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dential nomination be sought by such a man and with As for independence, there is no one, in a sense, so such methods, and not raise an issue of morals in poli- independent as the regular politician. It is he (with the tics in which the whole country will take a vital inter- assistance, perhaps, of a little group of cronies) who est? No American who has faith in his country and in decides — often with complete indifference to public its capacity for self-government believes it possible that, opinion – what shall be the “principles” of a party, if such a candidate were to succeed in forcing his nom- and who shall be its candidates at any given election. ination upon a party, he could be elected. The moral When the regular politician, therefore, denounces indesense of the country would be so aroused by the insult pendence and irregularity, he does it with his tongue that it would sweep away all party lines, and unite all in his cheek; and yet there are good men who are inhonest men in a grand committee of safety to defend nocently beguiled by this sort of talk at every election. the nation's honor from so base an assault. It would We are not of those who denounce the idea of party. be a national disgrace for a great party to confer a Every good movement, every valuable idea in human nomination upon such a candidate, for its doing so progress, tends to the formation of a party and the would be a confession that half the voters of the coun- breeding of partisans. Primarily a party is nothing other try were in slavery to machine rule; but when the than the association of men to put into practice some righteous indignation of the people made itself heard principle of government to which they are attached. It at the polls, the disgrace would be wiped out forever. is only when party names are degraded to mere pre

texts for plunder and means of selfish aggrandizement Regularity and Independence.

that they become a menace to the public good; and that The most useful word in the vocabulary of the man this is the tendency of all large political associations who makes a mere business of politics is “regularity.” history proves. The "regular" politician, when he sincerely desires It happens that in the career of every great party a votes for his side, is eloquent in calling upon every man moment arrives when the mere machine politician enof character, principle, and independence to cease voting deavors to use an organization sacred to a purpose and for the other party, and to come and vote for the poli- a cause for ends solely personal and corrupt. In other tician's party. In fact the calls to national conventions words, a moral crisis is sure to arrive in the course of of all parties are largely made up of such appeals,l and every political association. Then comes throughout the are based upon the idea that a human being not only length and breadth of the land a sure test of clear vision can, but should think independently and vote indepen- and integrity. One of the saddest sights at such an dently. It is only when this independence becomes epoch is the pitiful and apologizing use of clean reputatroublesome that men of independence of character are tions for the bolstering of sordid causes; the alliance of covered with the politician's inelegant abuse.

fair and cherished fames with all that is sinister in the And yet there is nobody more irregular than a regular forces that influence the destinies of a people. Look politician of the unprincipled sort. He is essentially around, and look back over the political history of and brazenly irregular. His very rules are often con- America! It is always so. The weakly good, and the structed for entirely irregular purposes. While making cynically and selfishly decent, just at the time when decertain apparent use of rules, his whole scheming is signing and corrupt manipulators should be opposed by against rule; that is, he lends all his energies to falsify all the strength of public opinion, lend their names and public opinion; he misrepresents majorities; he is au- services to the cause of immorality, and conspire with tocratic, tyrannical, and purely self-seeking. The secur- evil men for the degradation of government. But dising of fair dealing and just regularity is the very life couraging as is this melancholy phenomenon, there is and intent of rules; whereas this is exactly what always deep encouragement in the spectacle presented the regular politician labors, through his use of regu- in moral crises such as we have described of brave and lations, to avoid. We say through his use of regulations; cool-headed independence, of unselfish devotion to prinbut it is notorious that nobody can break his own ciple, of right feeling showing itself often in unexpected rules with more effrontery than the most pedantic of places, of wide-spread enthusiasm for moral ideals, and regulars.

for sound and elevated views of public duty. 1 See “Partisan Recognition of the Independent Voter," Topics of the Time for October, 1890.



