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IV

lous and unpractical, and under the designed to produce power; but we cover of this mad delusion began to ex- must make of it a path to freedom and pel the study of the past from its last to self-control. Instruction in science strongholds in school and college. will be a part of our plan, and a neces

sary part. But the greatest failure of our educational system, the weak point

toward which we must direct our enWhat then must we do if we would ergies, is not the instruction in science, win some measure of control over our- is not the instruction in history and selves? There is no easy way. The literature and the humanities in genprice of this control is an intense and eral, although there are abundant and painful effort of attention to past and serious defects in that instruction. The present, a struggle to pluck ourselves weak point is the very fact that we have out of the pit of unconsciousness into relied upon instruction to produce eduwhich we had fallen. Our first need is cated men. We want, that is to say, a to get rid of complacency, and to sub- certain result, in the shape of men who stitute for it a humble recognition of are free and self-controlled; and we our vices of thought and action. Faith have been attempting to get that result in science and industry has survived by a complicated mechanism of instructhe war; and we must shake ourselves tion and drill. The tragic absurdity of free from the lying 'philosophies' and such a process consists in the attempt the evil systems which that faith has to treat living human beings as if they begotten. This means, of course, that were so much matter, and as if any mewe must accomplish a conversion of chanical process could take the place, in our whole attitude. In regard to gov- a student's mind, of that prolonged and ernment, such a conversion is already constantly renewed effort which must taking place, in thought as well as in be furnished from within by each stufact; and the philosophies of the state dent for himself. Look at the history which were fashionable a few years ago of education during these last decades, are rapidly crumbling.

and you will find it a record of innumerBut in regard to education, the first able alterations in curriculum and in moves have yet to be made. Here are methods of instruction. Every one of Mr. Flexner and his associates, still these alterations has been designed to bound, as if enchanted, within the lim- perfect the working of the machine and its of the old delusion. We must leave so to afford an absolute guaranty that them to their fetish-worship, for they the product would be correspondingly are probably incurable.

improved. But it was inevitable that But what shall we say of the current

failure should result from every altereducational practice and theory, upon ation which was based upon such a which Mr. Flexner made so violent an mechanical philosophy; and so our colassault? Is it so good that it deserves leges struggled on, enmeshing themto go unchanged? Shall we join Pro- selves still more deeply with each new fessor Shorey and the Humanists, and attempt, trying one device after anabandon it to the lovingkindness of other, and constructing a hierarchy of evolution?

administration whose sole function was The changes which a genuine con- to keep the clumsy machine, somehow version demands of us will indeed be or other, going. radical. Education has during the last The truth is that no mechanism century become more and more a drill of instruction will produce the result

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which we desire. It is obvious that the the college 'office'a fixed mathematical faith in such a mechanical process is fraction of the degree to which he asnext of kin to the faith in science which pires. To obtain the degree, he has only blurred the minds and perverted the to repeat the same process through four purposes of men; and if we are capable years. In different colleges, this procof learning by experience, we shall re- ess is varied in many ways; but in all make our whole system of education in colleges, the requirements are complithe light of a principle which is not cated, and in all colleges they are so denew, but which is in fact as old as civ- signed as to prevent the student from ilization. This principle teaches that obtaining the degree without having freedom and self-control must be won undergone a certain minimum amount by each man for himself; and the in- of instruction. stallation of this principle in the heart It is not at all marvelous that such a of our educational system will mean system fosters the very apathy which that hereafter the chief emphasis will it was intended to prevent. Now, if we be placed upon learning and not upon adhere to our principle, we shall indeed instruction, upon the effort of the stu- realize that no system will produce dent to acquire and to understand and educated and self-controlled men; but not upon the ways and means by which we shall also realize that the least that facts are presented to him.

we can do is to insure that the system This effort to acquire and to under- shall be, not a hindrance, but an aid stand is aborted by our present system,

to the attainment of that difficult end. as life is always aborted by mechan- Lectures and curricula and examinaism. We are commonly told that the tions we must have; but the knife must American student suffers from every cut away the countless entanglements intellectual vice: he refuses to think for which we have so thoughtlessly built himself, has no interest in intellectual up. To mention one point only, scores pursuits, crams his lessons by sheer and hundreds of courses are offered force of memory, and shakes off his each year; and all fields of learning apathy only to devote himself to the have thus been split into sections and frenzied diversions of sport or of social sub-sections. The degree, as we know, ambition. As a statement of fact about is awarded to a student when he has the American student, this is not al- 'passed' some sixteen of these fragtogether untrue; but as an accusation mentary courses. What chance has implying that the student is responsi- such a student to put forth the effort of ble for these defects, this is addressed attention to past and present on which to the wrong quarter.

