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lative fame of 1832 does not, therefore, rest en- | books; and are, therefore, uninformed regarding
Lord John Russell subsequently reduced capital tation. There is more reason to believe that the
ciety, must be distinguished by the morals and the During the discussions, in and out of Parlia- manners of our most abandoned classes; and we are ment, on all these measures, example was said surprised that Statesmen have never looked a cento be the grand aim and object of punishment. In tury or half a century in advance on the picture of the year 1785 there are said to have been ninety- these states that may be drawn without much seven persons executed in London alone for steal- imaginative shading; if their population continue ing out of shops; and the punishment in these cases to be increased on the present plan, and in the could not have been inflicted for the improvement existing proportions. Even the free emigration of the criminals. But in every instance down to of some recent years has not been drawn from an Lord John Russell's speech, when introducing intelligent or a pure class in society. The most his measure, example has been pleaded as the ignorant and immoral classes have generally great fruit of punishment. To deter the innocent furnished the free emigrants under the Governfrom crime, the guilty are punished. We deny the ment schemes; and even with this aid, the felon propriety or soundness of this reasoning. Society still continues to bear a higher proportion to the has no right to punish any person for the good of free emigration than is generally supposed. In another person or persons, or for its own benefit 1828, the population of New South Wales was collectively. Example is a consequence of punish- made up in the following proportions:ment, proceeding from it, necessarily and unavoid- Natives of the colony.
- 8,727 ably, because we cannot prevent that; but still Free emigrants.
- 4,673 punishment can never be justly inflicted on this ground. A criminal may be justly punished, be
Persons who had been sent out as cause he has violated the compact of his existence,
convicts, and free of servitude, and in the hope of improving his own character, Convicts pardoned
886 but not with the purpose of improving the cha- Convicts
.15,668 racter of another individual. It is, however sin
36,598 gular, that in secondary punishments, with “ ample," and the benefits of example running per
The convict emigrants constituted at that pepetually in the mind of the legislature, all means riod two-thirds of the population; and, although for obtaining that object should have been steadily
a considerable change has been accomplished since neglected. The felon's fate affords to the evil then in these proportions, yet the greater part of disposed the smallest possible amount of warn
the emigrants have been drawn from an inferior ing. The criminal is closed up from public ob- class; and, in 1841, New South Wales society servation in the hulks, or consigned to the most stood in the following proportions:distant colony. Arì air of mystery and even of
Natives of the colony. romance is thrown around his fate.
29,441 Free emigrants.com
52,903 attain-by good conduct, the exercise of good abilities, or a few more than clever or less than hon
82,344 est movements—to distinction in the new world. Persons sent out as convicts, and
19,397 He can, at the worst estimate, take to the woods,
free by servitude or pardon, S Convicts
26,977 become a colonial Robin Hood, the hero of a hundred tales in the ballad poetry and traditions of
128,718 Van Diemen's Land; to die at last in harness a free, bold, and desperate bush-ranger. Banish- A rapid change had been effected; but, still, ment, after all the horrors of the middle passage, more than one-third of the population were or had is not a deplorable fate to the utterly lost and been convicts, and more than one-half of the efreckless castaway.
It has its charms to the fective population—for the enumeration of free ignorant and immoral, who seldom read parlia- persons includes children under twelve years of mentary debates ; never open parliamentary blue age-while the convicts must all be adults. Even
of the children under twelve years of age, a num- and suspicion in the felon's doom. It says that ber must be the descendants of convicts, who do they cannot be trusted as servants in the towns not receive an education superior to that which or the peopled parishes of Britain ; but, in the brought their parents to the colony,
lonely settler's home, they may be employed to The population of Van Diemen’s Land was, in watch his flocks, to conduct domestic matters, or 1838, divided into the following classes:
to tend and educate his children ; for, however - Free
many may be blinded to the fact, yet the house.18,133
hold servants in no small degree educate the chil
dren of the family. The felon's doom says that 44,188
we cannot trust criminals in the lowest departIrelan
ments of our home society; but we send them A considerable proportion of the inhabitants then hence, ten thousand miles away, to represent our free came out as convicts; and, as the children, character, to support the dignity of our name, in under twelve years of age, are all enumerated another hemisphere, and to be the piles of an inamongst the free population, there can be no doubt fant empire in the distant south. The fatality of that, in 1838, two-thirds of the effective colonists the system arises partly from the resignation of the either were or had been convicts.
