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series) on Local History,-" Guildford and its Neigh- NATURE PRINTING.-As the priority of this invention is a bourhood at the Time of the Doomsday Book." Mr. matter of some interest at the present time, it may be useful to Cowden Clarke, has given two lectures on the subordi- mention that Dr. Branson has written evidence of his attempts nate characters in-1st " Cymbeline," and "The Two at nature printing so far back as 1848; when he received from Gentlemen of Verona; 2nd, "King John" and "The Mr. Maund, publisher and author of the "Botanist," a letter Winter's Tale; this gentleman invariably attracts acknowledging the receipt of certain specimens: Mr. Maund says: large audiences; his truly philosophic analysis -The gutta percha impressions are interesting, and also shadow the variety of character, and his nice appreciation of "a fern be taken in gutta percha, with the ultimate intention of "forth ideas of progress in the art of copying. If an impression of the lights and shadows so dexterously introduced by depositing metal in it, to produce a plate for surface printing, "Glorious old Willie," combined with a good-humoured" may not the gutta percha mould have thin coats of size and bluntness in the expression of his opinions, render him a "wh ting repeatedly applied, so as to leave the impression great favourite. A Lecture on the "Wonders of Me- deeper, and consequently to produce an electro-plate with the chanical Philosophy," by Prof. Partington, was received "line more prominent, hereby enabling the letter-press printer with marked attention and interest, as was also one "to obtain an impression from the lines alone, repre(gratuitous,) by Mr. H. Medlock, of London, on the senting the prominent views, without interference of Chemistry of Organic Life;" this lecture concluded On the 6th of December, 1850, Dr. Branson read a paper on the "the intermediate spaces, which should be without colour.' HORNCASTLE.-The Annual General Meeting of the subject to the Sheffield Literary and Philosophical Society; and on the next day the following notice appeared in the Sheffield Mechanic's Institution, was held on Friday, the 6th inst. Times :-" Dr. Branson has described to the Sheffield Literary Mr. Thos. Meredith, V.P. in the chair. The meeting "and Philosophical Society this process. His mode of operation was one of the largest ever held in the Society's room. "is to place a frond of fern, algæ, or similar flat vegetable form, After auditing the Treasurer's accounts, the report of the" on a thick piece of glass or polished marble; then taking and committee was read, from which it appeared that the "softening a piece of gutta percha of proper size, and placing it recent alterations in the rules, by which newspapers were "on the leaf and pressing it carefully down, it will receive a admitted into the reading-room had been productive of sharp and accurate impression from the plant. The gutta percha, retained level, and allowed to harden by cooling, is great advantage to the Institution. Several new members had been elected during the year, not only filling up "then handed to a brass-caster, who reproduces it in metal from the "his moulding base. This, it will be obvious, is the most delivacancies caused by deaths, removals, and resignations, but" cate and difficult part of the process. Dr. Branson has many increasing the total number of members. The readingbrass plates thus produced from sand-casting, which only room was regularly attended by a large number of mem- require a little surface-dressing to yield at once, under the hers, and the sub-librarian's register showed the total copperplate printing press, most beautiful as well as faithful number of books and periodicals taken out of the room for impressions of the original leaves; indeed many of the exhiperusal during the year to have been upwards of 4,000, "bited specimens of ferns, printed in green colour, and slightly being an increase of 1,400 above the entry for 1852. "embossed, as they must be, by the printing, were such perfect Altogether the Institution appears to be in a more "fac-similies of the natural pattern, that they might easily be "taken for it. Besides, these matters, the Doctor exhibited a prosperous state than it has exhibited for some years. Sir Henry Dymoke, Bart., the Honourable the Queen's " produced by a somewhat analogous operation. As, however, large variety of patterns of embossed leather, which had been Champion, was unanimously elected a Vice Patron of the "this invention is not so much for copying designs as for creInstitution. The following annual officers were also "ating them, and at the same time saving all the expense of elected for the current year :-President, Richard "die-cutting, the following is the course pursued:-The operator Clitherow, Esq.; Vice Presidents, Dr. Boulton and "takes a piece of common hard white soap of the required size Messrs. S. Sketchley, J. Carter, and W. Smith; Trea-" and surface, and upon that executes any design, whether surer, Mr. W. A. Rayson; Secretary, Mr. Charles Dee; "of the depth and boldness of ordinary embossing, or Librarian, Mr. D. Worthington. in the delicate lines of an etching; in either case the "work is executed with the greatest ease. From this soap "model or engraving an impression is taken in gutta percha; from that a secondary one, which, on being cast in brass, as before, may be used for printing or embossing in the ordinary way. The Doctor stated that his main difficulty was in getting the last gutta percha coat to separate from the "mould of the same substance into which it was pressed. He common bronze dust, before taking the impression, they did had found, however, that by powdering both surfaces with


