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he had humorous intervals on other subjects, not so constituted. His home life had not and at all times he was a man who obeyed qualified him for sacrifices of that kind. He orders whether he liked them or not.

could and did make them, let it be rememThe thing about the man from the Potomac bered to his honor; but he never learned how that the Westerners thought most peculiar was to do it in the Western mood of ready and his persistent admiration of McClellan. They tonic buoyancy. could not understand why he should think a The Western soldier felt that the victory of man a great soldier who had organized so much Chattanooga, following so soon after the sucvictory that never came to pass, and avoided cesses of Gettysburg and Vicksburg, should so many defeats by reversing the theory of bring the war rapidly to an end; but when he Hudibras, that military honor is to be won, ascertained that such was not to be the case, like a widow, with brisk attempt, “not slow ap- he made the best of it, as he did of everything. proaches, like a virgin.” It seemed to them that He went on, as fast as the enemy could be while their Eastern brother's McClellanism, as persuaded to get out of the way, from Chattathey denominated it, included certain techni- nooga to Atlanta ; from Atlanta to the sea; cal virtues that were undoubtedly worth having, thence to Richmond; and at last to Washingit also tended to confuse and hamper him in ton. His work was done, and done so well the presence of circumstances to which they that it was its own most vivid and eloquent were always superior. He excelled them in commendation. So they mustered him out. drill, they frankly acknowledged; he wore his He was a soldier no longer, but a visiting citizen uniform as if he had never worn anything else, at the National Capital, who was to take the and in all his actions there was a distinct and self- first train for home. His uniform was discarded conscious air of martial propriety. It was not with a sense of surpassing relief. The new gartrue, as was grotesquely asserted, that he wore ments which he hastened to put on made a corset, used cosmetics, and slept with gloves him feel stiff and awkward, and somehow his on. But it was true that he was remarkably thoughts seemed to be affected in the same fastidious, and attached much importance to queer way. It was like beginning life all over his wardrobe. The deprivations of the siege again. His talk was not so much of what was of Chattanooga would probably not have van- past as of what was to come. The Union had quished him, had he been there to bear them, been saved, — he had known all the time that it but his endurance would have lacked the would be, and he was eager now to get back capital cheerfulness which was displayed in that to his folks. It cost him a little pang to give extremity of hunger and raggedness. Perhaps up his gun; he had come to regard it with a he would have joined in the search for un- kind of affection. The pungent scent of battle digested kernels of grain which had already smoke still lingered in its joints and creases. By served as food for horses and mules, but it that sign he had conquered. And having conwould have been with a countenance bereaved quered, he was ready to go home. He had gone of the power to smile; and certainly he could away under a heavy obligation to his country;

; not have surveyed himself in patches and tat- now he was his country's creditor, and it acters and found it possible to exclaim, as did a knowledged the debt with pride and gladnessWestern soldier under those conditions, “Oh, no, I ain't sufferin' for clothes, but my heart 's The debt immense of endless gratitude ; a-breakin' for a diamond breast-pin !” He was Still paying, still to owe.

Henry King.

TOPICS OF THE TIME.

No New Sectional Division.

THE

in a republic for a great group of States always to

support the same party in an election - almost as ab. CHE old sectional line in the United States is fast normal as for all the men in a community to hold

vanishing. It may even be said already to have the same political opinions. The natural order is one been wiped out a part of the way, when Delaware of divergences among States as among individuals. breaks her long succession of senators from one No better illustration of this truth could be desired party, and West Virginia is claimed for weeks by than is furnished by the experience of New England. both parties. It is obvious that neither North nor Of all parts of the country this has always been re. South can be counted upon as "solid” in future garded as the most distinctly defined and differentiated. national struggles.

