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sons of well-known character, experienced in their Alexander's and Garnett's battalions of artillery are management, and whose management and care should not included in this return. Alexander's battalion had conform as nearly as might be to that of a prudent owner of slaves upon his own plantation. Without this, and twenty-six guns, Garnett's fifteen. Estimating them unless much attention was given to the proper care and at the same number of inen per gun as in the battalions treatment of the slaves, great dissatisfaction would neces- reporting gives 935 to add to the total, making the linesarily ensue amongst the owners, who, as a class, are always supposed to take great interest in everything per-of-battle strength of the army, 31st May, 75,413, with taining to the comfort and welfare of their servants. 247 pieces of artillery.

The slaves, for the purposes mentioned, should, of Early in June the army was reënforced by the course, be drawn according to some fixed rule from the entire body of slave owners in the State, and not taken infantry brigade of General J. J. Pettigrew from the from some small neighborhood or county locality. As Department of Richmond, with 3685 officers and men the war in which we are now engaged was brought about, for duty, and the brigade of General Joseph R. Davis, in a measure, for the protection of rights connected with from the Department of North Carolina, with 2577 for slave property, I take for granted that those who own slaves are not only quite willing to render every personal duty. The strength of these brigades is taken from the service which the country may require, but will gladly return of the Department of Richmond and of North show to those who own no slaves, and who so patriotic- Carolina for May 31, 1863. Corse's brigade of Pickett's ally swell the ranks of our armies, the greatest willing- division and one of Pettigrew's regiments, about 2200 ness to relieve them in every possible way from hardships incident to the service in which they are engaged by the in all, were left at Hanover Junction. Three of General substitution of slave labor when it can be done. This Early's regiments, numbering, according to an article will be but their reasonable duty.

These last remarks, though not called for by your by that officer in Vol. V. of the Southern Historical special inquiries, are nevertheless given as reflections Society papers, 919 for duty, were detached at Winnot entirely irrelevant. In truth, sir, did it not seem to chester to guard prisoners and garrison that place. excuse to some extent the avowed purpose of the Fed. The 25th Virginia of Johnson's division, and the 31st eral Government to use the negro against us, if in their power, a small percentage of our male slaves should be Virginia of Early's division, which had been on detached made to act with their masters in the field against the com- service since April 20, rejoined their commands near mon enemy of both. I am quite sure that such an exhi- Winchester with 700 men for duty, and at the same bition of confidence on our part would have a salutary effect in preventing the alienation and demoralization of place the 2d Maryland battalion was added to Johnson's that class of our people.

division. Major Goldsborough, in his history of the Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

“ Maryland Line,” says it took 500 men into action at (Signed)

DANIEL RUGGLES,
Brigadier-General, P. A. C. S.

Gettysburg. The Confederate infantry that crossed

the Potomac, assuming that the gain by recruits, conWithin a brief period the legislature of the State of scripts, and return of convalescent, furloughed, and Mississippi authorized Governor Pettus to hold ten thou- detached men was offset by the small loss at Winchessand slaves subject to the requisition of the President ter and by sickness and desertion, was 64,000. of the Confederate States, to be employed upon the mili

The cavalry was reënforced at Winchester by the tary defenses of the State of Mississippi. During this ist Maryland battalion, 300 strong, and by the brigade period I was commanding the Department of Missis- of General A. G. Jenkins, 1800 for duty. General sippi, as the successor of Major-General Earl Van Dorn, Imboden, with a force which, in an article in “The who had marched with an army, then recently organ- Galaxy” for April, 1871, he states as “about 2100 ized, to attack the Federal enemy at Corinth.

effective mounted men and a six-gun battery,” joined In the meantime, and in anticipation of summary the army at Chambersburg. The commands of Mosby action of the legislature of Mississippi, I had occasion and Gilmore were also attached to the cavalry. to send dispatches to Richmond by a distinguished

Two batteries of six guns each were added to the volunteer aide-de-camp, to whom I confided my views artillery: one, the Baltimore Light Artillery, at Winin relation to the employment of slaves for manual la. chester; one came with Imboden. bor in connection with our military defenses, and with

The Confederate army in the Gettysburg campaign the view of the gradual enrollment of selected slaves had for duty in round numbers at least for bearing arms for service with armies in the field.

