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now peevish from ago and gout, seems to have returned this alone animated him to the "flaming oration a very churlish answer, taking the opportunity to read against the court, or, what is the same thing Francis a sharp lecture on his 'arrogancy and overweening. These bad qualities the young man earnestly against a subsidy, which exposed him to a Star i disclaimed, but he submissively promised to profit by such Chamber prosecution, and being sent to the Tower, good advice,'' and so wishing unto his Lordstrip all hon- Lord Campbell allows no 'higher motive thanks

! opinion, with mind and means to deserve it,' ho humbly times entailed such serious consequences

. Surely our, and to himself continuance of his Lordship's good vanity to the patriotic harangue which in those took his leave.

it would be but candid to give Bacon some small Francis Bacon made, however, his own steady credit at this carly period, for boldness,' and a des upward way; and, in spite of the coldness or jea- gree of honesty of purpose. "It required some lousy of the Cecils

, father and son, was not only courage in a very poor lawyer, with little busihighly popular among his own friends and com

ness, whose sole hope was either court favour. panions, from his brilliant parts and the charm of his manners, but from his eloquence and pro- posed, to propound

or public employment, when the subsidy wasi prost fessional ability. The reputation his attainments had gained for him, made Elizabeth voluntarily the first, impossibility or difficulty; the second, danger and

" Three questions, which he desired might be answered: appoint him her “Counsel Extraordinary.” This, discontentment; and, thirdly, a better manner of supply, though an almost barren honour, might lead to For impossibility, the poor men's rent is such as they something more substantial; and this, at least, are not able to yield it. The gentlemen must sell their the first step to court favour, was obtained without plate, and farmers their brass pots, cre this will be paid;

and as for us, we are here to search the wounds of the what Lord Campbell himself preferred in better realm, and not to skin them over. We sball breed diss times, calls “mean solicitation."

contentment in paying these subsidies, and endanger her 1.4* The queen frequently admitted him to her presence, Majesty's safety, which must consist more in the love of and conversed with him not only about matters of law, the people than in their wealth. This being granted,'* but points of general learning and affairs of state; finding other princes hereafter will look for tho like, so that we i much satisfaction from the information and illustrations sluall put an evil precedent on ourselves and our posterity, he communicated to her. Nevertheless, he could not

The courtiers were thrown into a state, 1 remove from her mind the impression made upon hier by of horror and aniazement. The Queen, in the present the representation of his cousin, Sir Robert Cecil, that temper of the Ilouse, and with news of the approach of he was a speculative man, indulging himself in philoso- the Spanish Armada, deemed it prudent to take no public phical reveries; and calculated more to perplex than to notice of this outrage; but she was deeply incensed, and 1 promote public business.'

desired it to be intimated to the delinquent, by the Lord "Bacon's higher aspirations prevented him from tak- Treasurer and the Lord Koeper, that he must never more ing cordially to the profession of the law, and he still look to her for favour or promotion. An eloquent eulolonged for leisure to be devoted to literature and science, gist says, he heard them with the calmness of a philo With this view he continued to solicit for some place sopher. which would enable him to retire from the bar. A fer

The “ eulogist ” referred to is, we presume, Mr.! extracts from his letters will best show the state of his Basil Montague, and Lord Campbell takes pains feelings at this period of his life. ancient: one-and-thirty years is a great deal of sand in the to show that Bacon was struck with “repentance hour-glass. My health, I thank God, I find confirmed, and remorse," and promised to be an obedientand I do not fear that action shall impair it: because I courtier in all time coming. account my ordinary course of study and meditation to be more painful than most parts of action are.

shown in the note which Lord Campbell appends .. Again, the meanness of my estate doth somewhat movo me; for though I cannot aceuse myself that I am either to Bacon's apologetic letters to Burghley and prodigal or slothful, yet my health is not to spend nor my

