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of ideas with memory is intelligence. Wit, humor, and acute sagacity are shadowings of understanding and intelligence. Imagination, memory, and understanding are of a passive nature; their object is the matter, or outwardness, of existence. Therefrom comes a wisdom only real, only animal, only concerning the body. Fancy is the polar opposition, or the spirit of all the senses and imagination; thus, it creates ideals, as the spirit of common ideas, or ideas a priori. Judgment is the fancy of a higher degree, or the fancy purifying its ideals from dreams and changing them into sentiments. Judgment is the spirit of memory, and sentiment is that of recollections. Judgment is the fancy of creative power. The union of fancy with judgment constitutes reason. Reason is the spirit of understanding. Understanding is an analysis, reason is a synthesis. Understanding is the highest passivity, and reason is the highest activity. The object of understanding is an outwardness, that of reason is an inwardness. Reason is the father of ideas, a priori, of pure thoughts, of speculation. Fancy is a poetic, judgment is an æsthetic, reason is a metaphysical witticism. All three are of creative nature, are activity, are spirit itself, in various degrees of development. The senses are the first source of our knowledge. Sense sees the visible world.

Reason, as the opposite of sense, is the second source of our knowledge. Reason sees the invisible world. Reason says: Cogito, ergo cogitatio est, atque cogitatio sum. Upon this basis is founded the speculative world, from Xenophon to Hegel, which is only ideal wisdom, only spiritual, negative, and protesting. The following faculties unite those of polar oppositions.

Attention is the harmonious union of all the senses, and of their focus, or imagination, with fancy. It leads to observations, and relates to both the visible and invisible world, or the true, living, divine, total one.

Reflection comprehends form and substance; the source of mathematics; it is the harmonious union of memory with judgment, or it is the attention of a higher power. It leads to abstractions or figures, to axioms, and relates to both the real and ideal world, or the existing, living, divine, total one. Its object is not a substance, but a form.

Perceptive mind is the father as well of sense as of reason, or of empirical and of metaphysical thinking; it is the fusion of attention and reflection, and the harmonious union of understanding with reason. It leads us to conceptions or comprehensions, or to the close union of intelligence with pure ideas; also, to that of observations with axiomata, or what was once called acroamata; that is, to the truth; living, divine, total, and existing truth. Perceptive mind, being the harmonious union of sense with reason, is the third, the last, or the true and full source of

our cognition; it is the father of philosophy; a true eye for the truth. Sense sees only the outward, reason the inward world. Perceptive mind sees both together, or totality. Sense knows a posteriori, reason a priori, perceptive mind, a totali. Perceptive mind says: Vivo, ergo vita, mundus, libertas, numen est; ergo vita, mundus, libertas, numen sum. Sense is a passivity, reason is an activity, perceptive mind unites both together, or it is a spontaneity. Sense belongs to body; reason to spirit; perceptive mind to both body and spirit together, or to the moral and divine force. Our moral and divine force has for its object both the spiritual and the physical power. Perceptive mind is the eye, through which the sun of existence looks into it. Wisdom of the perceptive mind is confirming and protesting together, or uniting the extremes, and representing totality, fulness, harmony; then it leads to the full truth. Attention, reflection, and especially perceptive mind ought to be exercised by us, in order to have the full, total, and living wisdom.

II. Magnanimity of heart. The love of neighbor, without limits and condition, is the first sign of magnanimity. Magnanimity is followed by nobleness, greatness, and sublimity. Another quality of a great heart is the conquering of self-love; not as an individual being, but as belonging to society and humanity; as Socrates, who took poison for the love of truth. Magnanimity commands us not to love life too much, because our divine and eternal soul cannot perish. He who knew, felt, and did most, lives longest, as Galileo, Huss, Wicliff. Selfishness is a proof that our deity forgot this relation to God and became insane. Head and heart, separately taken, are obvious oppositions; if head is an affirmation, heart will be a negation. The union of head with heart creates the fire of the soul-action, energy.

III. Spontaneous energy. Head without action, and heart without action, are dead. Spontaneous energy is wisdom and magnanimity melted together into action. He has no character who has only a wise head; nor has he who possesses a great heart alone. Even a good head and a great heart, taken together without action, do not constitute man's character. Spontaneous energy alone is character. Character is a man's virtue. Spontaneous energy, possessing the essential character, is a self-acting energy, to wit: a divine being, living in the world, a sovereign. Three roads lead to character: empiricism, speculation, and philosophy, melted in the heart.

Strong and unshaken will is the first sign of character, because man's character is a self-acting energy, and belongs not only to head or to heart alone, but to both together. Strong will is an omnipotence of a godlike man; he who possesses it does wonders. Our good and true will is the will of deity in our breast; then it is divine, then it is free.

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Freedom, therefore, is the second sign of character. takes away our freedom tears out from the breast our deity and kills our entire being, because freedom is the soul of man and belongs to God. In nature reigns a fate, but it is always obedient to the will of God, and very often to that of man. God is King of nature; man is his lieutenant. If a man has the same will with God, his voice is omnipotent; to him the elements give homage. Vivo, ergo liber sum, ergo libertas est. Freedom, acknowledging another freedom, behind itself, and treating it with kindness, as its own sister, is morality. The aim of morality is both usefulness and nobleness together. Man without character possesses neither will, nor freedom, nor yet morality; his virtue is intrigue; the school of life is his wisdom. The reverence of our own laws as the free emanation of our will is the evidence

of a good character. Sincerity proves the good will and independence of character; and only the open character becomes virtuous, and ought to be worthy of its own divine original.