Infantry.

..64,000 It was contemplated that exemplary conduct by the Cavalry....

14.500 slave, and faithful service in the field, would entitle Artillery, 259 pieces.

5,900 him to a well-defined and liberal personal reward.

84,400 On his return, my aide-de-camp informed me that no

and on the field of Gettysburg eighty thousand men. member of the Confederate cabinet appeared to give the The loss of the army is incompletely given in the subject favorable consideration.

report of its Medical Director, printed in the Appendix Thus our earliest effort systematically to utilize and to the Comte de Paris's history of the battle as 20,448. enroll negro slaves in the Confederate armies for In Pettigrew's brigade, and probably in other brigades service in the field proved abortive.

of Hill's corps, the losses for the first day only are FREDERICKSBURG, VA.

Daniel Ruggles. given. The reports of the corps commanders, which

can be found in Vols. II. and X. of the Southern His. Strength of the Confederate Army at Gettysburg. torical Society papers, give the casualties as follows: THE Army of Northern Virginia by its return of May

Killed. Wounded. Missing.

Longstreet's 31, 1863, numbered present for duty, officers and men :

corps

4,076 General Lee and staff

3,844 Infantry

Total.

4.453

933 .930

2,273
1,350

Ewell's
A. P. Hill's

849

4,289

17

59,467

12,818

7,467 22,997 Cavalry. Artillery, 206 pieces

The loss of the cavalry is nowhere accurately given. 74,478 From Beverly Ford to Upperville inclusive it was 995.

2,712

..10,292

4,702

At Gettysburg four brigades report losses aggregating been in position from an early hour in the morning, 240. There was not a day from July i to July 20 when was withheld until the afternoon, and was not then some portion of the cavalry was not engaged. Three opened until the Federal batteries on Bolivar Heights thousand is not an overestimate of its loss in the opened on the infantry force of General Walker, under campaign.

the command of Colonel (now Senator) Ransom. The total loss of Lee's army in June and July, 1863, My three years' daily intercourse with General Jackwas not less than 26,000.

son at the Virginia Military Institute makes me conCINCINNATI, O.

E. C. Dawes. fident that, in giving his signal orders, he would

neither consult with his subordinates near him nor in“Stonewall Jackson's Intentions at Harper's Ferry."

form them what orders he had given or would give

under the circumstances; therefore it is not surprisIn an article which appeared in your magazine in ing that the orders sent to General Walker were not June, 1886, written by General John G. Walker, late known. The knowledge of the contradiction of General of the Confederate army, entitled “ Harper's Ferry Walker's statement has just reached me. Hence the and Sharpsburg," the statement is made by the author tardiness of my confirmation of its substantial accuracy. that he received a signal order from General Stonewall Jackson not to open fire on Harper's Ferry unless

William A. Smith. forced to do so, as he (Jackson) designed to summon the

"A Question of Command at Franklin." Federal commander to surrender, and, should he refuse, to give him time to remove non-combatants and We have received from General D. S. Stanley a then carry the place by assault. This statement, I letter in reply to General Cox's statement in THE am told, has been questioned by General Bradley Century for February, 1889 (page 630). In this T. Johnson and Colonel H. Kyd Douglas, and the letter General Stanley denies that he retired from the object of this note is to confirm General Walker's field of Franklin after he had been wounded, or that stateinent.1 I was at the time assistant adjutant-gen- General Cox was the senior officer of the line from the eral of the division commanded by General Walker, time Wagner's troops were driven back until the battle and was present on Loudoun Heights when the order was entirely ended. General Cox, however, does not in question was received; and I recollect that in conse- recede from his position on these points. The details quence of its receipt the fire of our guns, which had of the controversy cannot be given here.- EDITOR.

TOPICS OF THE TIME.