Puckering course to get. Lastly, I confess that I have as vast con

“He must be supposed to have been solbing when he templative ends as I have moderate civil ends; for I have thus addresses the flinty-hearted Puckering— Yet nottaken all knowledge to bo my province, and—if I could withstanding (to speak vainly as in grief, ) it may be her purge it of two sorts of rovers, whereof the one with fri. Majesty has discouraged as good a heart as ever looked volous disputations, confutations, and verbosities, the towards her service, and as void of self-love. And so, in u other with blind experiments and auricular traditions and

more grief than I can well express, and much more than impastures, hath committed so many spoils--I hope I can well dissemble, I leave your Lordship; being as ever should bring in industrious observations, grounded con- your Lordship's entirely devoted, &c.' clusions, and profitable inventions and discoveries.'" There was no remarkable sign of debasement lawyer may make " a flaming patriotic oration"

The perfect impunity with which a modern in this solicitation to an obdurate and peevish old in the House of Commons, be lauded in all the ; uncle, who wielded so much of the power

of the State. It, however, produced nothing solid; and newspapers, and returned for Westminster, is it may be surmised that with his peculiar tastes of the “lion-hearted” Queen, the Star Chamber, ,

something widely different from the displeasure and ambitions, Bacon was not calculated to in- and the Tower. Lord Campbell surely assumes crease his practice at the bar, whatever m.ay have against Bacon more than candour entitles him to been his legal knowledge and his eloquence. Nor

do, when he saysdid his appearance in Parliament help his practice, as it has done that of many eminent lawyers, to the subsidy was aggravated by the opportunity which

" The following year his compunction for his opposition who, nevertheless, pass as very fair characters. occurred of obtaining professional honours. Egerton, the Bacon, before obtaining office, was in speech a Attorney-General, was inade Master of the Rolls. Some law reformer, as in mind he must always have of Bacon's friends were sanguine enough to think that been. But Lord Campbell somewhat rashly con- him; but Sir Edward Coke, who had served as Solicitor

per saltum he ought to have been appointed to succeed cludes that he was “so intoxicated with the suc

General for two years, was promoted almost as a matter cess of his first liberal oratorical attempt,” that of cow se, -and the great straggle arose respecting the

to be on the animus with which this life is written is

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ofics of Salicitor. - To this Bacon had the strongest claim | except in Bacon's case, Lord Campbell, we aro: from his relationship to the Prime Minister,-from his persuaded, could have found something indepens high accomplisliinents -- from his eminenco at the bar, — dent and even manly in the style in which Bacon from his svecess in parliament,--and from the services he wrote after the failure of his just hopes, whether had rendered as Queen's Counsel Extraordinary IIe had these had been frustrated by remembrance of the two obstacles to surmount his unlucky speech, and the subsidy speech, or by the undermining of Raleigh. jealousy of the Cecils.

Burghley, and his It is said... hopeful son · Robert, now coming forward as Secretary of Statoi precorded to support their kinsman, but in reality Ile thus writes to Foulke Greville: What though the

“ Bacon's patience had become entirely exhausted. were afraid that, with favourable, opportunities, he would Master of the Rolls, and my Lord of Essex, and yourself

, dingpasert their deep-daid scheme of making the Premier- and others, think my case without doubt, yet in the mean

* Francis himself considered this the crisis of his fate, time, I have a hard condition to stand, so that whatever and resorted to means of gaining his object which would service I do to her Majesty, it shall be thought but to be besparned at by a modern edndidate for the office, who servitium viscatum-lime twigs and fotches to place my. does not acknowledge that he expects it

, or interferes in self; and so I shall have enyy, not thanks. This is a any way regarding the appointment till he receives a letter course to quench all good spirits, and to corrupt every from the Lord Chancellor or the First Lord of the Trea- man's nature, which will

, 1 tear, much hurt her Majesty's sury asking lvim to accept it. Ilis application to his uncle service in the end. I have been like a piece of stuff bo was excusable, although the manner of it was rather spoken in the shop; and if her Majesty will not tako ne, abject."

it may be the selling by pareels will be more gainful.

For to be, as I told you, like a child following a bird, This is all very well; but they must have but which, when he is nearest, flieth away and lighteth a little a slight knowledge of the pivots on which public before, and then the child after it again, and so in infiniappointments often turn, even in modern times, tum, --I am weary of it, as also of wearying my good who will unreservedly adopt the estimate of Ba

friends. con's course of solicitation, which is given above.

