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the hopper of a box-like machine full of ing through a continuous orchard of the small iron rods extending crosswise. As fruit for many miles. Immense quantities the corn passes through, the silk that is are sent to market by steam and sail attached to it catches on the rods, which boats, and an equal number are used in can be readily removed from time to time the canning and evaporating establishand cleaned. The corn has to be cooked ments, yet in addition many millions of very much longer than the tomatoes, but baskets are shipped by rail. The quantiin most other respects the work of can- ties of peaches canned and evaporated in ning is the same. Farmers who do not that region are almost if not entirely themselves can, but raise corn for others to equal to the enormous output by rail and put up, often realize as high as fifty dol- boat. Many a grower of peaches has a lars an acre for their corn at the cannery, thousand acres of trees in his orchards. and have the fodder left for their own In this same part of the State several vegcattle.

etables are canned, such as asparagus, The canning of crabs is carried on, but peas, and beans, while apples, pears, not very extensively. It is one of the plums, apricots, and quinces, which are industries that still awaits thorough de- grown with wonderful success, are also velopment. The experience of the past preserved in this way for winter use. Of has shown that this might be done on a the smaller fruits, such as strawberries, very much larger scale, and with profit. raspberries, and blackberries, large quanThe crabs are so abundant in the Chesa- tities are annually canned. peake that if they were systematically But there is still one more important captured for canning purposes the indus- feature of Maryland canning, - that of try might become a vast one. They are oysters. Besides the enormous output of so numerous that in many places there is these bivalves from the Chesapeake in the no market for them. In the Chesapeake shell or shucked in large vessels, and for thousands of them are often dragged to planting and farming in other waters, the shore by the nets of the fishermen there are also immense quantities sent out to die or to creep back. Sometimes the

in cans.

This industry is carried on chiefly fishermen club them to death, to keep in Baltimore. Scows laden with oysters them from getting back into their nets. are towed to that city from all parts of In great storms they are cast up on the the bay, and their contents are carried beach in windrows. Near the canneries from the wharves to the canneries in wagthere is always a ready sale for them, and There the process of preparing them some persons make a dollar and a half or is carried on. First they are opened by two dollars a day selling them at a cent a hand. This process is one with which dozen or ten cents a bushel. Four million every person who has eaten oysters at the pounds of crabs are annually sent out of “raw-box) of a restaurant is somewhat Maryland waters alone, the greater part familiar. The usual thin-bladed oysterof these being still in their shells. This knife is used. The oyster, being rested on abundant supply indicates something of a little iron anvil, is struck with the hanwhat the canning of crabs might become dle of the knife; the shell is thus broken if the industry were developed, as it no at the edge, and at this point the blade is doubt will be in the future.

inserted. A twist of the knife pries open The peach orchards of Maryland are now the shell. chiefly confined to that part known as the No satisfactory way of opening oysters Eastern Shore, a name which is given to by machinery has yet been invented, since four ninths of the peninsula on the east there is always danger of splintering the side of the Chesapeake, three ninths of shell and thus mixing sharp fragments which belong to Delaware, and two ninths with the meats. The buckets of oysters to Virginia. There is no part of the are then carried along to the cans, and world where the peach is cultivated to so these, when filled, are passed on to the large an extent or with such marked suc- capper. When sealed they are placed in

The peach orchards between the a bath of hot water, and are then rendered upper portions of Delaware and Maryland air-tight. Canned oysters nowadays find and Cape Charles are vast and almost in- their chief market, of course, in regions numerable, so that the traveller on the remote from the coast. . Twenty years railroad that runs from north to south ago there were hundreds of towns not through this peninsula seems to be pass- more than two hundred miles from the



coast, that on account of their distance from a railroad received oysters only in cans. But the multiplication of railroads and the daily running of special oyster trains from the eastern cities have changed all this. Now oysters in the shell, and shucked oysters by the gallon, are to be had daily in all the large towns within a thousand miles of the Atlantic coast. But yet there remains market enough in the farther interior for all the oysters that can be packed.

