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But let us now come to the Second Edition. It is evident, from every page and line of Dr. Donnegan's first edition, that he had never seen Passow's lexicon, although the first part of it appeared as early as 1819, and the English lexicon not until 1826. But in this second edition, Dr. Donnegan has had the advantage of Passow's labours. One thing, however, rather puzzles us : we hardly know whether Donnegan understood Passow's system of arrangement or not. That he did not see its value, or appreciate it as he might, we are quite sure, both from the way in which he speaks of it in his second preface, (if indeed he does speak of it there, of which we are far from clear,) and because he has only followed it in the former half of his re-edited lexicon. The latter half, from a inclusive, is, as to anything like arrangement, precisely as Schneider left it. But more of this hereafter. Let us first see what account Donnegan himself gives in his preface, of the improvement of this second edition. • Attention,' he says, 'has been most particularly directed to correct any deviation from the natural or philosophical arrangement of the meanings of words. Now, who would imagine from this that Donnegan's first edition composed without the slightest regard to, or knowledge of, any natural or philosophical arrangement whatever; and that this second edition (or rather the first half of it)—is drawn up with slavish fidelity on that most admirable and systematic arrangement of Passow, which we have a few pages back described? We are justified, therefore, in saying, when he penned this preface he either did not understand the plan he was adopting, or contrived so to write as to take to himself the merit due to Passow. But in truth we cannot pass over, without censuring, in the strongest language we are capable of, Dr. Donnegan's most unfair and unbandsome conduct in not having distinctly acknowledged the advantages which he has derived from Passow's lexicon. He has adopted Passow's arrangement-copied-translated from him as he had done before from Schneider-and yet never had the honesty to give the slightest acknowledgment. It is true that the name of Passow occurs in a few scattered instances, (under čeyxuga, for example,) but then in so short and unintelligible a manner as to be hardly observable, and so very rarely does even this occur, that any one who recognizes the name of Passow could only suppose that Donnegan had borrowed from him a few scattered hints, instead of having made his lexicon the foundation of his second edition. Is this fair or honourable? Is it like a gentleman or a scholar? Again, he says,
Above 200 pages of entirely new matter have been added to the present edition. Half the work has been re-written, and THE ENTIRE
newly newly modelled, in conformity with the general plan, but with much improvement and simplification in the details.'
We very sorry to say, the truth, and the whole truth is, that Donnegan has re-written and re-modelled only the first half of this second edition, altering, and amending, and enlarging it after Passow, of whom it is now almost as exact an abridged translation as the first edition was of Schneider-excepting in some articles, where the one is added to the other, and where, accordingly, between both, much superfluous interpretation and almost inextricable confusion are necessarily produced.* Now, of the 200 pages of entirely new matter,' or, to speak accurately, of the 219 pages by which this second edition exceeds the first, 211 are contained in the former half to K inclusive, and the latter half is increased by only the remaining eight: and so far from this latter having been . newly modelled, in conformity with the general plan,'-(Qu., what is this plan?)—there are not a dozen alterations, or amendments, or corrections, through the whole of it, excepting in the beginning of each letter, and in the particles and prepositions, which are greatly enlarged, but always 'duce et auspice' Passow. Why Dr. Donnegan stopped
* As an instance of the bungling manner in which Dr. Donnegan compounds a mixture of Schneider and Passow, we copy, word for word, from his second edition, the following:
’Abetos, ou, adj., that cannot be injured or violated, inviolable, Il. 14, 271., as an epithet of the waters of Styx, the sanction of an inviolable oath--invulnerable, invincible, Apoll, 2, 77. not injurious, irreproachable, hence honourable, worthy, viz. a contest, Ody. 21, 91. and 22, 5. Schn. L. Supplem. or in the first sense irrevocable, or decisive as to the result, Schn. L. ed. Pass. injurious, or highly injurious, Apollon. 1, 459. 1 In Ody. 21, 91.8. s. as roaußrabns, from the force of the double u or u augm. or for cyar, Eustath. yet in Ody. 21, 91. perhaps invincible, or difficult to be achieved, for Antinous adds ou güg, &c., for I do not think that this well-polished bow can be easily strung. Ody. 22, 5. innocuous, relatively to that which was to follow, viz. the attack on the suitors. 1 Damm gives as primary sense, undeceiving, and so understands it Ody. 21, 91. and ironically, 22, 5. deriving it from a priv. äow. Th. a priv. årúw from úów, or a priv. dów, Buttmann Lexil. s. 231.