So bitterly did Bacon feel the ill usage he had The treachery and dissimulation of the Cecils received—for there was here much more than must have been more than suspeeted by Bacon; ordinary disappointment—that, had his circumbút from whom was he to look for support if they stances allowed, it is probable that he would for: opposed him? Frustrated in his just hopes, Bacon ever have abandoned public life, and devoted him-'s took the bold resolution to write to the Queen self wholly to the pursuit of science and philoherself; and the bias, or, shall we say it, the strong

sophy. prejudice of Lord Campbell is shown in the colour

Bacon's conduct, in relation to Essex, is the which he gives to this letter, which he regards point of his history which lays him most nakedly not as creditable to the character of the writer, open to attack; nor is it palliation to say, that: but to the character of the Queen herself, the his interests were probably rather retarded than natural assumption, as estimated by the candidate promoted by the temerity and indiscreet zeal of for office; for says prejudice

his friend and patron, the Queen's petulant and * For from his [Bacon's) language to the Lord Trea- much the nature of an intellect majestie as that

spoiled young favourite. It is, however, but too it surer and the Lord Keeper, we need not doubt that he would have addressed her in the most fulsome and slave- of Lord Verulam, to regard other men as a Napo- { like strain, if he had not thought that he was likely to leon did his military machines, or an anatomist succeed better by pretending independence, and avowing does the animal on his dissecting table. Each a consciousness of his own worth."

are alike considered mere means to a grand end. We humbly submit that Bacon's letters to his Bacon, shortly after being disappointed of obu jealous and dissembling kinsman, and to Lord taining the place of Solicitor-General, published Keeper Packering, do by no means bear out the his ever-memorable Essays; rose once more into accusations made, even in the passages selected favour with the Queen; and, again in Parliament, by Lord Campbell, and as seen in the following introduced certain bills, which deserve more praise : extract:

than Lord Campbell has given them. They were "The anxious aspirant wrote repeatedly to Lord Keeper founded on the maxim that “property has its Puckering, remonstrating with him, and trying to soften duties as well as its rights." him. If your Lordship consider my nature, my course, my friends, my opinion with her Majesty if this eclipse of his

account of Bacon's; ourtship of Lady Hatton,

Lord Campbell's bias is strongly betrayed in her favour were past,* I hope you will think I am no unlikely piece of wood to shape you a true servant of. I which he describes as an attempt to “restore his understand of some business like enough to detain the fortunes by matrimony," and " a scheme to make Queen tomorrow, which maketh me earnestly to pray the pot boil.” your good Lordship, as one that I have found to take my that a bitter enemy could give, is put upon the

The very worst interpretation fortune to heart, to take some time to remember her whole of this abortive courtship to a rich, witty, Majesty of a Solicitor. If it please your Lordship but to call to mind from whom I am descended, and by whom, and high-spirited, but capricious, and imperious next to God, her Majesty, and your own virtue, your widow, who preferred the elderly, but wealthy Lordship is ascended, I know you will have a compunction Sir Edward Coke, to her accomplished, poor of mind to do me any wroug; and, therefore, good my Lord, where your Lordship favoureth others before me,

cousin, Francis Bacon. do not lay the separation of your love and favour upon

Bacon had, subsequently, every cause to rejoice.

in his escape ; and the lady had her reward, To We are at a loss to find here anything so very the failure of this match Lord Campbell imputes "fulsome” and 80 “slave-like” in strain. Nay, the temporary arrest of this great man, as if it had

been the cause of relentless creditors pouncing The subsidy speech.

upon him, for a 'debt of three hundred pounds;


which was discharged after he had certainly schemes for simple and cheap law wero properly opposed been but for a very few days "languishing in a

as impracticable and mischievous, that he complained so spunging-house.” No irremediablo disgrace this bitterly of being worsted by the sons of Zeruiah.'

