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neither is he hasty in rejecting the doubtful epistles ascribed to the Apostles or the Fathers. The chapters on Gnosticism are well studied, and refer to the latest literature on the subject. He divides the Gnostics into four classes: the first maintain the unity of Christianity and the ancient forms of religion; on the Jewish side this doctrine is represented in the Clementina, on the heathen side by the Manichees. The second class maintain that Christianity is the old forms of religion carried out to their completion (der erzielte Höhenpunkt); this is represented by Basilides, Valentinus, and the Ophites. The third class maintain that Christianity is the only divine religion; here he puts Marcion and his followers. The fourth class of Gnostics are opposed to Christianity; here on its Jewish side he puts the three Samaritan Gnostics with the followers of John the Baptist, and on the heathen side he finds the Neoplatonists.
He traces the gradual development of Catholicism as a system of doctrines, briefly sketching the most important controversies of this period. His account of the practical or moral development brought about by Christianity is brief and sketchy, (pp. 81, 88, 89, 95-96.) His limits did not allow him to say much.
He shows how easily the moral element of Christianity was turned aside into merely mechanical modes of action, and devotes several sections to an account of the development of asceticism and its consequences in various forms. (pp. 90, et seq.) The Pelagian controversy is treated at length. (pp. 99-102.)
II. In part II. he treats of the extension of Christianity, and the various conflicts of Christianity with the people, the State, and the science of the times; the successive contests of Christianity with judaism and the heathenism of the Greeks and Romans, the Germans, the Persians, Armenians and Iberians, and the Mohammedans.
III. The third part treats of the constitution of the Christian Church. In a moderate and candid spirit he traces the gradual and unavoidable growth of that powerful organization-the Catholic Church. He gives a long and interesting account of the cultus of the Church, of its political form, and of the clergy. He dwells at length on the modifications of the forms of the Church, which arose from the Germans.
This volume contains important extracts from the original authorities, is well printed, and furnished with a copious index of On the whole, it must be regarded as a valuable contribution to the literature of ecclesiastical history, and we may predict that the other volumes will increase in value as they successively appear. This volume alone would make the literary reputation of any English or American author.
II. S. Ignatii Patris apostolici quae feruntur Epistolæ una cum ejusdem Martyrio: collatis Edd. græcis Versionibusque Syriaca, Armeniaca, latinis denuo recensuit Notasque criticas adjecit Jac. Henr. Petermann, Dr. Univers. Berol. Prof. extr. Academiæ Arm. mechit, etc. Socius. Lips. 1849. 8vo. pp. xxvi. and 565.
In this new edition of the works ascribed to St. Ignatius, Petermann reprints the common text, only altered a little here and there, and enriches it with notes, derived chiefly from the Armenian version of Ignatius and the Syriac version (or abridgment) thereof, published by Mr. Cureton in 1845. This work of Petermann, and the Corpus Ignatianum, published in the same year by Mr. Cureton, (London, 1849, one volume in large octavo) are the most valuable contributions made to the Ignatian literature for many years. The publication of Cureton's work in 1845 (the ancient Syriac version of the Epistles of St. Ignatius, &c. &c.,) excited considerable attention. The celebrated chevalier Bunsen wrote his Die drei achten und die vier unächten Briefe des Ignatius, &c., &c., and his Ignatius und seiner Zeit, &c., while Dr. Bauer, of Tübingen, replied, attacking the genuineness of the Syriac epistles in his Die Ignatianische Briefe und ihrer neueste Kritiker. Prof. Murdock has published a valuable translation of Cureton's Syriac text of the three epistles of Ignatius, in the New Englander for November, 1849, accompanied by some remarks characteristic of that learned and candid scholar.
We are a little surprised to find Dr. Fricke, in a note at the end of his history, saying that the genuineness of the text which Cureton and Bunsen seek to defend is generally regarded in Germany as untenable. The three Syriac epistles are characterized as merely extracts. Adhuc sub judice lis est.
III. Jahrbücher der biblischen Wissenschaft von Heinrich Ewald, Erstes Jahrbuch, 1848. Gött. 1849, 8vo. pp. iv. & 220.
In this work the author designs to give a report of the annual doings in the department of biblical literature. The present volume contains essays on the present condition of biblical science; review of the works in that department which appeared in 1848; an explanation of the early history of the Bible, (biblische Urgeschichte); history of freedom in Israel; origin of the gospels; on the shortness of the Bible-word, (Kürze des Bibelwortes,) the Assyrio-Hebrew punctuation, and on a knowledge of the Apocrypha, with a treatise on the Phoenician inscription lately discovered at Marseilles. These essays are from the unwearied pen of Prof. Ewald, and exhibit his well known peculiarities.
