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eight teachers. The number of and distant from Canton, by the river organized churches is four, of which course, about 300 miles. Messrs. one was organized during the year. White and Thomson were placed in Three of these are in Canton, and charge of this enterprise, and exone in the city of San-Ui, 80 miles pect, if possible, to move thither, distant, by the river course. The with their families, during the year. aggregate membership is 499, of There has been a mission chapel whom 94 were received during the there already for two years. A comyear, 86 on profession of faith, and parison of the statistics of last year's 8 by certificate from other churches. report with this year's, may not be The number of preaching places is without interest. At the close of 20, of which 8 are in Canton city. last year we had 17 native helpers; At most of these places there is at the close of this year 21; last year preaching daily. There are 25 7 Bible women, this year 13; last schools, with an enrollment of 730 year 23 teachers, this year 28; last scholars, distributed as follows:-year 17 places of preaching, this year Training school for men 16; board- 20; last year 3 organized churches, ing school for women and girls 72; this year 4; last year total memberboys' day schools 335; girls day ship 418, this year 499; last year schools 307. Considerable work has number added to the churches 63, been done in translating and pre- this year 91; last year total number paring books. More itinerating has in Sabbath Schools, and Bible classes been done than in any former year. 230, this year 300; last year conSome 350 villages and cities have tributions $165.30, this year $234; been visited, in 29 districts of the pro- last year whole number of schools vince. Dr. Kerr, whose work is sup- 20, this year 25; last year whole ported by the Canton Medical Mis- number of scholars 511, this year sionary Society, gives the following 730; last year whole number of outhospital statistics :-Out-patients, patients and in-patients at the hos19,332; in-patients 1,064; surgical pital 17,386, this year 20,396; last operations 1,115; vaccinations 194. year total number of books and It was resolved to locate a foreign tracts sold or given away 40,894, missionary station at Liu-chau, in this year 43,970. the north-west part of the province,
Notices of Recent Publications.
Hours with the Bible, or The Scriptures in the light of modern discovery and knowledge. By Cunningham Geikie, D.D. Vol. I. From Creation to the Patriarchs. Vol. II. From Moses to the Judges, 1881.
THIS very interesting work is by the author of "The Life and Words of Christ." All who have had the oppor unity of reading his former
work will be anxious obtain this later one. It is especially valuable. to missionaries, as the author does for them what they have not the
time or the opportunity to do for | themselves. He, having the full opportunity and time to examine a long list of books containing the result of "modern discovery and knowledge" has carefully examined them as they illustrate and explain various points in the Sacred Scriptures. These volumes consulted comprise most of the recent publications of France and Germany, as well as of Great Britain, on geology, natural history, archaelogical discovery in Egypt Babylon, Nineveh and Judea, recent histories of all these lands, works on comparative religions, geography, &c., &c. In successive chapters he presents a careful synopsis of principles and facts, selected from this wide range of research, that bear upon subjects presented in the Bible. Chap. II., gives a summary of "Ancient Ideas, Sacred and Profane, of God and Nature."
Subsequent chapters discuss such subjects as "Ancient Legends of Creation," "The age of the World," "The story of Eden," "The Antiquity of Man," "The Flood," "The Table of Nations,' "The Migration of Abraham," "Palestine and Egypt in Abraham's Day," "Egypt before the Hebrew sojourn," "Moses," "The plagues of Egypt, &c., &c." The devout student of the Bible, who in the mission field often laments his want of access to works of research, will here find a most interesting summary of their works on points which are of the greatest interest to him. In the reading of this book he will find his faith in the divine Word greatly strengthened, and be led more and more to feel how futile are all efforts, which are made to weaken "the firm foundation of his faith." We most warmly commend the work to all our readers.
Annual Report of the Evangelical Alliance of Japan, for the year 1881.