He thought that the controverted rights of property were either, except, as it appears, in the eyes of Lord to be decided by an English judge in Westminster Hall, Campbell.

like disputes in an Eastern bazaar by the Kadi. No Any one, we are persuaded, who dispassionately cannot mention the reform of the law,' said he, but the reads Lord Campbell's account of the courtship, whereas the law, as it is now constituted, sorves only to

lawyers presently cry out, You design to destroy property, and the episode of the spunging-house, will agree maintain the lawyers, and to encourage the rich to op with us, that his usual impartiality, not to say press the poor. Coke, late Solicitor for the people of candour and indulgence, have entirely deserted England at the trial of Charles Stuart, when I sent him, him while writing the Lifo of Bacon. The indig- with full powers as Chief Justice, to Ireland, determined nation which he may have conceived while con

moro causes in a week than all Westminster Hall in a

year. The English people will take Ireland for a precetemplating Bacon's coldness or indifference to dent; and when they sce at how easy and cheap â rate Essex, who, with all his failings, had been to him property is there preserved, they will never permit thema generous and warm friend, pervades the whole selves to be so cheated and abused as now they are.',"' tone and colouring of the composition. The pre- Lord Campbell is, however, obliged to admit judice continually breaks out; and the biogra- that there are important law reforms of the date pher strains so hard against his unfortunate sub- of the Commonwealth; and he says:ject, as to defeat his own purpose. But no me- “ The common-law bench was exceedingly well filled moir of Bacon could be written that would not be during the Commonwealth and Protectorato, and the found full of interest and instruction ; and cer

law was well administered through them, except when tainly the elaborate memoir of Lord Campbell his Major-Generals and his lligh Courts of Justico.”

Cromwell was occasionally driven to supersede them by possesses both qualities in a high degree, though

The Major-Generals might, however, give liable to those strong objections, which make a Life of this illustrious man still as much a desi- judgmeuts not so far amiss; and at all events deratum as before Lord Campbell commenced

they got through their business.

Vext to the Life of Bacon, that of Clarendon the biography-in which he often stands forth

is the most elaborate in these volumes. It is true more like a counsel fee'd to make out a case

historical biography; and though not free from against Bacon's memory, than a calm, candid, and philosophical judge of a great man's whole whole, as just as discriminating, until the char

an occasional shade of party feeling, is, upon the scope of character and life. Yot, much as wo have said, very much may be learned, even from acter of Clarendon is fairly and even generously this prejudiced account of the man of whom Lord summed up, whether as a statesman, an author, Campbell is finally constrained to say

We can give but one extract from

this Life, which we think peculiarly opportune to “Thus died, in the 66th year of his age, Francis Ba- passing events :con, not merely the most distinguished man who ever held the Great Seal of England, but, notwithstanding all his

In the next controversy in which Clarendon was faults, one of the greatest ornaments and benefactors of engaged, he gained great distinction with the judicious, the human race.

although he was denounced by the landed interest as "a

friend of free trade.' The importation of cattle from The memoirs of the Chancellors of Charles I.- Ireland had lately considerably increased. Tho landlords, Lord-Kecper Williams, Coventry, Finch, and headed by the Duke of Buckingham, instead of pretendLittleton--all well written, have more historical ing to stand up as the advocates of the tonant-farmers, or than personal interest; and, though the entire of the labourers, or of the public, plainly spoke out, series of Lives of the Chancellors of James I, and lowered to the amount of £200,000 a-year, which they

*that, from a fall in the price of cattle, their rents were Charles I., and the Commonwealth and Protec- could not afford.' A bill was therefore brought in absoa torate, are highly creditable to the abilities and lutely to prohibit such importation in futuro; and this was patient investigation of the author, it is not till followed by another bill, equally to prohibit the importawo reach the Life of Lord Clarendon, that the according to the notions of law then prevailing), that

tion of any cured meat or provisions from Ireland, which work regains the biographical interest which closes the King inight not afterwards be able to permit it by his with that of Bacon. Readers may be amused by dispensing power, was declared to be a ' nuisance. These contrasting the strictures of Lord Campbell upon bills passed the Commons by great majorities; and when the “wild notions" which broke forth about law they came to the Lords, the Duke of Buckingham deand the administration of justice in Cromwell's not Irish estates or Irish understandings.'' The chancel

clared that they could not be opposed by any who had time, with those of Mr. Carlyle, in his “Corres- lor, however, had the courage to deliver a most admirable pondence of Oliver Cromwell," who finds much to speech against them, pointing out the injustice of these approve, which the regular lawyer utterly de- measures to our fellow-subjects in Ireland, and the im“ There were,” Lord Campbell says— demand for which from Ireland must cease, and even to