"Autos, ou, adj. s. s. as úúctos, highly injurious, Apollon. 1, 459. see ácaros. Th. (in the latter sense) a augm. đów to injure. I datos or åros, insatiable, Hes. Theog. 714. and Sc. Herc. 55, and 101. with a geuit. Th. (écéw św, to satiate. I s. s. as intos from önen, ów, to blow.
It would be waste of time and paper to cricitise such a mishmash of sense and nonsense as this. We will rather give what a very little common sense and a very moderate knowledge of Greek might (with the help of Passow and Buttmann) have easily produced :
Adatos, é, ń, (Th. áów, to hurt,) that cannot be hurt with impunity, inviolable, Il. Š, 271. That cannot be overcome or accomplished without difficulty, Ody. 0, 91. X, 5. But Buttmann, in his Lexil. 1, p. 232, understands the word, in all three passages, more in a moral sense, as what ought not to be hurt or violated--ought not to be treated with slight or contempt. In Apoll. Rh. 2, 77, it is used in the former sense of invulnerable, invincible.
Ačtos, é, n, contr. åros (Th. ăw, iowi, to satiate,) insatiable, Todémono, Hes. Theog. 214. Scut. 59. "Aŭtos is for Öntos, Quint. Sm. 1,217.
short after he had re-modelled the half of his work, --why he published it thus imperfect, may perhaps puzzle the uninitiated; but we have no doubt that the simple fact is,-a second edition was wanted when only the half had been re-written; and we venture to guess that a third edition is now in hand, in which the latter half will one day appear corresponding with the former. In this there would have been nothing to blame, had the preface told us exactly how the matter stood; but it remains for Dr. Donnegan to explain how he dared to talk of his lexicon as being entirely re-modelled,' when, in fact, only one half of the work had been so dealt with !
It would be unnecessary to go into detail through all the improvements and corrections which Donnegan has made in this his second edition. Suffice it to say, that for all of them (and they are really numerous and considerable) he is indebted to Passow; so that, instead of calling the book a second edition of Donnegan's lexicon, we should term the former half of it an abridged translation of Passow, and the latter an abridged translation of Schneider.
But now comes the main question. Has Donnegan made the most of the advantages furnished him either by Schneider or by Passow? we must answer decidedly in the negative. His lexicon is full of inaccuracies and faults, and some of them are so radical that nothing less than an entire and careful examination of the whole, with a constant reference to the original authors, and a re-modelling and re-writing of every article of any length, by a more skilful hand than Donnegan's, can ever thoroughly correct it. The main and constantly recurring faults are
1st. Mis-translations of Schneider's and Passow's German, and a frequent want of precision in giving the exact meaning of a word or of a quotation.
2nd. An unnecessary number of meanings, either by the use of many synonymous words, by refining too much on the real meaning, and thus frittering it away, by giving too vague * and general an interpretation, or by expressing qualities which may be in the thing signified, but are not in the sense of the word.t
* For instance Gagucegains ought to have some more definite meaning than' grievous, distressing, Soph. CE. C. 1561. The same may be said of Bepugupos. Again, Eurip. Herc. Fur. 1098, calls arrows, ftiputo n, winged spears. But this does not justify the German lexicographer, nor his copyist Donnegan, in giving as a meaning of yxos, a weapon in general.
† We point to such words as üotopos, rendered by Donnegan, unpalatable—bitter, acid, tasteless. These three last interpretations are not the meaning of the word. A thing which is dotovos, unpalatable, may be acid or lusciously sweet, or bitter, or sour, or tasteless,--but these qualities, though either of them may exist in the thing signified, are not, therefore, in the word.
These striking defects might have been avoided—and could only have been so—by carefully examining the original authors—which the preface says the Doctor had done! In proof of our assertions, we need only turn over a few pages, and we find,
"'ABoati-without noise or struggle, Pind. Nem, 8, 15.' It should be, without a summons or invitation.
• 'Abouxóantos,—inconsiderate, not circumspect, Æschyl. Supp. 942. It should be, disregarded.
'Arya Souat and čoyauan' are not, strictly speaking, “to wonder at, but to admire ; and so Schneider and Passow render them, but Donnegan has mistaken bewundern for verwundern.
« 'Ayah matopopéw,—to carry a statue, or as a statue is carried.' It should be, literally, to carry a statue, but generally used metaphorically, tivà áy. to carry the image of a person in the mind : Philo passim.