All of these and other canned goods now occupy a very large place in the food sup

ply of the world. They enable us to have large quantities of summer food for winter use, and to enjoy in remote parts of the world, or on the high seas, the fruits of home. But, still further, they enable the laboring man and the poor to obtain a great variety of good food, wholesome and nourishing, with little expenditure of money, as these goods are put upon the market at extremely low prices. Thus the art of canning foods may justly be classed among the important inventions of our age.


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He origin of a people may be sought

in several ways. It may be sought

by an examination of the history which embodies the traditions of the race and perpetuates the dramatic and economic incidents of its development. This method in the present instance is by no means the most reliable. A second source of information is found in the method of philology, which examines the structure and grammatical affinities of the language. A third method is pursued by anthropology, which studies the physical characteristics of the race and the conditions of its environment, and examines the evidence found in the height, color of skin and hair, shape of the skull, temperament, etc., of the individual members of the race. Anthropology in its widest sense includes the craniology which studies the skulls exhumed from ancient mounds, and archæology, which examines the ruins of towns and buildings to determine their architectural affinities.

The orthodox account of the origin of the English as found in the ordinary textbook is not remarkable for complexity. We are simply told that England was once occupied by a people called the Britons, who were subsequently conquered by the Romans, and that after the withdrawal of the Romans the island was invaded by the Saxons, who exterminated the original inhabitants (with the exception of a remnant in Wales) and occupied the country. Unfortunately for the veracity of history and the cherished illusions of youth, this theory, on a closer analysis, has proved to be somewhat imaginative. There has of recent years arisen a school of ethnologists

who from a critical examination of the very meagre documentary records of the Saxon invasion have inclined very strongly to doubt if the Britons were really exterminated by their conquerors, or that the Saxons invaded the country in numbers sufficiently great to become a dominant numerical element in the population.

It is a curious fact that every history of England relating to the Saxon conquest is based almost exclusively on the chronicles of an ecclesiastic called Gildas, reputed to have lived about the middle of the sixth century, and who wrote an epistle concerning the invasion of the Saxons. The “Historia Britonius” of Nennius, the chronicle of Beda, and in fact every later history, have drawn their facts regarding the conquest of the Britons from this earlier record of Gildas. The only other available sources of information are the casual allusions to the event found in the classical and Byzantine historians, who mentioned it only incidentally. There is no British or contemporaneous account apart from two traditions found in the Welsh Triads, which we will take up later. The work of Gildas itself is not contemporary, but was written a generation subsequent to the conquest, and is founded, not on personal knowledge or earlier records, but on information furnished the historian by certain exiles from Britain to Armorica, where he resided. So far as the history of Gildas deals with the Roman invasion or describes the character of the Britons previous to the coming of the Saxons it is decidedly unreliable and conflicts with the statements of Tacitus and other Roman his


torians whose authority is much to be origin of the British are found in the Welsh preferred. But regarding the Saxon in- Triads, which contain the genealogy and vasion it is impossible to test the credi- history of that people as preserved by bility of his narrative in the absence of their lineal descendants. Both the veother histories, except by an analysis of racity and the authenticity of the Triads of the text.

course are open to suspicion, but as their According to Gildas the Saxons practic account of the Roman occupation reveals cally exterminated the Britons, destroying no striking disparity from that of the clasmany in battle, and driving some over the sic historians or from a rational inter

A few were reduced to slavery, and pretation of facts preserved from other the rest were slaughtered in the moun- sources, there is a very reasonable pretains. Previously he had stated (in con- sumption that their evidence on other tradiction to Cæsar and Tacitus) that the epochs will reveal an equal veracity - a Britons were cowards and could be sub- proper allowance of course being made dued by threats; and subsequently he for an inevitable partiality arising from describes a victory of the British over the racial sympathy. Saxons and states that there were no The Triads relate the arrival and setmore wars with foreigners, but only civil tlement in England of three tribes who contests in the country.