policy of them with a view to English manufacturers, the Very wild notions then afloat respecting law reform. English agriculture, which could not fail to prosper with A party was for utterly abolishing the whole of the com- the increased prosperity produced by a free interchange mon and statute law of England, and substituting the of commodities between the two islands. He was told, Mosaic law in its place. A very strong prejudice existed however, that the heavily taxed English could not enter against lawyers, who were quaintly denounced as 'a purse- into a competition in the breeding of cattle with the milking generation,' and were accused of always bleed-lightly taxed Irish, and that without the proposed proing their clients in the purse vein.' Cromwell himself was tection' tenants would be bankrupt, labourers must come by no means above such absurd and vulgar notions, and | upon the parish, and the kingdom must be ruined. He was more inclined, on those subjects, to listen to such a was shamefully beaten in all the divisions on the bill; and fanatical buffoon as Hugh Peters, than to eminent jurists, all that he could effect was, in the Committee, to carry like Whitelock or Hale. It is because bis proposterous an amendment, by 63 to 47, to strike out the word

or as a man,

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nuisance,' and to insert. detriment and mischief' in its | lovers were liappily married. The feasting and jollities stead. The Chancellor's amendment set the Commons in the country lasted three weeks, and Mr. Solicitor, in a flame, and many sarcasms were uttered upon the heartily tired of them, was very impatient to get back to presumption of a lawyer, who had hardly inherited an his briefs. However, he seems always to have treated acre from his father, either in Ireland or England, pro- his wife, while she lived, with all due tenderness. He tending to speak upon such a subject. Several confer- took a house in Chancery Lane, near Serjeant's Inn, and ences took place between the two Houses, the King for acquired huge glory by constructing a drain for the use of sorge tine, at the request of the Duke of Ormond, the neighbourhood, a refinement never before heard of in supporting the Chancellor; but the squires declared that that quarter. This was the happiest period of his life.' they had not yot completed the supplies, and that they

The character of North is this summed up:would stop them at all hazards if they were to be thus dictated to by wild theorists, who had no practical know- “ North’s parts,' I think, are greatly overrated. He ledge of the breeding of cattle, or of the true interests of was sharp and shrewd, but of no imagination, of no depth, the country."

of no grasp of intellect,-any more than generosity of

sentiment. Cunning, industry, and opportunity may Finally, the importation of Irish provisions make such a man at any time." was by Parliament declared "a nuisance to all In addition, “ Guildford had as much law as he his Majesty's English subjects ;” and, by the act could contain;" so much, we apprehend, that, of exclusion "a more permanent injury,” con- within the narrow limits of his intellect, there was tinues Lord Campbell, was done to the country room for nothing else; no uncommon case. than by the Plague or the Fire of London,” The life of the infamous Jeffreys is written with which happened about the same period.


Lord Campbell inquires whether this In hastening to the Second Series, we have ruffianly and brutal person has not been suffileft ourselves no space to notice the Chancellor- ciently abused, and concludes that it is impossible ship of Bridgeman, nor yet the far more interest- to exaggerate his misdeeds, or, in short, to paint ing life of Shaftesbury, whether we regard the him in colours too black. Besides his thorough man or the official personage, and the intrigues moral depravity, Jeffreys was an incarnation of and complicated affairs in which he was engaged; all the peculiar faults and worst vices of his pronor yet those of his successors, Nottingham and fession. He was cunning, over-reaching, mean, Guildford. The courtship of the latter may, insolent, and of brazen impudence, “most ignorhowever, be detached as a good specimen of Lord ant, and most daring." Yet, from the many Campbell's familiar style, and a picture of the strong points in Jeffreys' character and history, manners of the age of FRANCIS NORTi.

and the variety of anecdote with which the meLord Guildford, while a young lawyer, was moir is illustrated, the narrative is made highly rapacious for money, that he might squander it entertaining and interesting. It keeps the reader profusely.

in a lively state of excitement, and communicates I must not pass over his loves, although they were that powerful sensation of indignation, which, if not very romantic nor chivalrous. He was desirous of not edifying, is highly stimulating. being married—among other reasons,-because he was

All that Lord Campbell is able to say for Jefftired of dining in the Hall and cating 'a costelet and salad at Chastelins in the evening with a friend,' —and he reys is, “that when quite sober he was particularly wished to enjoy the pleasures of domestic life. One good as a Nisi Prius Judge.” Habitual and exwould have thought that the younger son of a Peer-of cessive drunkenness was one of Jeffreys' least great reputation at the bar,--Solicitor-General at thirty- vices. Lord Campbell also finds something reone