A METHOD of extracting the Iodine from its connection with metals, up to the last remnant, and in a perfectly pure state, by one operation, has, it is said, been discovered by Dr. H. Schwarz, Professor of Techmical Chemistry at Breslau.-It is reported that the method is no less simple then inexpensive.

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IODISED MANURES AS A REMEDY FOR THE VINE DISEASE. It is doubtless well known to most of our readers that the vineyards of Southern Europe and the Madeiras have been blighted by a microscopic acarus, the Oidium Tuckeri, and that the price of wines, raisins. &c., has been considerably raised. It has, however, been ascertained that the use of manures rich in iodine, enable the vine to resist these destroyers. In certain districts of Spain decomposed seaweeds are ordinarily used as TUES. manure. In those parts in which the amount of iodine in the soil may average 1-600,000, the vines have entirely escaped.The Artizan Journal.

ARAB CALCULATION.-The utmost exactitude is required at Alexandria in checking the number of boxes which forms the India, China, and Australian mail passing through Egypt. The illiterate Arabs who take charge of the mails in that WED. country have a unique and unerring method of keeping an account of the number of boxes, and which is done by a string of beads; as each box is passed before the eye of the Arab a bead is thrown over his shoulder, where one end of the string rests. The power of mental abstraction possessed by the Arab, together with the simplicity of his numerical operation, enables him, amidst confusion and noise, to keep an exact account of any number of boxes of which he is to take charge, without any chance of a mistake.



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1633. Philippe Poirier de St. Charles, of Fulham-Improvements
in apparatus for measuring and indicating the distance tra-
velled by cabs and other vehicles.

1636. Ewald Riepe, of Finsbury square-Improvements in the ma-
nufacture of turret or clock tower and such like bells.
1696. Jean Baptiste Jelie, of Alost, Belgium-Improved machinery
for dressing or polishing thread.

on water.

1711. Donald Brims, of No. 159, Southwark Bridge road-Improved
safety apparatus for the protection and preservation of life
1806. Peter Armand Le Comte de Fontainemoreau, 4, South street,
Finsbury, and 39, Rue de l'Echiquier, Paris-Improved
mode of regulating the electric light.

2042. John Clare, junior, of Liverpool-Improvements in the con-
struction of iron houses, vessels, masts, spars, smoke-funnels,
boilers, cylinders, beams, and other like structures or
2236. James Willis, of Wallingford-Improvements in gig harness.
2338. George Frederick Chantrell, of Liverpool-Improved appa-
ratus applicable to the manufacturing aud the revivification
of animal or vegetable charcoal, and other useful purposes.
John Fordred, of Dover, and Thomas Boyle, of Forest Gate,
Essex-Improvements in daylight reflectors, and in appa-
ratus to be used in connection therewith.



Thomas Dunn, of Windsor Bridge Iron Works, Pendleton, near Manchester, and William Gough, of 21, Old Compton street-Improvements in the manufacture of veneers, and in machinery and apparatus connected therewith. 2632. William Hadfield, of Manchester-Certain improvements in looms for weaving.

2636. Matthew Gray, of Glasgow-Improvements in weft forks for power looms.

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and bleaching.

2990. J. Margerison, Preston-Railway breaks.
2992. G. A. Buchholz, Gould square, Crutched friars-Cleaning, &c.,

2994. T. Cooper, Leeds-Binding of ledgers and books.

Dated 27th December, 1853.



2998. G. J. Mackelcan, Lechlade, Gloucester - Winnowing machines.
3000. T. S. Prideaux, St. John's Wood-Apparatus for regulating 1785.
supply of air to furnaces, and for preventing radiation, &c.
Dated 28th December, 1853.