The German Emperor and the Russian Menace. ern times. Commercial enterprise is hampered by a
THE German Emperor shares with the best-informed swarm of police, who are able to levy black mail upon

men in his army the belief that Russia intends to at- any tradesman who is not “ protected.” Inquiry of
tack him at the earliest convenient opportunity. It is not every kind is carefully stifled, and even French news.
the Czar who is urging war. Those who know that papers are “blacked out” by the censor if they con-
monarch well scout the idea. He loves peace and quiet, tain news contrary to police wishes. Popular discon-
and does not wish to be disturbed. How long he can tent exists, and it is the object of the Government
make his personal wishes prevail we cannot say, for he to divert attention from domestic affairs to the enemy
may have to choose between war and disquieting agita- beyond.
tion. His ministers, who see more clearly than their Russia's active hatred of Germany dates from 1878,
master, realize that the economic condition of Russia and is one of the many legacies of the Bismarck era.
has been going from bad to worse under a system of Every one remembers that the Russian army was in
protection and repression that has no parallel in mod sight of Constantinople, and was prepared to take pos.



session, when England interfered. The Russians re- foresaw the intention of Russia to attack, and never turned from the war expecting to receive at the Berlin failed to urge upon William I. the military necessity of Congress, in a diplomatic way, all that they had given forcing the war as soon as possible. His reasons, of up on the battle-field. In this they were mistaken, and course, were purely military. Russia,” he argued in their ambassador returned from Berlin to tell his peo- 1875, “is arming against us; each year she becomes ple that the fruits of the war of 1877 had been lost to more formidable. We, on the contrary, remain stathem through German perfidy. From that day to this tionary. Our duty is to fight now, while the heroes of hatred of Germany has been preached as the national 1870 are still fresh, and not wait until they are retired gospel of Russia, and in this hatred have been included from active service.” Von Moltke saw more clearly than Jews, Poles, Swedes, Finns-in short, all the unortho- Bismarck. William I. was old, and relied on his prime dox whose civilization draws inspiration from the west- minister, who kept telling him that Russia was Gerern neighbor. “ Russia for the Russians !” is now the many's natural ally; that Russia must be humored at cry, and the orthodox Russian Church shouts louder any cost. On the part of the venerable William I. than any one in the congregation.

there were strong family reasons dictating friendship The famine which spread over part of Russia last for the Russian Czar; but this does not explain Bisyear does not abate this cry of revenge. On the con- marck's apparent indifference to the fact that, for the trary, there is not a peasant who does not believe that last fifteen years, Russia has been cultivating hatred of in some mysterious way the heretic Jew or German is Germany, second only to that prevailing in France. responsible for his misery, and for that matter German The present German Emperor foreshadowed Rusand Jew are one to him, for both are unorthodox, both un- sia's attitude of to-day three years before he came to Russian. With this aspect of the case in mind, it seems the throne. He has been nearly four years in power, strange indeed that the government of Russia should and has not only not declared war, but has not made be acting in a manner to alienate the sympathy of sub- a single warlike demonstration of a practical kind. His jects on her western frontier. It is possible that the military family, if I may use the expression, are ready Czar's ministers disapprove of the extreme measures to anticipate the blow of Russia; but Germany keeps taken in the Baltic provinces to expunge the German the peace because her Emperor is too conscientious to language and the Lutheran faith, but they know the precipitate the conflict. Personally he is deeply páined power of the orthodox clergy, and dare not resist the by the hostile attitude of the Russian government; his only expression of what has to pass for public opinion. efforts in the direction of closer commercial intercourse

The famine in Russia is real, although it is equally have been met by sullen objection; he has been treated true that there is always a failure of crops somewhere with personal discourtesy by the Czar; his own people in a country so vast. I lost no opportunity during the are outraged by the daily account of persecution to height of the newspaper discussion of the subject to which Germans in Russia are subjected; he knows make inquiry in proper quarters regarding the nature that the line of the Narew, the Niemen, and the Vistula and extent of the alleged distress. The Government is fortified by a chain of strong forts, and that Kirghis seems incapable of giving friends of Russia any satis- Cossacks patrol all the roads crossing his frontier. He factory idea of the situation, and, worst of all, does not is perfectly well aware that France is ready to coöperinspire any great confidence in the breasts of sympa. ate with Russia, and that her forces are better organized thizers. One day a minister reports that the famine than ever before. is of no serious character; soon afterward the press The German Emperor is not unpopular in Germany. announces that twenty millions of people are perishing. This fact cannot be too strongly presented, because In any event, the situation is not cheering, famine or many important consequences fow from it. He has no famine.