, and rising to the highest offices in the law, -might deeming in what he is pleased to term Jeffroy's have had no difficulty in matching to his mind,--but he met with various rebuffs and disappointments. Abovo “agreeable manners,” his “roistering," namely, all, he required wealth, which it seems was not then his drinking songs, and his love of “ bantering” easily to be obtained without the display of a great rent-companions and low mimics; one of whom the roll' He first addressed the daughter of an old usurer Lord Chancellor kept in his house to ape and in Gray's Inn, who speedily put an end to the suit by ridicule the Judges for the entertainment of his asking him what estate his father intended to settle upon him for present maintenance, jointure, and provi- guests. Such were the social amenities of the sion for children? He could not satisfy this requisition man whose name has become proverbial for that by an Abstract of his proficable 'rood of ground in atrocity and hardened cruelty which would have Westminster Hall.' He then paid court to a coquettish enabled him, according to his biographer, to have young widow; but after showing him some favour, she jilted him for a jolly knight good estate. The next

“ sent his own mother to the scaffold," with as proposition was made to him by a city alderman, the much sang froid as any other of his victims. father of many daughters, who, it was given out, were It is now that the series just published properly to have each a portion of £6000. North dined with the commences, and though it purports to start with alderman, and liked one of them very much; but coming the Revolution of 1688, the life of Lord Commisto treat, the fortune shrunk to £5000. le immediately took his leave. The alderman ran after him, and offered sioner Maynard by retrospection comprehends the him to boot £500 on the birth of the first child, but he whole period of the civil wars, the Commonwealth, would not bate a farthing of the £6000."

and the Protectorate, as he was born in 1602, and "At last his mother found him a match to his mind in sat in the first parliament of Charles I., in 1625, the Lady Frances Pope, one of the three daughters and co-heirs of the Earl of Down, who lived at Wroxton, in and when there were no longer any Parliaments Oxfordshire, with fortunes of £14,000 a-piece. We are comforted himself by counting larger circuit fees. Furprised to find that, with all his circuit and Westmin- From the first he was of the country party, and a ster Hall earnings, he was obliged to borrow £600, from zealous Presbyterian, having subscribed the soa friend before he could compass £6000, to be settled upon lemn League and Covenant. He was also a memher. He then ventured down with grand equipage and attendance, and, in less than a fortnight, obtained the ber of the Westminster Assembly of Divines, but young lady's consent, and the writings being sealed, the we do not find that he ever courted persecution. After the period of the Commonwealth we have this and ho was employed. I asked them, Can a godly man, amusing account of a consultation which he, as an because he is godly, make a wateh-or a pair of boots ?' English commissioner, along with Whitelock, held, In old age, he became bolder and more inde! with the commissioners from Scotland, appointed pendent in politics. It is amusing to find the “to treat of the best mode of establishing Presbyte- question of “Church accomodation" in those days rianism over the whole Island of Great Britain."

exactly on the ground that it stood but the other "Master Maynard and Master Whitclocke ye ken vary year with ourselves. Lord Campbell remarks: wecle that Lieutenant-General Cromwell is no freend of “Beyond the precincts of the law, Maynard's vid oors, and since the advance of our army into England he sion was very contracted. Along with wiser men, hath used all underhand and cunning means to take off who lived in the sixteenth and seventeenth cen, from our honour and merit of this kingdom; an evil re- turies, he had a great dread of the increasing quital of all our hazards and services, but so it is, and we are nevertheless fully satisfied of the affection and grati- size of the metropolis." He was alarmed by the tude of the gude people of this nation in general.” (After town being extended so far to the west as St. dilating at some length on Cromwell's enmity to Scotland Giles's ; and he warmly supported a bill, which and the Presbyterian Church, on the suspicion that he

was rejected, to prevent further building in was no well-wisher to his Excellency, and on the necessity, for the benefit of the twa kingdoms, that some course

London or the neighbourhood. This building, should be taken for prevention of impending mischief