SOME

John Bright.

moment are saved from the utmost extremes of famine, SOME of us still have vivid recollections of that not a few of them from death, by the contributions which

agony of blood and sweat through which the great they are receiving from all parts of the country.” There North American Republic vindicated its right and title was but one barrier -- the blockade-between this hun. to nationality. It had fixed its boundaries and de- gry people and the prosperity which abundant cotton fended them successfully against assaults from abroad; would bring them; and there were voices in plenty to now it was to prove to the world that those boundaries urge them to bid their Government attempt to break were not to be broken down by any force from within. the blockade. No one can say that it was John Bright's Though a new generation has come into being since eloquence which held Lancashire to the conviction then, twenty-five years are too few to make us forget that its permanent interest was in the success of the how the scales, which had been so long in dubious bal- American experiment; but it is certain that John ance, began to settle slowly towards the side of the Bright's eloquence lost nothing in effectiveness from maintenance of the Union; nor can they make us the fact that he had given up his income, and allowed forget how the waiting time was broken again and his six cotton-mills to stand idle rather than say one again by the ring of good cheer in the words of the word which would even embarrass the American peodead leader whose thoroughly English name heads ple in the throes of their struggle for national existence. this article.

John Bright was as absolutely destitute of fear as The American people will not remember John Bright John Knox. He was not to be moved by any social best as the opponent of the Corn Laws, as the uncom- pressure from telling workingmen the truth, as he promising free trader, as the friend of oppressed understood it, about the hopes which filled many Eng. nationalities everywhere, or as the man who dared lish high places for the downfall of the American denounce the Crimean war, though it cost him his Republic. “Privilege," said he to them in 1863, “thinks seat in the House of Commons; they will remember him it has a great interest in it, and every morning, with better as men remember him who stands their friend blatant voice, it comes into your streets and curses the when most they need a friend. There was a time American Republic. Privilege has beheld an afflicting when, in Bright's own words at Birmingham,“ nearly spectacle for many years past. It has beheld thirty 500,000 persons — men, women, and children - at this million men, happy and prosperous, without emperor, dered at what might happen to old Europe if this ditions will be punctually fulfilled, that the privileges grand experiment should succeed." All his arguments and responsibilities of State-hood will be very gladly to English workingmen might be summed up in one accepted, and that the “new constellation,” which beof his pregnant sentences : “My countrymen who gan its course with thirteen States, will number fortywork for your living-remember this: there will be one two during the first year of its second century under wild shriek of freedom to startle all mankind if that the Constitution. American Republic should be overthrown.”

without king, without the surroundings of a court, 1 For the comments by General Johnson and Colonel Douglas without great armies and great navies, without great see The Century War Book, “ Battles and Leaders of the Civil War," Vol. II., p. 615 et seq.

debt, and without great taxes. And Privilege has shud.

It is easy enough to misunderstand the sense in which It is not as the mere friend of America that Americans this increase of States is mentioned by Americans. The should remember John Bright; he was the advocate numerical increase is itself indicative of a far larger inof his own country, and of all mankind, when he sup- crease in other forms. When there were but thirteen ported the principle for which the war for the Union States, they hugged the Atlantic coast so closely that was waged. If the “ federation of the world,” which every one of them might have been called a salt-water was to put an end to wars and hereditary warriors and State. As the roll of States has grown longer, it has privileged classes everywhere, was not yet possible, it meant that the center of population was moving westwas to the interest of peace that one nationality should ward, that orderly government and all the forces of control central North America and banish war from civilization were creeping along the Gulf of Mexico and its jurisdiction. And so John Bright, the man of the shore of the Great Lakes, across the Mississippi, peace, was the vigorous champion of the most devas. and beyond the Rocky Mountains to the Golden Gate. tating war of his time. His work was even bolder Each successive admission of a new State has been a than this, more consistent beneath an apparent incon- milestone in the march of the American people tosistency: it was from the sternest sense of duty that wards the dominion of the continent. Now the system he, the typical Englishman, brought his indictment of States, which once only fringed the Atlantic, extends against the English Government, the English blockade. with but a single break across the continent. The inrunners, and a part at least of the English Liberal crease of the number of States is so evidently parallel party. It was a greater crime in his eyes to condone with the country's growth from a population of three attacks upon the republican idea than even to imagine millions to one of sixty millions, from poverty to wealth, the death of the king; and he did not stop to measure from insignificance to respect, that a foreigner may be his words when he spoke of it. “We supply the ships; pardoned for thinking that the ideas were meant to be we supply the arms, the munitions of war; we give equivalent. He is apt to say, like Mr. Arnold: What aid and comfort to this foulest of all crimes. English- of it? Are numbers the summum bonum? Was not men only do it. They are English Liberal newspapers your country happier when it was poorer, and more only which support this stupendous iniquity. They respectable when it was less respected ? Better wish for are English statesmen only, who profess to be Liberal, a reduction in the number of your States, if there is any who have said a word in favor of the authors of this hope that such a reduction will bring you back your now enacting revolution in America.” And the Eng. Washingtons, Jays, and Marshalls. lish Liberals have come to see clearly that John Bright's The Arnold interpretation may be a natural one, denunciation of his Government and party was only a but it is exceedingly discreditable to the intelligence wise preference of his country's highest good to her either of those to whom it is addressed or of him who temporary and short-sighted whim.