The Yankee has been considered a type, almost a race, This result was as inevitable as it is desirable. The and one would have expected to find Yankees in every ancient division between the two sections was due to a Yankee State taking the same side of a great public single cause, and it could not long survive the final controversy. So far, however, has this been from removal of that cause. It is an abnormal state of things the case that even such close neighbors as New Hampshire and Vermont have over and over again parted tended regions almost boundless, as yet, for the most company politically; indeed, they were for many years part, wild and uncultivated, the asylum ofroving Indians stoutly opposed to each other. Lying side by side, and restless, discontented white men.” The last cenwith only a river between them, similar in physical sus showed 17,209,492 people, out of a total population geography, settled by pioneers of the same character, in the whole country of 50,155,783, in the States already one of them has gone overwhelmingly one way for organized out of those regions. The census of 1890 more than a generation, while the other was long a will undoubtedly increase the proportion of the whole "stronghold ” of the opposite political party, and still population to be found in those States. Moreover, the continues a close State.

creation of four new States from the Territories in the There were similar divergences in the South origi- North-west will raise still higher the percentage of the nally, and they continued until a special cause broke electoral college alloted to that portion of the country. down all minor differences and fused rival States. In It seems safe to say that more than two-fifths of the 1840 the Whigs carried Mississippi for Harrison, while electoral votes in 1892 will be cast by States beyond Alabama, its next neighbor on the east, went Demo- the Alleghanies. cratic by a good majority; North Carolina was strongly

Meanwhile the East steadily loses power. Applying Whig, South Carolina strongly Democratic. In 1848 this term to New England and the “Middle States” North Carolina remained a strong Whig State, while of the old geographies,- New York, New Jersey, Virginia on one side and South Carolina on the other Pennsylvania, and Delaware,— we shall find that the cast their electoral votes for the Democratic candidate. region cast 76 out of 135 electoral votes after the cen. Even in 1852 Kentucky and Tennessee held aloof from sus of 1790, and not until thirty years later failed to the other Southern States in their adherence to the hold more than half of the whole number. Now these Whigs, and it was not until 1856 that all of the com- ten States have only 116 out of 401, or but a little more monwealths in that part of the Union were found united than a quarter. The proportion is likely to sink a in a Presidential election, and “Mason and Dixon's Jittle lower under the next apportionment. Already line " became an actual line of political division. therefore the West, which, politically speaking, did not

As only an overmastering interest which affected exist when Washington was inaugurated, far outweighs them all could weld together States that had differed the East, and its preponderance seems bound steadily sharply upon other questions, so the disappearance to grow for a long while to come. not only of that interest, but also of the issues which That the West could rule the East and the country, for a while survived its removal, must cause them to through a union of its strength with three or four fall apart. For some time past it has been chiefly senti. neighboring States to the southward, is evident enough. ment which has preserved the solidity of the section. That it should be hastily suggested that a new sectional The political struggles of the reconstruction era natu- line of this sort may be drawn, is not strange. But rally maintained the feeling that the South must make reflection will show that such an alignment is both a common cause still, as in the years before the war, but moral and a physical impossibility. To begin with, the the issues of that era have been settled, so far as they can West is itself the offspring of the East. Its institutions be settled by any agency except that of time. The most are those which were carried by advancing settlers urgent appeals to “stand firm,” for fear that harm from the Atlantic seaboard. Its political traditions and might yet be done to their common interests if they associations have always been the same as those of the should divide, were not powerful enough last year to East. No peculiar interest has ever separated these hold together the old Whigs and the old Democrats of two portions of the North, as slavery once put apart the Virginia, and enough ex-Confederates took sides against North and the South. There is nothing in its political the majority of their old associates in the defense of development to incline the West towards sectional acslavery to leave the two great parties almost even in tion against the East. On the contrary, all those underthe total poll. It must be accounted one of the bright- lying causes which in the long run most profoundly est auguries for our national future that the last Presi- influence men work irresistibly towards continued dential election of our first century showed that the harmony. old sectional division in our politics is not to lap over The notion that an artificial line of division has been into the second century.

drawn which may array West against East on ecoIs a new sectional division to supplant the old ? Now nomical questions is equally fallacious. It is easy to that the South is no longer to be solid, are we to see say that the West is an agricultural section and the the West arrayed against the East ? Such has been the East a manufacturing one, but the statement will not forecast of some political prophets, and the suggestion bear analysis. As long ago as 1880 Ohio reported is plausible enough to merit attention.