, his he said, pathetically, is the tuin of the gentry, lordship proceeds]—*Ye ken vary wecle the accord 'twist and ruin of religion, leaving so many good peoš the twa kingdoms, and the union by the Solemn League ple without churches to go to. This enlarging and Covenant, and if any be an incendiary between the of London makes it filled with lacqueys and tua nations how he is to be proceeded against. Now, the matter is wherein we desire your opinions, what you pages. In St. Giles's parish, scarce the fifth tak the meaning of this word incendiary to be, and whe- part can come to church, and we shall have no ther Lieutenant-General Cromwell be not sike an incen- religion at last.'". Some amusing and charac, diary, as is meant thereby, and whilke way wud be best teristic anecdotes are related of this true black, to tak' to proceed against him if he be proved to be sike an letter lawyer, who, by caution and consistency, incendiary, and that will clepe his wings from soaring to the prejudice of our cause. Now you may ken that by maintained a fair reputation among all parties, our law in Scotland we clepe an incendiary whay kind after a public life of half a century. leth coals of contention, and raiseth differences in the The brief life of Treyor can be of little interest state to the public damage, and he is tanquam publicus to any ouc. A good Equity Judge, a corrupt and ken best who are mickle learned therein, and therefore, jobbing politician, and a sordid miser—what more with the faveure of his Excellency, we desire your judg- need be said of him? His successor was Lord ments in these points."

SOMERS, the glory, and we may almost say, thé Mr. Maynard did not seem clear as to whether founder of the Whig party; and to the biogra Oliver was an incendiary or not; but he made a phy of this eminent person, Lord Campbell adlong reply, and stated that “Lieutenant-General dresses himself, with the zeal and reverence which Cromwell was a person of great favour and inter- might be expected from another eminent Whig est with the House of Commons, and with some of lawyer and lover of letters. the House of Peers likewise;" and that it would

Lord Somers, whom party spite loved to repre, not do to vote such a one an incendiary--a term

sent as sprung from the dregs of the people, be unknown in English law. Some of the hotter longed to a family who, in Gloucestershire, had Presbyterians were for instantly denouncing Crom-/ long had a hold on the soil. They held another well as an incendiary, but the cautious counsels property in Worcestershire, “ The White Ladies, of Maynard prevailed, and, soon after Oliver, a despoiled nunnery, and a place of some note in become Protector, made him “Protector's Ser- English annals. The Chancellor's father pracgeant,” thus placing a Presbyterian at the head of tised successfully as a country solicitor ; but in the bar. Maynard, however, on several occasions, the time of the troubles, Attorney Somers sided showed independence of mind. He was undevi- with the Parliament, raised a troop, and became ating in hatred of "the Papists."

Captain Somers.

His distinguished son was

born at the White Ladies, in 1619; went to the " In the spirit of the Whigs of that day he strongly College School of Worcester, and was admitted supported the bill for disarming Roman Catholics, saying, •We are so mealy-mouthed and soft-handed to the Papists at Trinity College, Oxford, where his residence that it occasions their insolence. I think it is fitting that was short, as while still very young he mounted all Papists should resort to their own dwellings, and not a desk in his father's office, much against his in. depart without licences from the next Justices; and an- clination. But," says his admiring biographer, other thing that all those of that religion bring all their

“idleness could never be imputed to him ; nor fire-arms in, unless for the necessary defence of their houses, to officers appointed. I would not imitate their did he now cross his father's soul by penning a cruelty. I would let thein have their religion in their pri- stanza when he should engross ;. for it was not vate houses--but no harbouring of priests or Jesuits. And till some years after, that, initiated by the young if any Papist have a hand in firing houses, he should be Earl of Shrewsbury, by whose introduction he compelled to help to rebuild them.'

* Ilolding an office at the pleasure of the Crown, but not being a mem

afterwards drank champagne with the wits, he ber of the Cabinet, the old patriot showed his indepen- first displayed his poetical vein." The restora. dence by occasionally censuring the conduct of the tion arrived, but the elder Somers obtained a Government. He was particularly severe against the pardon under the Great Seal, carried on a administration of the navy. •I hear,' said he, there

Hourishing business, and presided over a truly are young men put to command ships that never were at sea before, because they are well affected to the present patriarchal establishment at the White Ladies, & settlement. The question used to be Is he a godly man? house that would have accommodated five hun.

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