, and not without his neighbors and family were only reason, as a direct consequence of the noticed by a silly idiotic laugh.

Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan. Vol. X. Part 1. Yokohama: May 1882.

THIS Part of Vol. X, contains value and interest. We transcribe papers of much more than usual the Contents for the benefit of those

who have not seen this Part. the 16th century. At page 63 Mr.

I. A Chinese and Japanese Voca- Satow, after describing a certain bulary of the XV. Century, with book from Corea, part of which was Notes chiefly on Pronunciation. printed from movable type, says, By Joseph Edkins, D.D., Peking. This book is most important for II. Notes on this Vocabulary of the history of printing in all counthe XV. Century. By Ernest Satow. tries, since its date is at least a III. Konodui and its spots of hundred and twenty-six years before interest. By J. M. Dixon, M.D. the earliest printed book known in IV. On the early History of Europe." The writer says, "the Printing in Japan. By Ernest Japanese were indebted to the


V. Birds of Japan. By T. W. Blakisto and H. Pryer.

The paper which will most interest general readers is the one by Mr. Ernest Satow on the History of Printing in Japan. It is a very valuable article and connects itself with the general history of printing in other lands. The writer says, page 48" In Japan the earliest example of block printing dates from the middle of the 8th century; but in China block printing was known at the end of the sixth century. Printing with movable type was introduced into Japan at the end of

Coreans for the knowledge of using movable type, as "In 1420 the King of Korea ordered copper movable types to be made, and further ordered large copper types to be made for the purpose of printing this book." page 62. Thus it would appear that the nation last to open its ports to trade with western nations was the first to use movable type in printing books.

This List of the Birds of Japan is the most complete that has been prepared, reaching the number of 365 species, while the List of the Fauna Japonica only enumerates 199.

"Around the World Tour of Christians Missions." By Wm. F. Bainbridge. Boston: D. Lothrop & Co.

MANY of our readers made the acquaintance of Mr. Bainbridge and his genial wife during their visit to China a few years ago. These and many others will be glad to know that Rev. and Mrs. Bainbridge have each written an account of their observations in the various mission fields visited. It is with Mr. Bainbridge's book that we have now to do.

During his travels Mr. Bainbridge met with over 1000 missionaries,

and conversed with them respecting the methods and results of their work. Many advantages attend such an extensive survey of the mission field at large and actual contact with the mission work in its various departments. All missionaries know the advantages of visiting other mission fields than their own and comparing their own methods of work with those of their brethren. To all who wish thus to enlarge their field of vision and who are

ready to adopt suggestions from the As a popular book on Missions

practice of their fellow-laborers this book will prove of great value. Though prepared apparently in haste, so that there are occasional slips and defects in the English, it is written in a pleasant style and brings the different subjects treated clearly before our minds.

Mr. Bainbridge's volume will prove more useful than Prof. Christlieb's valuable little work. It contains the same valuable information, but not in so much of a dry, statistical style; while the personal recollections of the lands visited serve to give variety and to excite the interest of the reader; for we always feel more interest in a living person. than in a mere subject.

China are in dread of being sold by their husbands. These exaggerated statements must have resulted from some lack of knowledge in his informants, but we all know how full books of travel are apt to be of such inaccuracies.

Besides giving a glance at the prevailing systems of religious thought in the lands visited, and a detailed account of mission work there, Mr. Their are occasional inaccuracies, Bianbridge gives his own views as as when it is stated that 25 per cent to different points of missionary of the students at an A.B. examipolicy. In almost all of these opinions nation are successful, and that he shows such a grasp of his sub-"almost all" sonless mothers in ject, such an appreciation of the arguments on both sides, and such sound judgment that these thoughts will be to many the most attractive part of the book. Indeed the author states that this is the special purpose of this volume. His disclaims their being merely personal impressions from a world-wide range of observation, and says truly that the value of the book depends on its being "an attempted compilation of the matured thoughts and feelings of hundreds of experienced missionaries, met in frequent conversations face to face with their work in almost all lands throughout the world." All missionaries feel their need of just such knowledge and while the book will be valuable at home in diffusing missionary information it will be none the less so to missionaries on the field.

The book has proved an attractive one at home as three editions were printed within a month from the first issue, and an edition (Subscription) on better paper and with illustrations is now in course of preparation.