prisoner's improvement to chance, under the most Emigration to the Australian colonies is very unpromising circumstances. He is handed over as capricious. There is not that regular stream of a slave to some sheep farmer; and, so far as the outgoing persons that has set in towards the Government is concerned, no farther effort is made wrest; but, on the contrary, in some years, a to improve his intellect or his morals.' His fugreat body of wanderers has been thrown out to tare position bars him from any means of selfthe south; while in others, immediately following, culture. There is no teacher in the wilds where the felons who went'in chains outnumbered the his flocks are fed. No church nor chapel bell freemen who sought that land as their choice. rings over these broad prairies to mark the hour Por several years, the free emigration to the or even the day of prayer. His companions are Australian colonies was very large. We subjoin the dissolute and the wretched. Their converse the numbers, from 1837 to 1842 :
is of the guilt of past and the sufferings of 1810, 15,850 present days. In their communications villainy 1838,
1841, 32,625 hardens crime ; until the mind becomes almost 990 1830, 1842, mm 8,534
irretrievably polluted. The master walks abroad Loans In 1913, the arrivals had fallen to 3,478, little armed to the teeth against his own servants. more than a tenth of the immigration for 1811. All mutual confidence is lost and destroyed ; In 1814, there were 2,229 emigrants to all the while negligence is met by brutality; and the Australian colonies ; but of these parties there law of kindness seldom comes to soften the fe. were only 1,179 for Sydney, and one only for lon's heart, and melt it down again into the pli Van Diemen's Land—so that the penal colonies ancy of its yielding youth. The bold and the had altogether 1,180 free emigrants, or little desperate rob, murder, and become bushrangers ; more than one-half of the persons who settled in while the weak and the timid degenerate into a this group of new countries. The average num- condition of sullen apathy, by no means superior ber of convicts annually transported, from 1825 to that of the depraved and heathen natives who to 1841, was 2,865. , In the latter year, the number are fading away before the white man — the was considerably diminished ; and the practice of graves of whose race are the footmarks of our confining convicts under short sentences to the civilisation. hulks has increased since that period. Still, this We fear that little can be done in this coun-, great empire annually transfers a large body of try even for the reformed and recovered felon. its worst and most pernicious members from the Society stamps its iron on his brow, and bids him centre to its farthest extremity; with the view, we
“ sin or die." Men who seek forgiveness every might suppose, of creating a new Sodom on earth, | morn and eve ; scarcely know what forgiveness and constructing a society that might be pre- means in their own practice. They are very eminently distinguished as the plague-spot of the willing to pardon theoretically. They have no world, ., Are these persons, of whom a large pro- objection to be abstractly forgiving : so long as portion have become criminal from public and the exercise of that grace interferes not with private neglect, deserving of consideration? Shall their own arrangements, they are willing to exthey be tossed aside, like the worthless weeds of ercise it ; but, whenever they are asked to resociety, to waste forgotten and unheeded? When store the criminal to his former place in society, the ship has sailed, with her freight of crime and they learn their own weakness and the extent of misery to be flung upon a distant shore, is our his fall. Lord Brougham told in the House of duty fairly accomplished? Can all who have Peers a few evenings ago an affecting story. A weight and influence in the world then wash their man had lived out his days of punishment. He hands and say that they are innocent of the fate was turned into the world ; and, sensible that he of the banished felons, whom the law gives up as would seek work and confidence vainly in his irrecoverable ? The proceedings in their case former neighbourhood, he wandered far, and answer in a dreadful affirmative ; and yet charity found employment. For several months his conis anxious to give a negative in its quiet whispers. duct was irreproachable ; but, ultimately, soma There is a singular intermingling of confidence“ busybody” discovered his asylum, and disclosed
his secret. Ho was then obliged to abandon his easy rest on a bundle of straw, without a better employment, and commence the weary search, covering than the ragged clothes of the day, in a "without a character,” for a new home. So- small apartment, cold in winter, without ventilaciety is ever saying thus to its crime-stained“ sin tion in summer, surrounded by stagnant sewers, or die." And one man cannot reproach another while fever was eating its fatal way round them with the fact, which is the consequence of a na
on every side. tural prudence that might be, but seldom is, sub- It seemed that, by some terrible error, the jected to discriminating inquiry. Men do not for- prisoners were petted, and those who should be give in the broad and full meaning of the term, the bulwarks of society were its outcasts, of whose by restoring the forgiven to that trust, and favour, honesty and toil the world was ashamed; for and confidence that they once held.