his self-mastery depends? His time is To what sort of an intellectual world frittered away in the performance of is the American student introduced? petty fractional tasks; the whole weight He attends a specified number of of the system encourages him to memoclasses each week; he is compelled to rize, and his occasional attempts to add memorize the facts and theories con- understanding to memory are baffled tained in the lectures and in the as- by the apparent lack of relation besigned reading; and at the end of about tween one series of facts and another. four months he is compelled to take an Worst of all is what happens to the examination on the subject matter of student when he approaches the study the several courses which he is following. of the past. We have seen what critical If he passes the examinations, he has importance must be attached to such automatically deposited to his credit in study, provided that it consists in an

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attempt to grasp the experience of the served men so admirablyin the measurepast and to make it one with our own ment of matter have been imported inexperience; and we know therefore that to the study of art and literature, histhe calling of the Humanist is a high tory and philosophy. These methods, and difficult calling. How then has the misnamed scientific, are no more capaHumanist- the teacher of history and ble of dealing with the human spirit of literature, of Latin and Greek and and its history than a bayonet is capaphilosophy — fulfilled his duty of in- ble of 'civilizing' the man into whom it

terpretation of the past?

is thrust. They assassinate the spirit, It must be said that the Humanist has and leave only the body behind. In the. every reason to practice the virtue of majority of our histories, and even in humility, and to set about mending his the study of art and literature, these ways. Little by little, the worship of methods have done their perfect work; science and the methods of quantita- and in place of the living organism, tive analysis and of external measure- they have given us a huge body of dead ment have spread throughout the hu- facts, linked together by a facile determane disciplines and have sapped their minism, or restored to a semblance of vitality. The past is the record of the life by some mad and private thesis of struggle of the human spirit to win do the author. So, for example, Mommsen minion over external nature and to win turned his history of the Roman Redominion over itself. The history of public into a glorification of absolute man's relations to external nature is military monarchy; and his genius cantherefore but a portion of that record; not blind us to the fact that he thus and it is not the more important por- lent his genius to the service of evil. So, ion. Keenly interested as we must be for example, the 'scientific' students in the history of science, it is the other of Homer seized upon two immortal half of the record which is of first im- poems, analyzed them into distorted portance; and it is the function of the and writhing fragments, and then asHumanist to deal with the other half, sured a naïve world that these fragto tell the story of the human spirit in ments had no author. There would be its strife for self-mastery. And since no end to the accumulation of such that story has not been one of un- folly, if the Humanists were to continue broken progress, since the victories won the employment of such methods; and have always been incomplete, and since it would be a waste of time to enumerthe failures have stained the world with ate examples. The libraries are full of blood and suffering, it becomes the examples; and under them the history duty of the Humanist to take account of the human spirit is buried. of the failures as well as of the victories, We shall therefore say to the Huto show us how men have slipped into manist that he has misconceived his unconsciousness and barbarism as well duty. He should be the last of men to as how men have sometimes achieved preach a gospel of quietism; he should a partial vision and a partial liberty. be the last of men to obstruct change, For human life continues, and the fail- provided that it be made in the diures of which men have been guilty in rection of self-control. For change in the past are our failures also.

that direction is always accompanied But during the last century human- by an effort to understand the past, ism has been perverted by the almost and such change is of the very essence universal worship of science; and the of humanism. quantitative methods which have It is the lack of that effort, it is the

blind contempt of the past, which, tative methods which belong to science, united with the worship of science, and to set about the task of reinstating stamps the proposals of Mr. Flexner the past in the present. If the Humanas an assault upon liberty; and it is ist will do his part, he will not be alquite true that educational “reform' of ways on the defensive against the atthat sort would be a disaster.

tacks of the materialist; instead, he will But it is also true that genuine reform fight for a positive end, the primacy of is desperately needed; and before our the human spirit. Otherwise, the hueducational system can furnish us the mane disciplines will perish one by one; help that it should, the Humanist must since it is not Latin and Greek alone learn to practice humility, to abandon which are now in danger, but our his faith in the mechanical and quanti- whole understanding of the past.