"Ayeuotos does not signify in Xen. Mem., - inexperienced, unenjoyed, or untried. It is precisely the same expression and the same meaning as Donnegan had before given, and for which he had quoted as his authority Soph. Ant. 583. The one is άγευστος κακών, the other άγ. τερπνών, not having tasted or experienced. Donnegan did not see the distinction between the active and the passive meaning of this word,
'Ayhaia is not at Ody. 17, 244, nor elsewhere, that we have ever heard of, arrogance or insolence. In that passage it is, festive revelling
'Ayhaifw is not in “ Theocr. Epig. 1,4, to decorate with a laurel crown.'
The sentence is, The Delphic Rock τούτο τοι αγλάϊσε, made this splendid for thee, produced it to decorate thee,—the literal meaning of the word being to make splendid.
'Αγνοέω.-Donnegan has translated ΙΙ. β. 807, “Έκτωρ δ' ούτε Deãs émos vyvoinney, he attended not to the word of the goddess.' And from this passage, and Schneider's translation of it in the supplement to his lexicon, he has given as one of the meanings of áyvoćw, 'not to follow. Had he examined Homer, and not blindly translated from Schneider, who is frequently much too free in his interpretations, he would have seen that there is no occasion for travelling out of the plain road to find the sense of this passage : it is the common meaning of the word, not to know, not to understand. Hector was not ignorant of what the goddess meant, fully understood it. This interpretation explains the passage intelligibly, and is in perfect accordance with the other lines in which Homer uses it.
As to the second defect which we mentioned, that of giving an unnecessary number of meanings, we may see it exemplified in
Ayniwp,* under which we find no less than thirteen (not different meanings, but) different words of interpretation for Homer and Pindar; as thus—most manly, brave, valiant, courageous, noble
- Pindar; haughty, arrogant, insolent, daring, rash, headstrong; strong-Ody.; great-Pindar'!!! We pity the unfortunate schoolboy who is expected to form some precise idea of the sense of äynnwg from this heterogeneous mixture of similar and dissimilar meanings. What must he think of the vagueness and inaccuracy of ancient Greek ? It is enough to disgust him with it for ever. Of these thirteen interpretations, there is not one which fully and truly expresses the meaning of the word. High-spirited will perhaps come nearest to it, and will suit every passage in the Iliad, and many in the Odyssey; and where, in the latter, it is used in a sense rather vituperative, as applied to the suitors, we may render it by licentious. In Pindar, it is used as the epithet of a high-spirited horse, and thence metaphorically applied to things, as being exceedingly (ärav) splendid or magnificent,'e.g. πλούτος, μισθός, κόμπος.
Again åyvòs is rendered by Donnegan meriting worship or veneration : hence, glorious, honourable, as a contest is, Pind. ; sacred to the gods, holy as a festival, Ody. 21, 259 ; not to be approached by the profane, Soph. (E. C. 38; undefiled, pure in a physical or moral sense, chaste, virginal, an epithet of Diana and Proserpine, Ody. 11, 385; morally good or irreproachable.'
Now multiply and subdivide as we will, éryvos can have but two meanings,—the first, sacred or holy; the second, free from all moral or physical impurity, i. e. pure and chaste. All beyond this is unnecessary, and can only serve to puzzle rather than explain.
If it were necessary, we might go on with αβρός, αγνώμων, αστεμgris, cotetos, dotiros, ő poßos, &c. But we have done, and will close
* The origin of this would seem to be, that Donnegan, having too often no precise and definite idea of the meaning of a Greek word, is fearful that, in translating from the German lexicographer, he may omit any of its meanings, and therefore gives every sense and signification which the German words can by possibility bear; in doing which he wanders widely from the meaning of the original Greek. There is a ludicrous instance of his ignorance in “'Atoxal súdw, to sleep separately; to sleep out of one's house-to be fond of sleep-to sleep upon-sleep with another. Only the two first are legitimate significations; whence the third came we cannot conjecture; the fourth is a false translation of Schneider's über etwas einschlafen, i.e. to fall asleep in the midst of doing a thing: the fifth is a false deduction from Schneider's quotation, úroxétsvòs nugaita, he slept away from his own house-. e. at the sick person's.Philostr. Apoll. 8, 7, 14.
† It would be wearying ourselves and our readers unnecessarily to make any extracts from, or throw away any criticism on, the latter half of Donnegan's Lexicon ; it has all the imperfections of Schneider's want of arrangement, in addition to those which we have mentioned of the former half.