Geschichte der Denk-und Glaubensfreiheit in ersten Jahrhundert des Kaiserschaft und des Christenthums. Von Dr. W. Adolf Schmidt; ausserordentlichen Professor der Geschichte in der Universität zu Berlin. Berlin: 1847. 8 vo., pp. VIII. and 456.
A learned and valuable book, containing a faithful account of the intellectual, moral and religious condition of the Greeks and Romans at the time spoken of.
Holbenii Pictoris Alphabetum Mortis, &c., &c. Köln, Bonn and Brüssell: 1849. 12mo.
This little volnme contains 14 wood cuts of the letters in Hans Holbein's celebrated dance of death. The text is in Latin and German. It is a work of rare beauty.
Beati Patris Francisci Assisiatis Opera omnia, secundam ediionem Luca Waddingii, denuo edidit, cantica ejus a H. CHIFELLIO, et JAC LAMPUGNANO, latine et utraque a FRID. SCHLOSSERO Germanice edita recepit, vitam a Sancto BONAVENTURA concinnatam textu recognito adjecit Joh. Jovon der Burg, Vicarius Ecclesiæ St. Martini Bonnensis, &c., &c. Coloniæ, &c., 1849. 12mo., pp. xii. and 429.
THIS is a neat and convenient edition of all the works of the famous St. Francis d'Assisi, which have not been reprinted, we think, since 1723. Bonaventura's Life of the Saint is also reprinted, but we are sorry the earlier life, by his disciple, Thomas de Celano, was not also given, as also the later one by Suysken, both of which contain some curious particulars; but neither of those authors was a saint.
LIST OF NEW PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED.
Reverberations. Part Two. London. 1849. 12mo. pp. VI and 107. Philo an Evangeliad. By the author of " Margaret, a Tale of the Real and Ideal." Boston. 1850. 12mo. 244. [This contains some sentiments and ideas which appear in Margaret, and though in form not so poetical or so pleasing as in the earlier work, it contains much that is humane, if little that is poetical.]
The Birds of Aristophanes. With Notes and a Metrical Table. By C. E. Felton, Eliot Professor of Greek Literature in Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass. Cambridge: 1849. 12mo. pp. XVI. and 228. [A neat and convenient edition of this charming drama. The notes are, in general, well studied and suitable for the use of young men at College. Mr. Felton, with the aid of
Prof Agassiz and Von der Mühle has brought the science of ornithology to illustrate the text of Aristophanes.]
Visions and Voices. By James Staunton Babcock, with a biographical sketch of the author. Hartford and New York. 1849. 12mo. pp. VI. and 240. [Mr. Babcock appears to have been a studious and amiable man of considerable promise, who died at the age of 32. The volume contains poetical pieces of a pleasing form, and animated by a kindly and loving spirit.]
Elfreide of Guldal, a Scandinavian Legend; and other Poems. By Marks of Barhamiville. New York and Philadelphia. 1850. 12mo. pp. 8 and 786. Poems, by S. G. Saxe. Boston: 1850. pp. VIII., and 130. [Most of these poems have been published before. They are remarkable for verbal wit, and singular adroitness in the use of language. The most original piece, it seems to us, is the poem called "Boys," pp. 81.]
The History of England, &c., &c., by David Hume. Boston: 1850. 12mo. Vol. VI., pp. XVI. and 554. [This volume concludes the Boston edition of Hume's History of England, with the Index. It is well printed, and in a convenient form. The whole work costs but $3.75.]
The Second Advent, Or what do the Scriptures teach respecting the Coming of Christ, The End of the World, The Resurrection of the Dead, and the General Judgment? By Alpheus Crosby. Boston: 1850. 12mo. pp. 173. The Life and Religion of Mahommed, as contained in the Sheeah traditions of the Hyât-ul-Kuloob; translated from the Persian, by Rev. James L. Merrick, eleven years missionary to the Persians, Member of the American Oriental Society. Boston: 1850. 8vo. pp. XVI. and 500.
The War with Mexico Reviewed. By Abiel Abbot Livermore. Boston, 1850. 12mo. pp. XII. and 310. [A book worthy of the praise it has received.]
History of the Town of Winchendon from the Grant of the Township by the Legislature of Massachusetts, in 1735, to the present time. By Ezra Hyde. Worcester, 1849. 12mo. pp. 136.
The Stars and the Earth, or Thoughts upon Space, Time and Eternity. First American from the third English Edition. Boston, 1850. 16mo. pp. 88.
A Few Thoughts for a Young Man: a Lecture delivered before the Boston Mercantile Library Association, on its 29th anniversary. By Horace Mann the first Secretary of the Board of Education. Boston, 1850. 18mo. pp. 84. The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. By Edward Gibbon, Esq., with Notes by the Rev. H. H. Milman, &c., &c., A new Edition, to which is added a complete Index of the whole work. In six volumes. Boston, 1850. 8vo. Vol. I., pp. [Iv and 590.]