THE Contents of this pamphlet are
9. Churches partially self-support-
The Table of Statistics is drawn up with great care and completeness-59; an increase of 25. 13. Scholars giving the names of the eighteen in these schools-1584; an increase Missionary Societies that have labor- of 994. 14. Girls' schools-18; an ers in that country. We copy the increase of 3. 15. Scholars in these summary as presented by the retir-607; an increase of 116. 16. Theoing President as it gives the increase logical schools-6; an increase of 2. under each item during the year 17. Theological students-93; an in1881-1. Married male mission- crease of 6. 18. Sunday-schoolsaries-78; which shows an increase 101; an increase of 38. 19. Scholars of 12. 2. Unmarried male mission- in these-3764; an increase of 1253. aries-10; a decrease of 1. 3. Un- 20. Native ministers-38; an inmarried female missionaries-48; crease of 22. 21. Unordained native an increase of 8. 4 Whole number preachers and catechists-124; an of missionaries-136; an increase of increase of 30. 22. Colporteurs19. 5. Stations where missionaries 10; an increase of 8. 23. Bible reside-36; unchanged. 6. Out- women-20; a decrease of 4. 24. stations where no missionaries re- Hospitals-4; an increase of 2. 25. side-111; an increase of 35. 7. In-patients treated in these-183; Organized churches-83; an increase a decrease of 97. 26. Dispensariesof 19. 8. Churches wholly self- 4; a decrease of 1. 27. Patients supporting-15; an increase of 2. treated in these-18,027; an incron se
of 4,741. 28. Medical students, progress in every part of the work 5; a decrease of 21. 29. Contribu. during the year. The contributions tions of native Christians for all of the native Christians evidences purposes during the year, in paper that they appreciate the Gospel. And Yen--8772; an increase of 5583. we may expect to hear in the near 30. Bibles, New Testaments, and future of abundant more fruit from portions of the Scriptures sold the wide circulation of the New 115,000 copies. 31. Printed pages Testament by sales among a reading in these-18,000,000. 32. Received and inquiring people. May the Lord for the same-Yen 16,000. This is bless the labors of his servants yet a most interesting statement of the I more abundantly.
The China Review: for January-February, 1882. This number of the Review is of, tions which Mr. Giles had made to more than
average interest. Those the D. V. of the New Testament. If interested in the study of Buddhism Mr. M. had done this with suaviter will find Mr. T. Watters' Paper one in modo it would have been very containing mnch information. Mr. gratifying to his friends. Piton contributes an interesting Some of the “ Notices of New “Page in the History of China.” Books" and of the items among Mr. Masters, successfully answers “Notes and Queries" are of special some of the most important excep- interest to general readers.
The New Testament in Shanghai Colloquial with Notes in Easy Book style.
By Rev. Wm. Muirhead, London Missionary Society. This edition of the New Testament | the order appears to be very inin two volumes is very substantially appropriate. Then if, for suflicient bound in cloth with strong thread. reasons, it was considered expedient The type of the text is large and to use a colloquial text, it appears clear. The notes are in smaller type to us, it would be much better to use and are appended to the end of each the mandarin colloquial; for then it chapter instead of being in connec- could have an extensive circulation. tion with the verse or passage ex. But being in the Shanghai colloquial plained. But many pages are sadly text it is necessarily restricted to disfigured by the number of typo- the vicinity of Shanghai. graphical errors which have been The Notes are in a plain and easy corrected with the pen. But that style and would be very suitable in which strikes us, as very incongru- an edition of the Delegates Version. ons is the use of a colloquial text in But in case it was proposed to apconnection with explanation in book pend these notes to that Version of style. The reasons which justify the N. T. it would be proper to add the use of colloquial in translation to these notes additional notes exof the S.S. is that many readers can planatory of the erudite words in understand the colloquial who can the text. With a colloquial text not understand the book style. It explanation of words are not needed. would, on this ground, be suitable But notes explaining words would to use colloquial in explaining the be very desirable when the Delegates text in book style. But to reverse Version was used as the text.