much more than half the amount of capital invested in That the West should boast of its growing strength manufactures which she should have had relatively to is most natural and justifiable. The centennial of Wash. New York on the basis of population; Illinois, nearly ington's inauguration serves to bring out in strong half her quota on the basis of Pennsylvania; even Misrelief the wonderful advancement of Western progress. souri, more than a third of the total needed to place Washington received every electoral vote, but he her on an equality with New Jersey in the ratio of received not one from beyond the Alleghanies. At the such capital to population. Clearly it will not answer last Presidential election the States west of that range to call such States agricultural communities. and north of the Ohio River line to the Pacific (count. Moreover, experience has shown that not even ing Missouri among them, as obviously should be done) manufacturing States can be lumped together in politics. cast 151 out of 401 electoral votes - almost two-fifths In the East, Pennsylvania and New York went one of the whole number. “ Beyond the Alleghanies," says way in 1888; New Jersey and Connecticut, the other. Irving, in speaking of Washington's inauguration, “ex- It is already coming to be the same with the newer

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manufacturing States in the West. Indiana has rapidly cian, himself actively working last winter for another growing interests in this direction, and it is the closest candidate, who had no such scruples. State in all that region. Illinois has many more manu- Massachusetts is not a sinner above all other States factories than in 1880, but it gave Harrison a much in this matter; indeed, it is perhaps the memory of smaller majority than Garfield. Call the West agri- other traditions which were once exceptionally strong cultural or manufacturing, as you please, it cannot be there that prompts the bitter confessions of her own counted as solid any more than the East. The country people and fixes the surprised attention of outsiders. has suffered so much from sectional politics in the past There is more than one State which at once occurs to that the prospect of another line of division might well the careful observer of national politics where a govarouse apprehension, but happily it is plain that no ernorship or a United States senatorship has been such prospect exists.

carried off by a man whom nobody would have suggested as qualified for the place by eminent talent or

distinguished public service; where every one recog. Office Seeking the Man.

nizes that it is either money or “push ” which secured To a right-minded man, with a taste for public af- the place that should have been awarded to merit. fairs and a conviction that he has the ability to render Taken by themselves, such incidents are most dishis country some service, scarcely anything can be couraging. Even when viewed along with other more more grateful than the spontaneous tender by his fel- hopeful tendencies, they are calculated to depress one. low-citizens of a position suited to his talents. To such The optimistic attitude is certainly the most agreeable a man also the idea is intolerable that he should have that they represent temporary and local set-backs in to seek an office in order to secure one; that he must a current which on the whole makes for better politics. go into the market and cry his own wares ; that he may But this will only prove to be the case if the offenders even need to establish “headquarters,” and draw are made to feel that public sentiment is outraged by people to become his patrons by methods little above such conduct. This is emphatically one of those cases those employed by the “puller-in” of a Bowery shop

where silence will be held to mean consent, and the keeper.

press has a duty which it cannot afford to neglect. It is always difficult to make comparisons as to the relative amount of office seeking the man and office

Soldiers' Memorial Services. seeking by the man at different periods in our history. The longest memory can cover only a portion of the With every repetition of the ceremonies of Memocentury, and the most trustworthy recollection is liable rial Week the true meaning and import of this unique to err. Newspaper files afford little assistance, for the festival is more fully disclosed. Just after the war the press of two and three generations ago was apt to' annual gathering of companies of old soldiers to strew overlook or disregard the very matters of detail which with flowers the graves of their comrades who fell in are necessary to afford material for a sound judgment. the service was looked upon by the public as a natural The unanimity with which the highest honors were and beautiful remembrance of the heroic dead; still, thrust upon Washington is known to everybody, but as then exercised, it was a rite affecting only a limited the most caresul investigation leaves the inquirer un- class in each community. When, however, the cerecertain how large was the proportion of such cases and mony was followed up year after year, and the citizens how often an Aaron Burr was ready for any intrigue in a body were invited to take part by the donation of to secure place.