came from the East. The first of these to Now this is all a tissue of contradictions. arrive was the Cymry, who came from the If the Britons were cowards, how could land of Har (said to be in the neighborthey engage in a prolonged and bloody hood of Constantinople). The Cymry were war with the Saxons? If they could be followed by the Lloegrians and the Britsubdued by threats, why were they sub- ons. These last two tribes, though later in dued by the sword? If they were annihi- arrival, were of the same primitive stock lated, how could they win a battle subse- as the Cyinry. Subsequent to the arrival quently or engage in civil wars among of these tribes in the country came others themselves after the wars with the for- who did not obtain their lands by conquest, eigner? If they were slaughtered in the but by treaty and agreement with the hills of Wales, why do several millions first arrivals, and who were not admitted of their descendants dwell there to-day? to the privileges of pure-born Cymry till Such contradictions as these make one sus- the ninth generation. These were the picious of Gildas, and there are other Caledonians and the Gwyddylians, who historic facts to justify the suspicion. settled in the north; and the Gwyn GaleWe know from Cæsar that Britain was din, who settled in the Isle of Wight. very populous in his time, and the popu- After them came three more tribes, who lation must have increased before the took forcible possession of the land they coming of Hengist. Gildas states that the occupied. These were the Coranians, the Saxons came in three keels, which would Gwyddyle Ffichte, and the Saxons. certainly not justify the inference that As to the origin of the Britons (or Cymtheir numbers were large. Other inva- ry) and their place of residence previous sions, of course, there were, but it is much to their migration to England, nothing to be doubted if any large body of Saxons very definite is known; but the Triads dewould transport their families in small clare they came from the ast, — from a boats over the stormy sea into an land apparently in the neighborhood of known land held by a warlike foe when Greece. A very interesting attempt has other countries equally fertile lay before recently been made to identify the Cymry them in Europe. It is more reasonable with the ancient Greeks. It has been to suppose that the Saxon invasion was shown that there is a close resemblance rather one of an army than a people; that between the Greek language and the it was followed by an essentially military

Welsh. Cæsar declares * that the Greek occupation of the country like that of the writing was used by the Druids in their English in India; and that the great body forms of worship at the time of his of the people remained Celtic in character, arrival in England. And not only the adopting officially the language and the language, but the doctrine itself, both in institutions of their conquerors.

If this its external forms and, so far as is known, is the case the English are not of Saxon in its esoteric philosophy, bore a very sigorigin.

nificant resemblance to the worship of The earliest traditions concerning the * De Bello Gallico, vi. 14.


Apollo as practised in ancient Greece. English have been sought by anthropology The teachings of the Druids have much in through a study of the physical history common with those of Pythagoras, and and characteristics of the race and its the use of the harp is strongly suggestive natural environment, the remains of its of the Eleusinian mysteries. References ancient cities and monuments, and the to communications between Britain and contents of ancient graveyards. The Greece are not wanting in the Grecian his- English of to-day are chiefly a dark-haired torians. Strabo refers to the commerce be- race, while the Saxons were fair. A tween the two countries, and Diodorus de- Saxon origin has been inferred from the scribes an island lying opposite to the land fact that the English are tall and powerof the Celts and states that its inhabitants, fully-built relatively to the present dethe Hyperboreans, were in intimate rela- scendants of the Celts, but it has been tions with the Greeks and worshipped shown that the ancient Britons were also Apollo. A closer identity is found in the tall and athletic in their habits. The resemblance between the Greeks and evidence of craniology is also of interest, English, both in their mental and phys- though somewhat conflicting. The Celt ical characteristics, and a very interesting and especially the Cymry are supposed to psychological parallel might be drawn to have a long oval skull, while that of the illustrate their racial identity.