crime lived within a palace, and virtue vegetated Transportation might be advantageously com- in a hovel. muted into punishment and employment in pe- The number of persons committed for trial, in nitentiaries at home, where the prisoner's fate 1845, wasmight not only be in some measure an example For England,
24,303 to others; but where subjected to moral and re
16,696 ligious culture, instructed in some useful trade,
3,537 inured to strict discipline, and accustomed to re
44,536 gular habits, he might become a valuable emigrant to some of our colonies.
The proportion of committals to the population The Governor of Glasgow prison, in some sug- is much smaller in Scotland than in England, gestions recently circulated by him, urges the and in England than in Ireland. The convicsubstitution of imprisonment, with occasional em- tions of 18+5 were, to the committals, in Scot, ployment out of doors, for transportation : and the land, as 75.74 per cent ; in England, as 71.601 removal of the prisoners to a colony only when while, in Ireland, 16,696 committals were foltheir conduct, under the rigid discipline of a lowed by only 7,101 convictions. The number of penitentiary at home, has in some measure re- persons committed for trial is only a small proestablished their character. This system, he says, portion of those who pass through our prisons ; vould be more economical to the country than of whom the number for 1834, in England, was banishment; while it would be more beneficial to 100,000, and, in 1844, 126,000. The number society, better for the individuals; and wiser for for the three kingdoms, in that year, was equal the colonists, who have a singular taste in favour to 1 in 120 of the population. While Scotland of penal labour ; and who deem an immigration presents a smaller proportionate number of comof thieves and burglars conducive to the pros- mitinents than either of the other two divisions, perity of their infant land,
yet its juvenile criminality considerably exceeds, Mr. Miller, to whose suggestions we have re- from some cause not fully explained, that of ferred, estimates the annual cost of a transported England or Ireland ; for, in 1845, the persons felon to the country at £37 1s. 6d., and of an under sixteen years of age committed, were imprisoned criminal at £19, so the balance per
In England,...as 1 in 5.564 of the inhabitants. annum in favour of imprisonment is £18 is. 6d.