flowers and other decorations, and to join in the serv. The decline of rotation as regards representatives in ices,- either in the parades, at the cemeteries, or in the Congress, and the tendency to reëlect senators term general public exercises of the day,- it was apparent after term, are signs which indicate a decided gain in that the occasion appealed to the sentiments of all. the attitude of the public. But there is a dark side to Instead of being a narrow rite, and restricted to a class, the picture. Even in a State where a senator is given it was a broad, patriotic symbol, and belonged to the a third term without a word of protest, lower offices whole nation. The nation adopted the new idea and may be sought and won by the hardest workers. to-day it is an institution; one, too, that promises to “ Nominations, nowadays, do not come to men who last long. make no effort to get them, but rather go to those who The world honors martial bravery, and it is not a organize and labor and expend money to secure them,” sign of false civilization that such should be the case. was the melancholy confession last year of a newspaper Theoretically, wars in modern times have a moral purin Massachusetts, in speaking of an impending vacancy pose, and almost always there is a moral issue involved in a congressional district which is largely composed in every great strife. The traditions of this Republic, of farming towns. “ The idea of office seeking the man especially, are that war is justifiable only in a conflict of is nearly “played out' in this State. An honest, de conscience. And for a man to risk his life for his belief serving, and every way capable aspirant for a respon. is universally held to be the sublimest duty allotted to sible position has little chance to obtain a nomination mortal. It is this lofty idea — this conviction which to before a convention if his rival is a prominent politi- many has the sacredness of a religious creed — that runs cian, with an abundance of party workers to whoop through all the ritual services of the military orders in it up' for him.” Such was the bitter comment of a commemorating their dead, and it is becoming generally Boston paper a few months later. “Oh, what 's the adopted by orators when addressing public assemblies use of talking about —? He is n't doing anything. during Memorial Week. Even the martial bravery of He is n't making any trades or giving any pledges, and the late enemy is remembered by the Grand Army men don't get elected speaker nowadays without trades veterans at the tombs of their own dead comrades, and and pledges.” So spoke a busy Massachusetts politi- they there solemnly pledge to their enemy“ a soldier's

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pardon.” Upon the common ground of honoring the above. There is in this catholicity of soldier sentibrave, the Union and Confederate veterans unite to ment, winning, as it does, the admiration and sympaoffer tribute to departed valor.

thy of former foes, an earnest of civil security in the There is another feature of this memorial work that future. makes the rite a broad one. It is not alone those who In that strong fraternal impulse also, which is died for the cause that are thus honored by the Grand expressed in the most touching manner in the joint Army, but every Union soldier has since passed memorial services along the old border, and in some away, so far as the graves can be identified. It does of the chief interior cities of the South, there is a trace not matter that a veteran has devoted a quarter of a of further development of that true national sentiment century to civil pursuits since his military service which has had such remarkable growth in the South ended, or that changes of opinion on the issues of the since the war. Lincoln said of the people of the North war have been openly declared by him: all is forgotten and the South, in 1865: “Both read the same Bible except the fact that he once answered the call of duty. and pray to the same God." To-day the veterans' Mere partisan feelings are tabooed, and the veteran, memories of the conflict that called them to arms are though he died but yesterday, is remembered at his on both sides turning to a single noble ideal — martial burial with military honors. To his comrades he has heroism. Surely the worshipers of that ideal will know become a “dead soldier,” whose “march” is just no North and no South while twining chaplets to im"over," and whose spirit has joined the “long column" mortalize the brave.

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OPEN LETTERS.

IN

I.

Fraternization - The Blue and the Gray.

Mower Post was organized April 3, 1872, and now the number of this magazine for July, 1888, I has nearly 150 members in good standing. gave a list of the important reunions of organized

George L. Kilmer, bodies of Union and ex-Confederate veterans. The Abraham Lincoln Post No. 13, Dept New York, G. A. R. list was as full as the available records would permit. 1 Other instances of fraternal meetings were the receptions given to the Gate City Guard, of Atlanta, Georgia,

General McClellan's Baggage-Destroying Order. in 1879, at Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, New

BY JAMES F. RUSLING, LATE BREVET BRIGAYork, Hartford, Boston, and elsewhere, by local mil

DIER-GENERAL, U. S. V. itary organizations, composed in part of Union veterans, and a reunion at Elizabeth, New Jersey, Octo

In Messrs. Nicolay and Hay's “ Lincoln,” referring her 19, 1875, participated in by ex-Confederates liv. to General McClellan's conduct after the battle of ing in the North and numbers of Union veterans who Gaines's Mill, June 28, 1862 (see The CENTURY responded to the call.