An Appendix contains a list of Christian missions, and there is a full Index reudering the book an admirable one for reference.

It is to be hoped that all missionaries will have this work in their libraries and I am sure no one will regret spending the small sum needed to put it there.


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THE relation between Chinese Proverbs and Chinese Poetry (not classical) resembles that between Proverbs and Antithetical Couplets. All those qualities of the Antithetical Couplet which adapt it for quotation, are frequently found in poetry, with the additional attraction of the rhyme. Proverbs and other Common Sayings are often caught up by the composer of an Ode, and woven into his verses, while on the other hand, a well turned poetical expression sometimes gives it a permanent currency, as is the case with so many of the lines of Pope. Whether the Proverb has been made poetical by its setting, or the poetical expression has become proverbial by constant quotation, it may be sometimes difficult to determine. In cases of the latter class, the remote origin of a poetical 'Common Saying' has often been lost sight of by every one but Scholars. An examination in detail of the Rules governing the construction of the different varieties of Chinese poetry (vaguely classified as Shih, Tz'u, Ko and FuM), is fortunately quite unessential to our purpose, since the subject is somewhat complicated, and as full of intricate details and thorny Exceptions as a Latin Accidence. In the Literary Examinations, the Shih and Fu are the only recognized forms of Poetry. The Tzu and Ko are more spontaneous, or even lawless, sometimes descending by rapid stages into a species of rythmic prose, or even into mere doggerel. While the Shih has either five or seven characters to the line, other kinds of verse often enjoy unfettered license. To avoid the introduction of confusing distinctions in the appended examples, whatever assumes a poetical form, is generically termed an Ode. The examples themselves have been selected, as in the case of Antithetical Couplets,

not only to show how Proverbial Sayings are often found in such poetical forms, but also to make it incidentally evident how smooth verses may easily become current linguistic coin. A little book called the Poems of Shen Tung() or the Divine Child-also known as Hsieh hsuch shih (1)-is in general circulation, and contains many lines which have become proverbial. The verses are reputed to have been composed by this supernatural Infant before the age of ten years. The following is a common citation from Shen Tung:-

'He was only a Common Farmer, when that morning brought its light,

And yet as the Emperor's Minister high, he trod his halls at night;

For Generals and Statesmen too, are seldom raised from seed,

That every youth should struggle hard-this is the vital need.'*




A 'Princeless Medicine' for preserving peace in the household.

'When sisters-in-law are joined in heart

No family comes to ill;

When sons all act a filial part

It works like a Harmony-pill.'



* In the collection of Shen Tung's Odes, these four lines are generally found under the title: Exhortation to Study (). The obvious intention is to urge to extreme diligence (), since the fruit of such a course will be a certain and perhaps sudden reward. The practical embarrassments of an arrangement of proverbs merely by 'subjects,' is illustrated in the circumstance that in Mr. Scarborough's volume the first two of these four lines are separated from the last two, and placed (No. 688) under the caption 'Luck.' A more inappropriate situation it would be difficult to select. The quest of the expression is by no means facilitated by the fact that no reference occurs in the index to any word in the couplet, or to anything cognate to its contents. The same inconveniences are met with in the classification of Antithetical Couplets, as in that of Odes. Thus, under the title "Concession and Forbearance," is appropriately found (No. 1852) "Imitate Chang Kung who wrote so many times the Jen character" (**4% #2). The other line of the couplet is, however, placed (No. 34) under the head of "Example": "Imitate Ssu Ma who laid up much secret merit" (✯Ā!). So also under "Wine," (No. 1005) we find : "Wine does not intoxicate men-men intoxicate themselves" ( ̄‡^^ ́B). The second line of this couplet is banished to the title "Hypocrisy and Deceit," where we have (No. 1719): "Beauty (or lust) does not bewitch men-men bewitch themselves"(^^). Yet in other cases where the connection between two lines of the same distich is even less intimate, they are allowed to remain undisturbed in their union. That it is undesirable to learn separately, and with no knowledge of their appropriate connection, lines which to the Chinese ear belong together, must be obvious. Imagine a Dictionary of Quotations from English authors, classified according to subjects, in which the words: "Hope springs eternal in the human breast," is found under "Hope," while the following line: "Man never is, but always to be blest," are entered under "Man "! Divorces of this kind are quite unnecessary, since judicious cover-references would obviate every difficulty.

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