The Sea-side and the Fireside. By Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. Boston 1850. 12mo. pp. IV and 141.
Der Neue Machiavel, Ein Buch für Fürsten aus den Papieren eines gefallenen Ministers Manuscript aus Wien. Leipzig 1849. 12m. pp. 78.
Circassia; or a Tour to the Caucasus. By George Lighton Ditson, Esq. New York and London. 1850. 8vo. pp. 16 and 453.
[The author says little about the country he visited, but states some particulars hitherto unknown concerning the dress and manners of a people who are seldom visited by Europeans or Americans.]
William Penn and Thomas Babbington Macaulay; being brief Observations on the Charges made in Mr. Macaulay's History of England against the Character of William Penn. By W. E. Forster. Revised for the American Edition by the Author. Philadelphia. 1850. 8vo. pp. 48.
[This work is the result of a good deal of research, and seems to be written with candor and plainness. It certainly relieves Mr. Penn from much of the obloquy cast upon his memory by Mr. Macaulay.]
The Tongue; Two Practical Sermons. By T. W. Higginson, Minister of the First Religions Society in Newburyport. Newburyport. 1850. 8vo. p. 18. [Two wise and pertinent sermons.]
Lecture, introductory to the Course in the Starling Medical College, of Columbus, Nov. 7th, 1849, for the Session of 1849-50. By R. L. Howard, M. D. Professor of Surgery. [Published by the class.] Columbus. 1850. 8vo. 25. The True Cause of the Cholera explained, with appropriate Directions relative, to Diet, Treatment, and Disinfectants. Also the Cause of the Potato Rot explained, with directions how to prevent it. By Thomas White. Cincinnati. 1850, 8vo. pp. 48.
Eighteenth Annual Report presented to the Massachusetts Antislavery Society. By its Board of Managers, Jan. 23d, 1850, with an Appendix.
The Massachusetts System of Common Schools; being an enlarged and revised edition of the Tenth Annual Report of the first Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education. Boston. 1849. 8vo. pp. 212.
[This is a valuable edition of Mr. Mann's celebrated treatise on the Common Schools of Massachusetts.]
Thirteenth Annual Report of the Board of Education, together with the thirteenth annual Report of the Secretary of the Board. Boston, 1850. 8vo. pp. 51. XXXVIII. LXIII and II.
[There are 215,926 children in Massachusetts between 4 and 16, the mean average attendance upon school is 134,734, or a little more than 62 per cent. of all the children in the State. It costs $836,070.69 to pay the teachers, and $35,281 64 for the fuel in the schools, and the board of the teachers. The county of Suffolk raises annually by taxes $10.32 for each child between 4 and 16, and the county of Berkshire only $1.96. Boston pays $10.65 for each child, and Salem only $4.28! There are two towns which pay only $1.25 a year for the education of each child in the town. These are the names: SAVOY, and ASHFIELD Warwick pays $1.25 and 8 mills.]
Proceedings of the National Convention of the Friends of Public Education; held in Philadelphia, October 17, 18, 19, 1849. Philadelphia, 1849. 8vo. pp. 40. The Public Education of the People, an Oration delivered before the Onondaga Teachers' Institute, at Syracuse, N. Y., on the 4th of October 1849. By Theodore Parker. Published by request. Boston, 1850. 8vo. pp. 50.
A Sermon of Immortal Life, &c., &c. By Theodore Parker, &c., &c., second edition. Boston, 1850. 1vo. pp. 32.
Fifteenth Annual Report of the Board of Directors of the Young Men's Library Association, of Cincinnati. January 2, 1850. Cincinnati, 1850. 8vo. pp. 24.
Association for the Relief of aged indigent Females, incorporated April 30th, 1849, organized October 17th, 1850. Boston, 1850. 12mo. pp. 13.
Address delivered at the colored Department of the House of Refuge, by Hon. William Kelley, on December 31st, 1849, &c., &c. Philadelphia, 1850. 8vo. pp. 24. [This address shows that an effort is making in Philadelphia also, to take children from the streets and educate them for useful citizens, not leaving them to the vengeance of the jail.]
Tea and the Tea Trade. Parts I. and II., as published in Hunt's Merchants' Magazine. By Gideon Nye, Jr., of Canton, China. New York, 1850. 8vo. pp. 27.
Singular Revelations. Explanations and History of the mysterious Communion with Spirits comprehending the Rise and Progress of the mysterious Noises in western New York, generally received as spiritual Communications. Auburn, N. Y., 1850. 8vo. pp. 81.
A Discourse delivered January 1, 1850, upon the fiftieth Anniversary of his Ordination as Pastor of the First Church in Plymouth. By James Kendall. Plymouth, 1850. 8vo. pp. 24.