MAGAZINE, November, 1888, p. 142), in a foot-note Since the publication of my article on reunions, they say: Mr. William G. James, Assistant Adjutant-General Lieutenant-Colonel B. S. Alexander, of the Corps of Department of Louisiana and Mississippi, G. A. R., Engineers, gave the following sworn evidence before the

Committee on the Conduct of the War (p. 592). He said has sent me the following item from the New Orleans he saw, on the evening of the 28th, at General McClellan's “ Picayune," in an account of the Confederate Memo- headquarters at Savage's Station, an order directing the rial Services of April 6, 1878:

destruction of the baggage of the officers and men, and

he thought also the camp equipage; appealing to the During the day a deputation from the Grand Army of officers and men to submit to this privation because it the Republic visited the Confederate monument with an would be only for a few days, he thought the order stated. offering of two baskets of flowers and a number of bou- He went to the general at once, and remonstrated with quets, with this inscription attached :

him against allowing any such order to be issued, telling

him he thought it would have a bad effect upon the IN MEMORIAM. A TRIBUTE TO THE FALLEN BRAVE FROM

army would demoralize the officers and men; that it JOSEPH A. Mower Post No. 1, DEPARTMENT OF LOUISIANA, GRAND ARMY OF THE REPUBLIC.

would tell them more plainly than in any other way that

they were a defeated army, running for their lives. This Mr. James adds:

led to some discussion among the officers at headquarters,

and Colonel Alexander heard afterward that the order On the 30th of May following this occurrence, just as was never promulgated, but suppressed. the steamboat with the comrades of Mower Post and their friends was landing at Chalmette National Cemetery,

Now is it not very singular that nobody has ever there came alongside a tugboat with a barge, evidently produced a copy of that "order"? General McClellan fitted up for the occasion, filled with ladies and gentlemen, in his official report of the Peninsula campaign, and who proved to be the members and guests of two Con- also in his “Own Story” (1887), makes no mention federate veteran organizations, with floral offerings for our dead. This party was followed by another composed of it. And yet it is the truth of history that just such of the Continental Guards (ex-Confederates), also bring- an“order” was “issued” and “promulgated” by him ing offerings. On each Memorial Day since, these Confederate organizations have presented offerings and

on that occasion, for I myself saw and read it. I was participated with us in our memorial services at Chal- then a captain and assistant quartermaster of Carr's mette National Cemetery, and it is a question whether (Patterson's) brigade, Hooker's division of the Third there are not more ex-Confederates than Union veterans Army Corps (Heintzelman's). The order was represent on these occasions.

ceived at brigade headquarters from the division head. 1 In the account of the Antietam reunion of September, 1887, quarters about 8 P. M., June 28, and handed to me the "soth N. Y. Volunteers" should read " 20th N. Y. Volun.

and others there for our official guidance. The brigade

teers.'

II.

BY GEORGE E.

CORSON.

itself was out on picket, in front of Fair Oaks, with headquarters pitched near Fair Oaks, just south of the railroad. After showing the order to me and others, the missary sergeant, and acting quartermaster sergeant, of

On the twenty-eighth day of June, 1862, I was comadjutant-general (C. K. Hall, now deceased) mounted the first battalion, 17th regiment, United States Infantry, his horse and rode to the front to promulgate it to and as such on that date was with the wagon train of the regiments of the brigade (the 5th, 6th, 7th, and Sykes's division of Porter's corps, which was parked 8th New Jersey and the 2d New York). What be.

near and a little to the south-east of Savage's Station. came of this order afterward I do not know, but sup; About 5 or 6 o'clock in the afternoon of the 28th the pose it was destroyed, with most of the official desks and quartermasters in charge of the train received orders papers of the brigade, near Bristow Station, Virginia, to empty the wagons under their charge of the baggage in the August following, when Stonewall Jackson got of the officers and men, and of all camp equipage, and to possession of the railroad there, in the rear of Pope, and destroy the same at once by burning. The order was burned several hundred cars, including the baggage immediately executed. All the personal effects of the of our brigade. But the substance of the order I en

officers, consisting of their clothing, bedding, messtered in my “Army Journal” a few days subsequent to the issue of it, and it is recorded there as follows: chests, etc., the knapsacks of the men, left by them in

our camp at Gaines's Mill on the morning of the 26th, On the night of Saturday above mentioned (June 28, when the troops were ordered off in light marching 1862), about dark, we received orders from army head- order in the direction of Mechanicsville, and which quarters to load the trains with ammunition and subsist had been brought along in our wagons,—and the tents ence, to destroy all trunks and surplus baggage, to abandon all camp equipage but not to burn it, and to and other camp equipage, were removed from the decamp across White Oak Swamp, in the direction of

wagons, made into large piles, and set on fire. James River, with as much expedition as possible. Ordered headquarters train to gear up, then galloped to