Constancy, never broken, is the third and the last basis of character; it is a noble confidence in ourselves through our relation to God. But godlike constancy must be distinguished from the dull drowning of our soul in the ocean of materialism, or even in that of pure science. With regard, then, to the above statements, Lycurgus with many legislators, Hegel and other so-called philosophers, fell into error, and every despotism and absolutism is founded upon false principles. It is the greatest honor for man to be a man; it is the basis of true human happiness to know truth as a philosopher, to act as a wise man, and to live as the entire man. Therefore, man's head, heart, and virtue constitute man's character."

Leaving to the judgment of impartial readers the appreciation and farther application of these general principles, we will give, lastly, his idea of moral government in the conquered Poland, and its influence upon the Slavonian people :

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"The Polish Slavonian nation," says Trentowski, in his political writings, "possessing her own language, manners, habits, and literature, fell down, politically, and ceased to be the state, in actu, but continues still to be the state, in potentia. These men, then, who keep her in the condition of ability to create a new and independent state- who carry, by successive steps, her ability in potentia into that of in actu, or the institution of God, living in her bosom, into her spontaneous action, compose a moral government. They are guardians of what God himself intrusted to them, priests, in the temple of virtue and holy duty, opposing, as they can, the earthly Satanic force.

To the moral government belong, generally, men of the most

genuine godliness; that is, such as are ready, in every moment, to sacrifice all for fatherland, and so die for the liberty of their nation, as Jesus Christ did for humanity. These patriots may be divided into three kinds :

Men of the most genuine reality; men of the most genuine ideality; men of the most genuine efficiency. Men of the most genuine reality are the descendants of families that are celebrated, and deserve well of their fatherland; the possessors of estates, capitalists, nobles, burgesses, and all good patriots, given to industry and commerce. Men of the most genuine ideality are excellent writers. These draw out of themselves new ideas; lifting up the nation, they awake her own feelings, advance her on the road of light, progress, and spiritual victory over her enemies; they explain to her the past, the present, and the future; they point out to her the high mission which she has received from God; they work out the national tendency, enkindling the star of a new existence. They are the active spirit of capitalists and possessors, the pure thought of fatherland. Their moral power is greater than any political one. Every genial word is a thunderbolt, breaking down the hardest rocks, diffusing itself as a lightning, and thundering through the length of ages. Our oppressors know this power, recollecting the sentence of Frederic the Second, who said: "Great writers are the most essential and omnipotent governors of the world." They persecute to the utmost those who have taken up a patriotic pen.

Men of the most genuine efficiency are political martyrs, or all those national and blessed saints who groan in prisons or in exile, who die under the tortures of their enemies, and become an example of holy devotedness. Such moral government is omnipotent, as it is divine in its foundation."

To the question, whether Poland can rise from her political grave, Trentowski answers affirmatively :

"She can do it," he says, "if she seizes upon her ancient mission, but comprehends it inwardly, and enters again on the road pointed out to her by God himself. For the struggle of the European and the American principles with the Asiatic lasts until our days, or rather is carried on with a harder stubbornness than at any former time. If Poland seizes on the European and the American principles, and becomes an apostle of freedom, light, and progress; if she throws away from her bosom the doctrines of Rome and the Jesuits; if she creates her own Christian church, as a branch of Christian catholicism, she will be God's messenger; working for the progress of the world, she will then be necessary to Europe, and all Europe will be with her. What the Asiatic hordes were in former centuries to Europe, the armies of the Russian

czar are at present, composed of these same hordes, but better exercised in military tactics, and inured to battle. Russia was two hundred and forty years under the Mongolian yoke, has been penetrated with Timur-Khanism, and has appropriated its spirit and organization. She represents the Asiatic principle, which has grown stronger by civilized despotism, and now threatens Europe. The Russian czar has power a hundred times more extensive than the arbitrary potentate of Japan, because he unites in himself Kuba and Daira, that is, the unconditional political and religious powers. He commands his subjects to believe that all the earth is his property; that nations combating against him, are seditious traitors to their fatherland. He is king of kings, more than the Chinese czar, a lieutenant of God, and a visible God. His order is a law; before and behind him goes the ancient Babylonish tyranny, the old Persian cruelty and barbarism. Where he walks, there are the weeping and anguish of many years. The Russian czar threatens Europe, for he possesses the greater part of it, and, what is yet worse, he is the powerful pope of that Christian confession which, not only in Russia, but in the countries of the ancient Eastern empire, reckons millions of blind believers. His European possessions, and Christianity, lead the Russian czar to various relations with Europe, and open to him an extensive field for his Satanic, artful doings. He is active, and does not neglect his business. He has already swallowed Poland, and now opens his mouth for Turkey. As many European countries fall under his yoke, in many victories, so much space does Asia gain in Europe. The Russian czar, by his alliance with Austria, - which delights in the arbitrary will and the Asiatic principles,has strengthened his influence in that country, and shakes Germany by the neck. His hand reaches already to the Alps and the Rhine, threatening liberty, light, and the progress of Europe; and Europe experiences this shame, in consequence of permitting the robbery and the dismemberment of Poland. By the unsuccessful Polish and Hungarian revolutions, Asia gained a splendid victory over Europe, and the Russian czar strengthened and obviously extended his influence over the civilized world. The Khanish despotism compels the friends of freedom, light, and progress to groan everywhere in prisons. The censorship was established over all literary and patriotic pens; free lips were sealed by the institution of the secret police and the spies of this new "holy inquisition." In our days, abominable St. Petersburgh is what shameful Rome was once, the murderer of the body and the spirit. The Russian czar, surrounded by servile literati and his many mercenaries, preaches to the eastern and southern Slavonians about the blessings of blind obedience. Servile mouths represent the Russian czar as their deliverer from the yoke of the Turks and the Germans, and call on men to

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