was 1 in 6.244
Scotland,mas 1 in 4.495 The amelioration of the criminal laws has been To whatever cause this bad pre-eminence in accompanied by improvement, not only in prison Scotland may be traceable, its removal must be discipline, but also in prison accommodation. desired ; for, with all our improvements in prison More attention has been recently bestowed and discipline, gaols have only been converted from more money expended on the homes of the vici- the nurseries to the causes of crime, and the disvas, than on those of the virtuous and poor. We tinction is not worth much to society. Crime once had an opportunity of examining one of the must be necked before it reaches a prison, or, largest penitentiaries in the country, immediately in this country, it will not be checked in very after visiting a densely peopled quarter of a large many instances. Imprisonment implies degratown. The contrast was painful. The cells in dation, and secures an almost invariable rejecthe penitentiary were small but comfortable. tion of every application for employment by those They were carefully warmed and ventilated. The who wear its brand. In seeking to reduce our food of the prisoners was abundant. Their clothes, criminal statistics, we must therefore look to by day and night, were clean and pleutiful. They their source, and endeavour to divert the stream, had the use of every appliance for securing and ever flowing hitherto from that neglected and jipproving health. They had the benefits of polluted fountain. Recent inquiries have shown tecular and religious instruction provided for undeniably that the great majority, nine-tenths them; and, except for the silence of their solitary of criminals are uneducated persons. That fact cells
, they appeared to be in comparatively envi- does not solve the question whether the mere able circumstances. Without the prison walls— clements of education reduce the tendency to beneath them-honest men pined for food—the crime ; although we are surprised that it ever children of the industrious shivered in cold—the should have been a question. Mr. G. R. Porter, homes of poverty were damp and cheerless-and in his valuable work on the progress of the nathousands, who had never come before a magis- tion, remarks that the tendency of mere edutrate, lay down, at night, supperless, to seek un, cation, comprehending in the phrase the elemen
in each case.
tary branches of reading and writing-may not of charity, it is a shame that he should be comexercise any moral influence in preventing the pelled to beg." This was the opinion of a great disposition to crime ; while yet, by opening up man, promulgated two centuries ago, but pronew sources of employment, they lessen the mulgated for two centuries in vain, because it is temptation in individuals. The statistical re- an obvious truth which Statesmen have deemed it turns on this subject are, however, useful in their interest to disregard. This negligence of showing the classes from which criminals are Legislators by no means relieves the people from supplied. They are chiefly the uneducated. And their responsibility. They can easily and ecoin society we have a floating mass of juvenile nomically check this evil; and the ragged paupers, existing in alarming numbers, and ris schools of London and its vicinity are begin. ing to occupy our penitentiaries—to supply New nings in a right course. These ragged schools, South Wales with slaves—or to die prematurely however, meeting only on two or three evenings of under the most cruel neglect ever tolerated in each week, are incompetent to perform the necesany nation. The Moabites who made their chil-sary work. They are not sufficiently comprehendren burnt offerings to idols had an infatuated sive to embrace all the requisite objects. They hope of accomplishing a great object by the sa- offer instruction to the children of the poorest crifice. The Hindoo mother committed her child classes; but instruction without bread will not to the sacred river, trusting that its waters attain the end required. For that purpose, ragwould float her infant to Elysium. How many ged schools must be converted into schools of inBritish mothers, more enlightened, without any dustry, where the pupils will be taught and fed. similarly vague expectations, submit their children Education to a child perishing for food is alınost to the most fiery ordeal!--and no effort is made by worthless ; for the elements of reading and the public authorities to restrain the iniquity ; for writing will not supply the immediate want this crime may be more frequently chargeable to of a quartern loaf; and it is little less than mockthe State than to the parent. Juvenile street-beg. ery to bid the destitute be taught, unless they are ing is the precursor of juvenile crime. Our com- also invited to be fed. For some years in Scotmon pauperism is the grand nursery ofour toocom- land there have been two great schemes promon guilt. It is not possible that an infant can be pounded for the relief of the misery accumulated trained to all the artifices of alms-seeking, and and accumulating from the proverbial deficiency exercise them from its earliest years, without con- of the Poor-law in that country. The two schemes tracting the contamination of crime, if left with have two authors, both celebrated for their beneout any intellectual or moral instruction; and this volence. Dr. Chalmers insists on bringing the is the case in almost every instance of juvenile Bible to the poor; and Dr. Alison urges us to pauperisin. Death interferes, in the great ma- give them bread. Between the two, an excellent jority of cases, to save the public from an intoler- system may be wrought out, for the two plans able burden. Tho vast majority of children, who are parts of one efficient scheme; and in the are exposed from any causes to the miseries of pamphlet, from which we have already quoted, the street-begging, die early. Those alone who are necessity of union between them, and the manner of the stoutest mould can withstand the vicissi- in which they can be united through these industudes to which they are subjected. But it is surely trial schools, is thus stated:a miserable comfort to find our mode of treatment We agreed with both, and confess that we conld fatal to so many individuals, who might have lived never very well see how they seemed to disagree with to usefulness in a yet half-peopled world. It can be each other.. In, as it were, the presence of such men, no great recommendation of our present system schemes may go hand in hand ; nay, more--like the
speak on this subject with unfeigned humility. The two that it shields the public from an overwhelming twins of Siam--the presence of the one should insure the mass of crime, only by throwing those who seem company of the other; and what, perhaps more than to be regarded as the refuse of time into eternity, anything else, recommends this scheme both to our head without the experience of a single real kindness, and heart, is this--it furnishes a common walk for both
these distinguished philanthropists.