Strict orders were given the teamsters, guards, and the regiments and directed regimental quartermasters others on duty with the train not to rifle, interfere to report with their trains to me near Savage's Station as with, or attempt to save from the flames any of the soon as possible. Then returned to camp, and proceeded effects of the officers or men, though it was known to arrange for the skedaddle. Resolved to save all private baggage and official papers at headquarters at any that many of the officers' valises and knapsacks conrate, and packed my train accordingly. This done, tained money, watches, revolvers, and other valuables. I packed three tents, and abandoned the rest (only three); One or more of the teamsters or train-guard were, of first cutting them to pieces, and with this exception loaded up everything. About 11 P. M. bade the staff. good-bye," my personal knowledge, wounded by the discharge of and soon after 12 M. reached the plain by Savage's Station. loaded revolvers from the burning piles. I narrowly My recollection is that the “order ” came by tele. the destruction of the property in my charge. After

escaped the same fate myself, while superintending graph, and read about as follows:

completing this destruction the now empty train was The general commanding directs that the trains be taken to Savage's Station and there loaded with hard. loaded with ammunition and subsistence, and dis- bread, pork, coffee, sugar, and other commissary stores. patched as promptly as possible by Savage's Station, across White Oak Swamp, in the direction of James The remaining commissary stores, among which there River. All trunks and private baggage, and all camp was said to be three hundred barrels of whisky, and equipage, will be abandoned and destroyed, but not

the vast amount of quartermaster's stores which had burned. The general commanding trusts his brave troops will bear these privations with their wonted forti- been accumulated at the station for the use of the army, tude, as it will be but for a few days.

were set on fire, and by the light of the great conflaIn obedience to this order, all of the regiments of gration our train wended its way towards the James

River. our brigade abandoned and destroyed their camp

It will be seen from these facts that the order of equipage, and most of their private baggage, such as

General McClellan, referred to by Colonel Alexander, officers' trunks, valises, etc., as well as a large amount of was promulgated in the afternoon of June 28, to the new army clothing just received. The First and Second officers in charge of the wagon-trains in the immediBrigades of the division received the same order, and of ate vicinity of Savage's Station, to the great loss and course obeyed it in the same way. Trunks and valises hardship at least of the officers and men of Sykes's diwere knocked and hacked to pieces; clothing was cut vision; but whether said order was intended for the and torn to rags; tents were ripped and slit to ribbons. whole army, or made known to them, I never knew, and Our wall, Sibley, and hospital tents — many almost new

have no means of determining. Having assisted in exe– were cut and ripped, and the poles chopped to pieces, cuting the order, and the recollection of the scenes conbut nothing was set on fire that night, lest the enemy nected there with being among the most vivid of my should learn of our movement prematurely. Next memories of the war, I was surprised, when I read morning, when the troops fell back to Savage's Station, Colonel Alexander's statement, to find that any officer fire was set to many things, including the commissary connected with McClellan's headquarters should be depot at Fair Oaks. That extraordinary order certainly was “issued” and ignorant of the fact that the order was promulgated

and duly executed. “promulgated” to Hooker's division of the Third

WASHINGTON, D. C. Army Corps, and hence, I presume, to the rest of the corps. The truth, I think, is that it was promulgated to

The Abuse of Applause. the Third Corps, and perhaps to another, but not to the rest of the army, because of the vigorous protests of One of the canons of art insisted upon by Richard Colonel Alexander and others, who saw its demoraliz- Wagner as an essential reform was that all applause ing tendency at a glance.

during the acting of a drama or an opera was to be cenTRENTON, N. J.

sured as interfering with the purpose of the represen

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