makes it. The first of the alternative conclusions is imHis own countrymen may well regret that in his probable: the American has not usually been found later years he lagged so far behind his pupils; that guilty in other matters of such stupidity as would be the veneering of surface dignity, which he had so often implied necessarily in a glorification of mere numbers stripped from others, was so quick to take fire from or size. He does not rate the Chinese Empire above the criticisms of Irish members; and that, among the Switzerland for intelligence, or the Russian Empire leaders in the last great revolution in English public above the British for freedom. He cannot mean that opinion, the picture of John Bright should be turned he has any overweening pride in the number forty-two, to the wall. But, after all, his name is even more the as intrinsically superior to the number thirteen. The property of the world than of England; and the world, first business of an acute critic should have been to and especially the American quarter of it, has had no seek out the American's real reason for satisfaction reason to veil the face of him who loved and served in the growth of his country; and, as regards the numGod and man first, and his own country afterwards. It ber of States, the real reason is not far to seek. can only take the long list of great names that the It is a cardinal article of belief among peoples of English stock has given it, Alfred and Sir Simon of European stock that the dark ages are over in their Montfort, More, Latimer, and Bunyan, Eliot, Hamp- case. And yet medievalism is still most powerful with den, Cromwell, and Blake, Pitt, Wellington, and most of them in the intense belief of the governing or Nelson, Clarkson, Wilberforce, and Cobden, and add influential classes that it is better for the mass of the to it a name which shall not be least in the list, that of people to be governed than to govern themselves. John Bright.

“Constitutionalism" is represented at most in the dealings of the hereditary element with the legislative

body at the capital : the peasant's advanced liberty One of the acts of the Fiftieth Congress, almost in consists rather in his share in the choice of the legisits closing hours, was the passage of a comprehensive lative body than in the development of his local govEnabling Act, granting permission, on certain nominal ernment. Is there no value in that privilege of local conditions, for the formation of the four new States of self-government for which men are willing in Russia North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, and Washing- to brave the terrors of the bastion and of Siberia ? ton. There can be no doubt whatever that the con- — for which in France they seem to be willing ti

The New States.

surrender the shadow, if not the substance, of the custodians and distributers. The water supply is national republic ? — for which, in every country, the abundant, and while the forests stand guard around awakening human mind longs as a higher privilege the sources of the rivers, their flow is as everlasting as than any national system can give? This privilege the hills themselves. has been extended by the American system of self- A mountain forest has more functions than most governing States, without a struggle, without the people have considered. It covers the hills with a repression of a single revolutionary throe of human- vast mat or net-work of living root-fibers, and holds kind, with the very minimum of human unhappiness, in place the ever-accumulating mass of mold and defrom the Atlantic to the Pacific, over all central North composing vegetable matter, which absorbs and retains America. Surely no political result has ever furnished the water of the rainfall and the melting snows. Such more conclusive evidence of the advisability of leaving a forest is a great sponge, which receives all the water a people to work out their own natural solution of that falls on the mountains, and allows it to escape their own political problems. It is this crowning suc- gradually, so as to maintain the steady flow of the cess of the American system, in some respects the rivers which it feeds. A forest is thus a natural resercrowning success of the century, which is summed up voir for the storage and distribution of the water which and embodied in the growth from thirteen to forty- falls upon it; and it is far more efficient, as well as far two States. And Americans have a right to be proud more economical, than any system of artificial storage of it.