done many things to disquiet moderate Liberals; has If, however, a famine really exists on a large scale, done things indicating a disposition to assume responthen is there all the more reason to expect war. The sibility which might better be shared with Parliament. peasant suffers first; next suffers the storekeeper, who He has made many impromptu speeches which a prime sopplies the few things the peasant cannot make him. minister would cheerfully have recalled; he has written self; next suffers the wholesale dealer, who gets no texts which a strictly constitutional ruler would wish more orders; next suffer the merchant and the banker relegated to privacy. Granted all this and much more, of the capital and the seaport; at last suffers the only for the sake of argument, let us come to what he has one worth considering the Government, which feels positively done, in order to understand why, in spite it finally in the confession of hundreds and thousands of this, he is Emperor in the German heart as well as of police officials that the peasant has been taxed to his in the German army. He has shown himself accessible last copeck. At this point the news becomes serious, to complaints from all classes of the community, and for the Government is a costly one, and only money can

has interested himself in remedies; he has abolished sustain it: money for the interest on a huge public debt; the special laws against socialism with most excellent money for the huge military machine; money for the results; he has removed much of the irritation on the police; money for the imperial family; money for French frontier; he has met the grievances of the Po. Secret service; money to maintain political jails; moneylish Prussians in the same spirit; he has shown a libto guard prisoners on the way to the mines of Siberia. erality in dealing with the press and platform agitators When the Government finds that money is wanting to unknown in Bismarck's day; he has inaugurated a sustain its prestige, and that empty stomachs are growl. commercial policy which, if not free trade, is a coming, it may choose war as the evil.

plete denial of the principle that one class has a right Germany is not blind to the dangers that threaten to enrich itself at the expense of another; he has drawn her, particularly from France. She will have one army together the trade relations of Germans so wisely that on the Rhine, another on the Vistula. Von Moltke clearly Vienna, Budapest, and Berlin seem now like sister cities of a free federation, and has spread the blessing of com- blood; he feels as a German ; his work is in harmony mercial freedom more widely than was ever before with the spirit of German progress; his failings, such known in Europe; he has instituted legislation for the as he shows, are German. There is no German who benefit of wage-earners and wage-payers, not as a social. does not admire him in his private relations, even though ist, but in the spirit of arbitration and fair play. In all of differing from him in matters official ; and we all know this he has moved independently, fearlessly, moderately, that in times of political danger the people are drawn and in opposition, not merely to the teachings of Bis- to the man of strong personal character rather than to marck, but to the school of politicians created for him the cautious and colorless figurehead. by that master of medievalism. Not only this, but he The forces behind William II. are such as have never has interfered energetically on behalf of the soldier in been cultivated in Russia, whose Czar lives in hourly the ranks; has insisted upon his troops being treated dread of assassination, and whose people are so many with proper respect by officers, and particularly by items of an official budget, so many units in a military corporals and sergeants. He has vigorously put down report. The German Emperor walks about the streets gambling and fast living among his officers; he has of his towns as fearlessly and naturally as any other at last interfered on behalf of the overworked school. man, although the life of his grandfather was twice at. children, and is the first to say that a teacher shall not tempted. One day, in November of 1891, he was walk. cram the pupil's brain at the expense of general health. ing with a guest through the narrow and crowded

All this sounds as though a stroke of the pen could thoroughfare of a city not far from Berlin. The sidemake such reforms real, but it is not so. All academic walks were narrow, and, as the Emperor is a fast Germany sets its face against school-reform, and the walker, he frequently had to step out into the street to utmost exercise of tact and persistence is necessary on pass other pedestrians, and especially clusters of peothe part of the Emperor to make his proposals bear ple who stopped for a chat. His companion, who had fruit. These instances suggest some of the reasons why been in Russia, was struck by the democratic manner Germans respect their Emperor. There are others of in which the German Emperor rubbed in and out a negative kind. For instance, we have yet to hear of amongst porters, fish-wives, peasants, and the rest of anything he has done for the gratification of selfish the moving crowd, chatting the while, and acting as tastes. He is a plain liver; he has never indulged in though this was his usual manner of getting about. He the vices sometimes associated with royalty; no officer was struck still more by the fact that no precautions in his army can say that the Emperor taught him to against a possible murderous fanatic appeared to have gamble; in his family he is exactly what a German been taken, and ventured to speak of this. The Emwould wish him to be; and the keenest sportsman could peror laughed heartily, and said : Oh, if I had to not wish a better companion. Finally, he is a thorough stop to think of such things, I should never get through soldier : he has served from the ranks up; he can do with my day's work.” sentry duty with a guardsman, and can also maneuver It is with this man that Russia will have to reckon combined army corps according to the principles of when her Cossacks start for Berlin ; and this man is strategy and modern tactics. He has his faults, and strong, not merely because he represents a strong army none sees them so well as the German general and the and a strong political administration, but because in German parliamentarian. But he has elements of him center the feelings of unity and development, of strength and popularity which vastly outbalance any pride of achievement, and of promise of a still greater faults so far discovered — and this is what outside critics future which lie dormant in the hearts of those who are apt to igno He has source of gth tota regard Germany as the bulwark of civilization nst closed to the Czar. The Kaiser is a man of flesh and barbarism - Europe against Asia.