Saxon is said to be short and round. An So far as the evidence of philology examination of the ancient mounds regoes it may be said that while the English veals the persistence of the oval or dolilanguage shows strong grammatical evi- chocephalic skull long after the Saxon dence of a Teutonic origin its vocabulary conquest, and in the graves of subsequent is not wholly Teutonic. It is doubtful if generations both the brachycephalic and more than a third of the words in the vo- dolichocephalic types are found side by cabulary are Saxon derivatives, and the side, seeming to indicate the existence of presence of a pronounced Cymric element two races in the country. The dolichois very obvious, particularly in the names cephalic skull is very prevalent in Engof rivers and localities. The English lan- land to-day. guage is also remarkable for the irregu- On the whole, the burden of the evi. larity of its pronunciation,-a quality in dence favors the existence of a strong which it differs strikingly from the lan- Celtic element in the English population guages of Europe and displays an emphat- of to-day. It might be said that there ic affinity to Welsh: It is impossible in a were other invasions of a Teutonic elesketch like this to quote the many instan- ment - the Danish and the Norman ces which indicate the lingual demarca- which would neutralize that element and tion of English from the original Teutonic vitiate this conclusion, but such is not the branch or from the German language of

Both these invasions were military to-day. Even in the grammar itself, sup

and not numerically formidable. The posed to be wholly Teutonic, a striking Danish settlements were largely confined differentiation is apparent.

to the coast. It is a mistake to suppose The evidence of a language, however, is that the Normans were an exclusively not necessarily conclusive as to the origin Gothic people at the time of their invasion of a people. We know that the French of England. In the interval between their are not of Italic origin, though their lan- conquest of France and their conquest of guage is saturated with Latin idioms rem- England they had intermarried and beiniscent of the Roman occupation. On the come absorbed in the Frankish people, and other hand the Normans, originally of they doubtless recruited their army and Gothic stock, abandoned their native lan- camp-followers largely from the Celts. As guage to adopt that of the Franks, whom far as the Danes are concerned there is they conquered. The Irish of to-day speak no necessity to believe that they were English. On purely philological grounds, exclusively akin to the Saxons. Berzelius therefore, one might infer that the French declares that there was a strong Cymric were descendants of the Romans; that the element in the population both of Den.. Normans were of French origin; or that mark and Sweden, and the presence of the Irish were descended from the Eng- the dolichocephalic skulls in old Scandilish,- a

a very startling conclusion which navian graves tends to confirm his conclumakes one suspicious of philology.

ETHELBERT F. H. CROSS. Other evidences of the origin of the







He drive home to Rosseau consumed - main, with every variety of form and pre

so Mrs. Kinglake afterwards banter- sentation in which the idea took shape in

ingly said — an unconscionable time. her mind, and with innumerable catechizTo Lady Isabel and Leighton the hours ings of Leighton as to the incidents conpassed on the way, when they thought nected with the tragic story he had related at all of time — seemed to have wings. in the English magazine, formed the subOn one side, however, there was much to ject of conversation between the two on say, and, on the other, much to hear. Nor the homeward drive to Maplehurst. Bemust it be supposed that love was at pres- yond reciting in detail his own experience ent the theme. Turned by the disclosure and conclusions in regard to what had hapof Mrs. Kinglake once more to the subject pened in the case of his friend in British of her sad bereavement, the heart of Lady Honduras (which formed the groundwork Isabel was full of the thought that had of the magazine story) he could of course for some time taken possession of it. This contribute no new material to his compan

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was the conviction that her husband was ion's enlightenment. Both by look and by still living, but that, having received in- voice, however, he contributed much to juries in his fall from the cliff which would her immediate solacement. And yet, permake him a helpless cripple, he preferred haps, he perplexed the poor widow as that his wife should think him dead rather much as he succeeded in consoling her. than wound her sensitiye feelings and be a Why, he asked Isabel, should she think life-long burden on her hands by suffering it likely that because there were incidents himself to be restored to her. This, in the in his story which led her to believe that

*Concluded from SELF CULTURE for September, Vol. X, No. 1, p. 76.

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