reservoirs that can be substituted for it. If the forest There is, perhaps, a technical question whether the is removed, this mighty sponge is destroyed, and there admission of the new States is so far accomplished by is then nothing to perform its function of holding back the mere Enabling Act that their representative stars the water, which will rush down in overwhelming may properly be placed on the flag for the approaching floods and torrents. Fourth of July. It is not probable, however, that the The first thing to be noted is that the water will thus question will ever assume any practical importance. all run away at once, at a time when but little of it is The older States of the Union will not be apt to cavil wanted, and there will be little or none of it left for the on points of etiquette in the welcome with which they season when it is most needed. The rivers which have meet their new sisters, or to stickle on the exact loca- been fed by the mountain springs will soon be dry a tion of the threshold. The field of forty-two stars may great part of the year. not be legal for Federal agencies until next year, but The next thing to be observed is that when the there is assuredly nothing illegal in the prior recog. forests are destroyed the hills themselves are not evernition by States and private persons of the practical lasting. When the great sponge-like mass or cap of relations of the new States to the remainder of the living root-fibers, mold, and decaying vegetation which Union. Such a recognition would be at the worst but the forest held in place as a crown for the hills is de. a brief and passing irregularity; and that is hardly to stroyed, the mountains themselves begin to crumble be placed in the scale opposite to the comity of States. and melt away. The soil which for thousands of years The fortunate design of our national flag enables the has been meshed and matted along the steep slopes older States to signalize at once the cordiality with and around the shoulders of the hills has now nothing which they add to the roll of their sisterhood the to keep it in place, and it begins to slip and sink away. names of North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, and When it is heaviest with accumulated water whole Washington.

hillsides are dislodged from their supporting frame

work of rocks, and descend with resistless force to How to Preserve the Forests.

the plain below, carrying ruin in their path, and leav

ing the once beautiful face of the mountain seamed A Plan for the conservation of the forests on the lands and scarred. The rivers are choked, their channels which belong to the nation has recently been presented silted up, and the valleys and adjacent plains are buried by “Garden and Forest.” Almost the only forests irrecoverably beneath the vast accumulations of sand, remaining on the public lands are those of the moun- gravel, and débris which the resistless annual floods tain region of the Pacific States, and these forests have bring down from the dissolving hills. a special interest and value because of their relation to All this has been tried in every part of the civilized the agricultural capacity of a vast extent of country world, with the same unvarying result. There appears lying along the streams which have their sources in to be serious danger that these disastrous and fatal exthese mountain woods. These regions adjacent to the periments will be repeated in our treatment of the streams, or near enough to be irrigated from them, are mountain forests of the western part of our country; not fertile in their present arid condition, but they are but as the forests now belong to the nation they should capable of great productiveness. All the elements of be effectively guarded against the short-sighted selfishfertility are in the soil in abundant proportions, except ness which would thus ruin them, and, by destroying water. This can be supplied only by irrigation. It does them, forever prevent the development of the regions not come to these thirsty lands naturally, by rainfall, along the course of the streams below. but must be assisted by the ingenious devices of man The plan proposed by “ Garden and Forest" for on its way to thousands of fields which will thus be the protection of these important forests embraces made to blossom as the rose, where nature, unhelped, three essential features. leaves wide expanses desert and unproductive. This The first is the immediate withdrawal from sale of water, which is the magical element by which this all forest lands belonging to the nation. wilderness is transformed into a fruitsul and populous The second step is to commit to the United States country, is stored in the everlasting hills, where the army the care and guardianship of the nation's forests. rivers have their springs, and the forests are its natural It is shown in the article referred to that there is in time of peace no other work of national defense or gave the first great shock to rudimentary international protection so valuable as this which the army can per- relations. From that time international law has virform, and that the national forests cannot be adequately tually been founded on the notion that international guarded and protected by any other means. It is ob. rights were confined to the nations of Europe, while vious that the measures which have been tried, includ- the nations of other continents had at best only intering those now in operation, or nominally in operation, national privileges. have proved almost entirely ineffective. The officers of One may well fancy the rudeness of the shock that the army are picked men, educated at the expense of would have been given to this notion by the appearance the nation, and already in its paid service.