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Poultney Bigelow.


The Arbutus.


The Sleeping-Car.

TE lie with senses lulled and still

ARBUTE, blossom of the May,

'Twixt dream and thought, 'twixt night and

day, While smoke and steam their office fill

To bear our prostrate forms away. The stars, the clouds, the mountains, all

Glide by us through the midnight deep; The names of slumbering cities fall

Like feathers from the wings of sleep. Till at the last, in morning light,

Beneath an alien sky we stand ; Vast spaces traversed in a night; Another clime, another land.

T. W. Higginson.

Thou and the wind together
Make, whatever the almanacs say,

The spirit's brightest weather.
When youth is gone and fancy flown,
When thought doth little and dwells alone,
The blooming foot-paths open a way
To many a long-past holiday.
Though youth be flown and fancy gone,
The mind's sweet memories may live on.
Only let the south wind blow,

Thou and the South together;
For thou and the balmy south wind make

The spirit's brightest weather.

James Herbert Morse.

Charlie and the Possum.

nigger den, I would n'er be’n hyah now, an' he would n'

nuther. I'd er kill 'im right deir ! It was a day of great excitement in the court-room “Well, sah, I run t'rough dem fiel's like er man's of the 2057th District

, G. M. Charlie Brood had been tracks; las’ I struck de railroad. I look dis way an' I arrested for larceny, the particular charge being that he look dat way, an' den I saw dis hyah nigger wid er bag had stolen a possum and a steel trap, the property of on es shoulder 'way down de railroad. Fus news he Peter Thompson. Charlie having demanded that he be know, I was deir. I say, says I,' Mornin', Charlie,' des

I tried by a jury of his peers, the justice, with that accom- so. An' he say: modating spirit peculiar to some backwoods officers, "Mornin'.' had called in six colored gentlemen as a jury, ar

« « How you do?' says I. raigned the prisoner, and put the prosecutor under oath “I'm toler'ble,' says 'e. How you do?'

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to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the “ An' I up an’ say, 'I'm toler’ble.' He don't say no truth. As Peter Thompson laid his aged lips upon the more, an' bimeby I up an' come erg'in : well-worn Bible, he rolled the white of his eyes into What you got en dat bag, Charlie ?' Den 'e say: prominence and let fall an ominous glance upon the “ Unc Peter, I so tired. Be'n 'way down ter de prisoner at the bar, who had sunk down into his chair station ter git my wife some 'taters. She mighty sick, until the top of his shoulders was about level with his an' hank’rin' atter 'taters, an' our 'taters all got de dry ears.