THE PROVERBS AND COMMON SAYINGS OF THE CHINESE. BY REV. ARTHUR H. SMITH.
(Continued from page 114.)
THE HE difference of usage, and consequent uncertainty in regard to the notation of many common Chinese characters, gives rise to ' various readings,' sometimes as arbitrary as those in any other language; as in the phrases from Hamlet, "to the manner [manor] born,”
I [eye] shall not look upon his like again." Of a variety of such discrepancies, a single phrase will furnish a sufficient example. Ta pa shih (T) to practice athletics, often written also with a different character (), and both forms have been noted in Williams' Dictionary. Errors arising from mistaking one character for another are common. Thus in Mr. Scarborough's list (No. 1164), we have the saying: "Though nine times you present an accusation, the last must agree with the first" (#7#AD.). This is merely a mistake due to homophony. The correct reading is: #7#AD. i.e. A lawsuit, however protracted, can never go beyond the original documents. So likewise in No. 862, The larger fishes impose upon the shrimps, and the shrimps in turn impose on the clay (
C.). What is it to "impose on the clay ?" The copyist has fallen into error, and a better text reads: EJÍ
BENE.) The large fish eat the small fish; the small fish eat the water insects; the water insects eat water plants and mud'—a saying which contains a compendious and accurate description of the relation between the higher officials the lower officials and the people of China; a relation to which the lines of Swift are singularly applicable:
So, naturalists observe, a flea
Has smaller fleas that on him prey;
And these have smaller still to bite 'em;
And so proceed ad infinitum."
The effort to apprehend the full bearing of a Chinese sentence at the first hearing, resembles the attempt to solve a fresh conundrum off
hand; for even if the answer is correct, there is no means of proving it to be so, while the chances of lighting upon the correct answer are often tenuous in the extreme. Witness the following: 4 ☀.
He who has never heard this phrase, will be a good guesser if he interprets it aright at the very first hearing. The ideal fighting quail, we are to suppose, is capable of giving, say a thousand pecks with his bill, before he is exhausted. This superiority distances all competition; but upon some unlucky occasion the bird of a thousand rounds capacity, meets with an opponent so entirely beyond himself in fighting power, that he finds himself vanquished at the very first blow. Hence the proverb becomes equivalent to the adage: There are always plenty of other able men' (∞, †Œ Л.).
The following example affords an instance of a wide field of conjecture through which we are suffered to roam(旣吃泥鰍不怕擁 ). This saying in its current use signifies: 'Take the responsibility of your own acts.' Yet probably very few Chinese would be able to give any satisfactory explanation of its terms. The most natural one makes it refer to the capture of the ni ch'iu-a fish which burrows in the mud-and which must be seized by the fisherman through a hole (R), which he digs for the purpose. But who ever speaks of boring a hole as 'digging out an eye,' and even were such an expression natural, where is the peril of punching an aperture in soft mud? There is obviously a mistake somewhere, which has been perpetuated from generation to generation (..) like the 'First catch your hare' of Mrs. Glass' receipt book. A restored text has been proposed, which, it will be seen, like the restoration of some mediæval architecture, leaves very little of the original, as follows: μ. 7. i.e. Since the criminal has been caught and condemned, and is to be beheaded to-morrow at sunrise, let him not fear on the preceding evening to indulge in the customary feast. In other words, let us carry through whatever we have begun-eat, drink and be merry, for to-morrow we die. Almost every writer who touches upon the difficulties of the Chinese language, adorns his tale with illustrations of the fatal facility with which an inexperienced speaker struggling to express a particular idea, may-owing to the bewilderments of homophony and the puzzle of tones-succeed only in conveying to his hearer another idea, utterly incongruous with his intended meaning. These examples of slips of the Tongue, may be appropriately matched by slips of the Ear, slips which are the prerogative not of the beginner only, but of nearly all foreigners who wrestle with Chinese speech. Of misunderstandings arising from ambiguity of expression, it would be unfair in this connection to take account, since such traps waylay