Under the self-same or an hour of proper instruction. Those who are roof the temporal and the moral wants of our forlorn desirous of reducing the crime of the country poor are provided for : both these Doctors meet most must begin with the lowest depths of society, and harmoniously in our school-room ; Dr. Alison comes in improve them. They may demand an alteration with his bread—Dr. Chalmers with his Bible : here is in our Poor laws, and they may seek for legislative cannot be abused --Dr. Chalmers’s Bible is heard by willing
Dr. Alison's bread
food for the body-there for the soul improvement; but we have the utmost reliance in cars : and so this scheme, meeting the views of both, the disposition of the State to do good by halves lays its hands upon them both.” and quarters; and so it will be ultimately found that the work, to be done well, must be done by gow, and in several other towns, schools of this
We rejoice to find that, in Edinburgh, in Glasthe people themselves. In a pamphlet recently description have been, or are to be established
. published,* (which we have received since part of In Aberdeen, Dundee, and Perth, they have ex: these pages were in type), on this subject, the isted for some time, and proved highly beneficial. writer quotes a remark by Daniel Defoe" That In Ireland—at least, in one of its large towns, begging is a shame to any country; if the beggar Belfast-the plan is likely to be introduced. In is an unworthy object of charity, it is a shame that London, there is reason to expect its wide and he should be allowed to beg ; if a worthy object general adoption. Nothing can be easier than
* A Plea for Ragged Schools. By the Rev. Thomas its introduction into such places as Leeds, BirGuthrie.
mingham, and Liverpool. It has been said that
no plain practical way of doing good, when pre- tion might be obtained without any additional sented to the people of Manchester, ever lan- charge, the expense would not exceed £6 yearly; guished for want of funds ; and these Industrial or an average of £21 for each child ; whilst a Schools, like all efficient instruments, are remar- single convict costs £143 6s. for four years' kably simple in their operation. We are indebted punishment. The expense of educating seven for their adoption to a criminal judge—Sheriff children in these industrial schools is, therefore, Watson of Aberdeen. Whatever good they may paid for the punishment of one criminal by the ultimately accomplish may be traced to the pa- present system ; and if uncared for and untaught, tient care with which that gentleman has watehed we believe that the seven children would produce their first beginnings. He was startled with the two or three criminals. But the annual cost of number of juvenile offenders brought before him rearing these children falls on the public. They in his official capacity; and found out practically must defray the charges either in a regular or an that prison reformation was a change scarcely | irregular manner. They must tax themselves, or ever accomplished. In proposing to teach and be taxed by the operations of the juvenile beggar feed the juvenile paupers of that city and neigh- and the juvenile thief. They cannot escape froin bourhood, he met at first a limited encourage the burden of supporting these young persons in ment. The project was thought to be visionary the meantime ; and it would be wiser to lay out and expensive by those who forgot that its ex- the money in rendering them good members of pense—and double its expense—was already in society than in contracting farther and heavy curred by the public, without obtaining one of its liabilities by leaving them on the road to crime. advantages. At the annual cost of a few hundred Economy and humanity are thus happily compounds, schools have been established and wrought, bined in pleading for the general establishment until the results may be best explained by an ex- of these institutions. They would at once save tract from one of Vr. Watson's letters to Mr. money and character to the country. Our object Hill, the superintendent of prisons :
has been to show the cheapest mode of eradicating We have now no begging children either in town or
crime ; but it should not be forgotten that the county. I was rather surprised at the effects produced means which prevent evil will accomplish good. in the county districts. During the three months preced- The endeavours made to improve prison disciping 6th July, 1843, upwards of a hundred children were line, emanating principally from humane men in found wandering in the county, and reported by the rural police. During the corresponding period of 1844, fifty charge of our large gaols, deserve the utmost enwere found. In the corresponding period of 1845, only couragement; but we cannot trust much to their eight; and from the 8th of June to the 5th of July none efficiency; and we should not make crime and Fere found.''