rot.' He ain' answer de question, Jedge, an' I gi' hit "Jedge, I tell you how hit was,” the witness began. ter 'im erg'in. Says I: "I drives er dray fer Marse Mansfiel' up en Macon, an' “What you got en dat bag, Charlie ?' I works hard. I ain' got no time ter hunt up deir; I “Den 'e say, 'Hit 's er long way ter de station, an' got er wife an' fambly ter tek cyah of. So when I come ef my wife had n'be'n sick she'd hatter done 'thout down hyah ter my aunt's fun'al, I fetch erlong er trap 'taters.' ter sot out, 'cause nigger 'bleege ter hab possum some “ Jedge, 'e ain' say 'taters en de bag: des keep on time. An' I sot hit out en de fur corner of er corn-fiel talk'n' roun' 'bout es sick wife an' bein' tired. Den I en de edge er de swamp, by er black-gum tree, ter cotch wan’ ter see how big er liar de nigger kin be, an’ I ax er possum. I ain' got but fo' days down hyah, Jedge, de question erg'in. 'Bout dat time, while he was studyin' an' I go ter dat trap ev'y mornin' 'bout day, 'spectin' up er new lie, I see de possum twist en de bag, an' right ter fin' er possum deir ter tek home ter my wife an deir I re'ch out my han' an' grab de bag fom 'im, an’ fambly. Las', one mornin' I go deir an' I see possum shek hit, 'cause I was determ' ter see what en dat bag. signs all ober der place. I say, ' Peter, bless goodness! He ain' try ter hender me, an' he better not, 'cause ef dat sho big-bo' possum. Den I say 'g'in, "Huh, dat 'e had, deir 'd er b’en er rookus right deir. Well, strong possum! Done tote trap off. But I knowed Jedge, I shuk, an' I shuk, an'I shuk, but nuthin' drap. 'e ain' tote hit fur, an' I 'gin ter look erbout. I look, An' den I say: an I look, an' I look. Ain' see no possum nowhar! “Charlie, look like dem 'taters mus' hab toofs an' Den bimeby I see nigger track, an' 'bout dat time I toe-nails ter hol' on wid.' An' I shuk erg'in. know wha' de matter. I was sho mad. I des tek dat «« Charlie,' says I, des so,' mebbe dem 'taters got de trail like er houn' dog. Jedge, ef I had er-cotch dat tail wrap' roun' er knot en de bag’; an’ wi' dat I turn

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hit wrong side out, an' down drap de possum wid he oftener ef hit war n't fur dese hyah biggitty town nigfoot en de trap. De lyin' nigger threw up bofe han's, gers an' dey traps."

“Go on with your story.” The judge rapped the Lordy mussy! what dat possum gwine do wid dat table with his knuckles.

“ Yes, sir. Well, Jedge, by dat time de fool puppy “ Jedge, I done eat dat possum; hyah he foot en plum’out er hearin', an' I knowed he done struck er fox. de trap, hyah de trap, an' deir de nigger. He ain' Hit was de • July' blood en 'im. I'gin ter look round done me right, no 'e ain'."

fur home, 'cause day breakin', when I stumble on There was silence for a few moments. Fingal Cave sumpin', an’, bless God! deir was de possum settin'right Scotland, the oldest man on the jury, bent his gray 'fo' me. I says, 'Charlie, hyah possum de Lord sont head down close to the ear of Obadiah Lafayette and you.' Possum he settin'up deir by esse'f, an' eyes des whispered solemnly. The face of the Rev. Septimus er-shinin'. I says: "Huh! dis possum he sick. No, Smith, who sat at the other end of the jury, was grave. possum ain' sick; he des too fat ter trabbel. I sho eat Others exchanged comments. Evidently it was a threat- dis possum.' Den I look erg'in. Dah, now! Possum ening moment for Charlie, but Charlie came to the hitch en er trap! I say ter merse'f, Charlie, dis ain' stand smilingly.

yo' possum; dis somebody else's possum. You ain' “ Hit's des lak dis, Jedge,” he began. “I ain' no gwine tek 'n'er man's possum, is you?' Den I say, 'No; town nigger, an' I 'm proud er de troof. I ain' so course I ain' gwine tek dis hyah possum! What I want triflin' I cyan't git work whar I was borned, an' hat ter wid 'n'er man's possum?' an' walk right off, sort er run ter town. An' I 'm proud er de troof erg’in. Dese singin' ter merse'f, · Racoon tail am ringed all roun'.' hyah town niggers ”- and all eyes were directed to- “I git 'bout fifteen foot erway, an' den I kin' er natward the late witness dey 'low as how dey own de ch'lly look back, an', Jedge, hit 's God's troof, dat little whole worl' an' ev’yt'ing dat wears hair er fedders ole possum settin' back deir on dat trap look so col'an' fom hen-roos’ ter possum holler. Dey ain' satisfy en shiv'rin', I feel sorry fur’im - settin' back deir 'way out town; dey mus' come down hyah an' bre'k up de ole- en de wet swamp so col’ an' lonesome, an' de owls time huntin' an' fishin' wi’ dey trapsions an' dey nets. des er-hollerin' an' de heel-taps er-hammerin' up en Ef dey 'd come lak er white man an' hunt wid er dog de dead trees. I says ter merse'f:. Charlie, you sho an' er gun, hit ’u'd er be'n diffunt, an' folks 'u'd had ain' gwine lef' dat po' little possum out hyah all by some 'spec' fur 'em. Ain' dat so, Unc' Finger? esse'f en de big swamp, es you? Sumpin' boun’ter cotch