THE MILITARY GEOGRAPHY OF PALESTINE

BY H. SIDEBOTHAM

and on the political future of the I

country. The entry of the British troops into A great advantage which a writer on Palestine has brought the war into a the geography of Palestine has is that country which has probably been more he is dealing with names of men and fought over than any country in the places that are, to English-speaking world. If Palestine had not had great people at any rate, as familiar as the er fame as the Holy Land, its geogra- figures of his own history, and the phy might well serve as a textbook for names and places of his own country. the complete history of military strat- The United States, indeed, largely egy and tactics, so interesting have owing no doubt to the great part that been the combinations of forces that Puritanism played in its early history, have met on its few roads and in its has borrowed very freely from the narrow valleys, so long and varied the Bible for its own place-names. It has story of its battlefields. The geogra- three Jerusalems and nineteen Salems, phy of Palestine has been exhaustively two Bethanys, ten Bethels, two Bethtreated from almost every point of lehems, three or four Zions, two Shiview save that from which the writer lohs, six Hebrons, and five Carmels. approaches it in this paper. Now that These are trivial instances, but they Palestine has become one of the cam- show how close the place-names in paigns of the war and that not the Palestine have lain to American sentileast important, it may be interesting ment and they make of its geography to gather up some of the leading facts almost a home subject. Some it will in its long military history which offend as a sort of desecration to assothrow light on the present campaign ciate these place-names with the military jargon of this war; but more, it is trickled into Judæa by devious paths, hoped, will find their reading of Bibli- and lost their individuality among the cal history enriched by a new touch of tribes of the country. The main body realism and modernity.

found their way into Samaria, and failEvery geographer has pointed out ing to gain access to the maritime that Palestine is arranged in longitu- plain, turned north and poured across dinal sections, a coast plain, a hill the plain of Esdraelon into the hills of country which is a prolongation of the Galilee. Lebanon to the south, the deep depres- The whole history of the Old Testasion of the Jordan Valley, and the hills ment Israelite is the story of the separeast of Jordan. Between the coast and ation of the northern tribes in Galilee the blue hills of Moab across Jordan is from their brethren in Samaria, and of a distance of barely more than one the establishment in Judæa, at Jerusahundred miles, but in that switchback lem, of a new Jewish kingdom markof a country you pass through every edly different in character from the variety of climate. On the coast at kingdom of the north: exclusive where Gaza you are really in Egypt, for the it was tolerant and facile, and theocratsea here is a backwater of the Nile, and ic and spiritual, whereas the kingdom the Syrian coast plain is a prolonga

prolonga- of the north was secular and material. tion of the Nile Delta. From the plain The reasons for this difference were you rise through rolling downs broken mainly geographical. Judæa was sepby narrow passes, the scene of so much arated, not only from the rest of the fighting in the early history of Israel world, but from the rest of Palestine, and in the Crusades, up the steep wall by deep ravines and difficult passes; it of the Judæan plateau, stony and bar- is the natural keep of the castle, and ren for the most part, but with here the same causes that made it so diffi. and there a deep pocket of good land, cult for the early Israelites to capture down into the depression of the Jordan it, made it later the citadel alike of the Valley, the deepest trench to be found narrowest bigotry and of the purest anywhere in the world; and across faith. The rest of Israel lay more open Jordan are the highlands of Moab and to the world; and between Galilee and Gilead, where you get keen frosts in Samaria ran the great highway of winter and fresh heather-scented winds commerce and war in the ancient in summer.

Semitic world. From the south side there are only This road entered Palestine from two ways in which Palestine has ever the east near Beth Shan, followed the been invaded:one, “the way of the Phil- wide plain of Esdraelon which breaks istines' along the coast from Egypt, the continuity of the Palestine Lebawhich is also the way of Sir Archibald non, crossed the hills by a low pass near Murray and General Allenby; the other, Megiddo, and so became the coast

, the way from east of Jordan, which was road to Egypt. This great highway is the way of the Israelites when they the most important single fact in the entered the country, and, later, of the history of Palestine. The Eastern gate Arabs. When the Israelites crossed at Beth Shan was never in their whole Jordan near Jericho, they found the history in secure possession of the great wall of Judæa straight ahead of Israelites, but always stood wide open them; and for hundreds of years after- to invasion. This was the way by wards, until the time of David, they which Gideon's Midianites came, and were never able to scale it. They later the Assyrians.

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