the police office the only avenues by which many The routine pursued in the Aberdeen schools, can reach shelter, food, and instruction.
le which we regard as the model institutions, is so quote a passage from Mr. Guthrie's pamphlet, in simple that it may be stated in a few words, ex
which all the argument is inost eloquently extracted fro the report of the County Prison pressed :Board of Aberdeen :
“ For example, I was returning from a meeting one
night, about twelve o'clock: it was a fierce blast of wind - The peculiar feature of the Industrial Schools is the and rain. In Princes Street, a piteous voice and a shicombination of instruction in useful employment with vering boy pressed me to buy a tract. I asked the child Education and food. The children have three substantial why he was out in such a night and at such an hour.
lie meals a-day; three hours of lessons, and five hours of had not got his money; he dared not go home without it ; work sajted to their ages. All the boys (and girls) re
he would rather sleep in a stair all night. I thought, as turn to their homes every evening. On Sundays, they receive their food as on other days, and attend public him if he went to church.
we passed a lamp, that I had seen him before. I asked
* Sometimes to Mr. GuthWorship, and they have also religious instruction in rie's,' was his reply. On looking again, I now recogschool."
nised him as one I had occasionally seen in the Cowgate We should add that part of the time, on work- Chapel. Mufiled up to meet the weather, he did not
recognise me. I asked him what his father was. "I ing days, is occupied very properly in recreation.
have no father, Sir ; he is dead.' His mother? The average expense
is very poor.' • But why keep you out here?' and then
I knew her well, and “Of each child is about £6 per annum ; £3 12s. per reluctantly the truth came out. annum, or about 2}d. a-day, being the cost of victuals had visited her wretched dwelling. She was a tall, dark, for each ; and the other expenses, such as rent, salaries, gaunt, gipsey-looking woman, who, notwithstanding a cap, &c., being met by the additional £2 8s.
of which it could be but premised that it had once been " From the above sum- £6 for each boy—there must white, and a gown that it had once been black, had still be deducted the average earnings of each, which, for last
some traces of one who had seen better days; but now
she was a drunkard ; sin had turned her into a monster; Fear, amounted to £l 105.- thus making the actual cost al-out £4 10s. for each. The earnings of some of the and she would have beaten that poor child within an inch chldren are very small; others, according to the nature
of death, if he had been short of the money, by her waste of the work, will make 3d. or 4d. a-day, and, in a few of which she starved him, and fed her own accursed vices. Cases, even 6d. ; but such cases are rare, and the work Now, by this anecdote illustrating to my stranger friend uncertain."
the situation of these unhappy children, I added that,
nevertheless, they might get education, and secure some The schools were commenced in the year 1841 ; measure both of common and Christian knowledge. But but since then a considerable number of the chil-mark how, and where. Not as in the days of our blessed dren have obtained situations, and their average Ilis blessing. The gaoler brings them now.
Saviour, when the tender mother brought her child for
Their only attendance would probably never exceed three
passage to school is through the Police Office ; their passand a half to four years. Even if they were support is a conviction of crime ; and in this Christian and plied with necessary clothing, of which some por- enliglitened city it is only within the dark walls of a prison