This appeal to the prejudices of the country negro 'im sho.' Den I says: “Who’e belong ter, anyhow? Did had an immediate effect upon the jury.

de man wha' sot dat trap raise 'im ? Does dat man “ Hit sho es de troof,” replied Fingal; and his com- own dis hyah lan'? Does 'e own de holler tree dis hyah panions seemed to coincide with him.

The prisoner po' little wand'rin' possum born en? No;'e don't,' says continued :

I. Possum is es own boss.' Den I go back an' look “ Jedge, I sort er like possum merse'f, but I ain' 'im en de eye, an’I say, ' Little possum, you col', ain't sot no trap. I hunt 'im wid de dog an' de torch like er you?' An', bless goodness! he smile cl’ar back twell es man. Dat night I was out tryin' ter show er fool puppy jaw-toof shine. An' I says, ' Does you wan' ter git en how ter trail, an' bimeby he opened up an’ lit out. I Charlie's warm bag an' go 'long back ter sleep? 'An' says ter merse'f, •Charlie, you gwine ter hab possum 'e smile erg’in. An' I says, “All right; but how 'bout fur dinner.' An' 'bout dat time I des natch’lly laugh dat trap?' An', Jedge, den dat possum look se'. out loud. You gwine ter hab barbecue possum,' says ious, an' lay es nose down on es leg. I tell 'im den : 1. Jedge, I see dat possum right 'fo' me en de dish, · Little possum, Charlie ain'gwine lef you out hyah en brown all over."

de col', an' you be’n up all night. He gwine ter drap A slight shudder shook the form of the Rev. Septimus you en de bag, 'cause you yo' own boss an' kin come Smith, and a momentary sensation swayed the other an'go; but ef you fetch dat trap erlong, hits yo' own jurymen. It was as a little breeze wandering in among 'sponsibleness. Charlie ain' got no business ter tech sleepy rushes.

’n’er man's trap. But I gwine shet bose eyes, an' deir "I seed dem split sweet ’taters roun' dat possum won' be no witnuss.' like er yaller hawberry chain roun' er nigger gal's “ Den de possum he smile erway back erg'in, an' I neck. I seed de brown gravy leakin' down es sides drap 'im en de bag, bose eyes shet. An', Jedge, dat 's as 'e lay deir cryin' fur joy all ober, an’ er jug er 'sim- de Lord's troof. I ain'tech dat trap. Deir hit es down mon beer —"

deir on de flo', wi’ de possum han' still on hit. I ain' · Hyah! hyah! hyah! hyah-h-h-h! Hyah! hyah! git er smell er dat possum, an' I ain' stole nuthin'." hyah! Hoo-ee-e!"

There was a murmur of applause as Charlie conThis explosion came from Fingal Cave Scotland, who cluded, but this was quickly repressed. The justice, doubled up, and would have fallen out of the chair but putting on his glasses, read the law as to wild anifor the restraining hand of his next neighbor. The sen- mals to the jury, and explained what was meant by larsation was complete; the little breeze had become a ceny; and the jury retired. When they returned they whirlwind.


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brought in a verdict of “ Not guilty.” This was exThe court administered a ponderous rebuke, and the plained afterward by the Rev. Septimus Smith. He said witness proceeded :

that the jury was clearly of the opinion that a possum “ Hit was des dat way, Jedge; an' I hope yo' was no man's property until actually in his possession, Hono' ain' t'ink hard er Unc' Finger fur his natch'l and that if the trap was stolen, it had been stolen by feelin's, 'cause las' possum I taste hit war fixed up the possum and not by Charlie Brood. an'on es table like I tell yer. An' dey 'd be deir more

Harry Stillwell Edwards.


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