and geometrical increase of the great American ReThe third step in this plan is the appointment by the public but for the self-control of the latter power. President of “a commission to make a thorough exam- Silas Deane's wish for three thousand miles of fire ination of the condition of the forests belonging to the between Europe and America has been pretty fairly nation, and of their relation to the agricultural interests fulfilled so far as international law is concerned; and of the regions through which the streams flow which diplomacy has been permitted to assume that the have their sources in these forests, and to report with center and circumference of all its real rights and the facts observed a comprehensive plan for the pres. interests are in Europe. It has often been wondered ervation and management of the public forests, includ. that American diplomacy should have been so coning a system for the training, by the Government, of stantly successful; perhaps the wonder would be less a sufficient number of foresters for the national for- if one could weigh exactly the natural desire of the est service. . . . A National School of Forestry diplomacy of the old school to maintain the status should be established at a suitable place in one of the quo in order to neutralize its American rival by great mountain forests on the public lands, and its granting all the latter's reasonable demands, and equipment should be as thorough and adequate for its thus to retain to itself the appearance of its ancient purpose as is that of the National Military Academy exclusiveness. at West Point.”

Circumstances seem to be forming new combinations The plan thus proposed has the merit of being prac- to shock the solidity of the status quo. Not only are tical, and of providing the means and instruments for torpedo-boats, iron-clads, and perfected weapons and its own effective and successful administration. munitions at the service of any government that has

Nothing else at once so direct and efficient, and so money to buy them, but some governments, once thoroughly adapted to accomplish these most impor- accounted only barbarous, have come to know and tant objects, has hitherto been presented for the con- value these tools of destruction and to use them as a sideration and action of the American people in defense. The Japanese army and navy must now be connection with this department of our national in. reckoned with by Russia and England in any genterests. It should be adopted and put in operation as eral war in which these two rivals take part. China, soon as possible.

which once relied on junks, gingals, and stink-pots for

the extermination of the foreign devils, now patrols The Dark Continent.

her own seas with well-appointed squadrons of iron

clads, and doubtless will not wait for European perFrom the beginning of time, men have been accus- mission to take advantage of the earliest opportunity tomed to associate with the name of Africa only such to settle up several long-standing accounts. Cases of conceptions as darkness, ignorance, helplessness, and the kind are numerous and striking, though those who the opportunity of oppression. Sir John Hawkins and talk so glibly of a “general European war” seem to the Roman conqueror of centuries before may have ignore them and to imagine that international circumhad little else in common, but they agreed in their stances have not changed since the general European belief that Africa and the Africans were fair game, the peace was made in 1815. storehouse from which were to be drawn supplies of The share of the Dark Continent in the new cirslaves, and in which Rob Roy's was the only law. cumstances thus far has been mainly commercial. He

Since the Pharaohs' kingdom, with its supplies of who can teach the black man to want and wear one grain to the Mediterranean region, and Carthage, with shirt where none was worn before brings a wide and its more universal commercial intercourse, international welcome increase to the markets of European produrelations have for centuries felt hardly any disturbing cers; and it is shameful to be compelled to add that influences from the side of Africa, with the exception Christian nations have found a still richer mine in fasof the den of pirates so long permitted to exist in the tening upon Africa the love for distilled liquors. Under Barbary States. Lord Salisbury's recent invidious such auspices the Congo State has been born; but is speech about “ black men” and their implied incapac- it certain or probable that this is to be the end of all ity for national or international affairs, though applied for Africa ? Everything seems to portend an epoch of to Hindus, was merely another curious survival of European colonization in the Dark Continent, modthe feeling of absolute contempt bred from centuries eled on the Congo State; but there are some consid. of supreme international indifference to everything erations to the contrary. African except the plunder of Africa. This indifference Africa, like every other continent, has races of every was the product of the feeling that international inter- type. It has its races of cowards, and its militant, conests and the balance of power were purely European quering peoples. In the natural process, the former affairs, a feeling which does not really date from should go down and the latter come to the surface of the struggles of William and Louis, but from time im. things. We are apt to judge all Africans by the for. memorial,- from that time, at least, when the head- mer type. But Lord Wolseley should know the black long retreat of the Persian from the shores of Greece man as a fighter, is any one does; and he has recently

Vol. XXXVIII.-41.

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