3002. J. Parkinson, Bury-Governors.
3004. J. Taylor, Birkenhead-Raising and lowering weights.
3006. J. Alexis, Avignon-Railway break.
3008. J. Mackintosh, 12, Pall Mall East-Discharging projectiles.
3010. F. Parker, Northampton-Gaiters.
3012. D. M'Nee, Hill-feld, Kirkintillock, and A. Broadfoot, 128,
Ingram street, Glasgow-Printing with colours on cloth, &c.
Dated 29th December, 1853.

William Levesley, of Sheffield-Improved method of making

table knife blades.

William Huntley, of Ruswarp, near Whitby-Improvements
in engines worked by steam, air, or fluids.
Thomas Banks, of Derby, and Henry Banks, of Wednesbury-
Improvements in apparatus for retarding and stopping rail-
way trains, which improvements are also applicable to
Peter Armand Le Comte de Fontainemoreau, 4, South street,
vehicles travelling on common roads.
Finsbury, London, and 39, Rue de l'Echiquier, Paris-Im-
proved mode of producing an electric current.

1919. William Hunt, of Lee Brook Chemical Works, near Wednes-
bury-Certain improvements in manufacturing sulphuric

1961. William Rettie, of Aberdeen-Improved construction of sub-
marine lamp.
2065. Robert Harrington, of Witham-Improvements in umbrellas
and parasols.

2601. James Atkins, of Birmingham-Improvement or improve-
ments in ash pits for grates.

3014. H. Jackson, High street, Poplar-Moulding bricks, &c.
3016. M. Phillips, Birmingham-Metallic revolving shutters. (A 2609.
3018. J. White, East street, Red Lion square-Friction joints.
3020. C. A. Roux, Belleville, Paris, and 16, Castle street, Holborn-2613.
Printing warps of cut pile, &c.

3022. A. V. Newton, 66, Chancery lane-Screws. (A communication.) 2621.

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Alexandre André Victor Sarrazin de Montferrier, of Paris, and of 4, South street, Finsbury-New rotatory steam engine.

Richard Dryburgh, of Leith-Improvements in the means of
holding staves while being cut.

Johan Martin Levien, of Davies street, Grosvenor square-
Improved construction of expanding table.

Sealed 11th January, 1854.

1645. George Agar, of Witham, Essex-An apparatus for holding
and turning over the leaves of music or music books.
1650. George Dalton, of Lymington-Improvemenis in reverberatory
and other furnaces.
1651. Felix Lieven Bauwens, of Pimlico-Improvements in the
manufacture of candles.

1607. Thomas Newey, of Garbett street, Birmingham-Improve-652. ments in fastenings for wearing apparel.

1616. John Woodward, of Platt street-An apparatus for curling hair.

1628. William Robertson, of Rochdale-Improvements in machinery for preparing, spinning, and doubling cotton wool, and other fibrous substances.

Date of No. in the Registration. Register.

Joseph Bacon Finnemore, of East Row, Birmingham-Improvements in sofa springs, useful for spring-stuffed upholstery work generally, and in the adaptation thereof to mattresses.

658. James Fletcher, of Facit, rear Rochdale-Certain improvements in machinery used for spining, doubling, and winding cotton, wool, flax, silk, and other fibrous materials.



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No. 61. Vol. II.]


[Jan. 20, 1854.

multiplied production to make him a participator of the

Journal of the Society of Arts. cheapness of which they are the authors.

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But such inventions as at once provide to a great extent new channels of employment, and transfer the labourer from a task destructive of his constitution, to one which is promotive of health, must come into the category of public blessings, instead of being resisted as a foe and a mischievous intruder; the evil, if any, in the present instance, is immensely counterbalanced by the vast benefit in the future. And this is the position claimed for the Sewing Machine.

Were the invention now before you entirely British, it would find its prompt excuse and justification in the deleterious vocation of the needlewoman. For years past, the fruits of whose industry have borne so frightfully public sympathy has been awakened in behalf of a class, inadequate a proportion to their toil and necessities; the voice of the philanthropist, the masculine denunciation of the public organs, the pitiful wail of the inspired Poet, the earnest combination of the charitable Gentlewomen, alive to the privations and struggles of poor Sempstresses, have all conspired, but, alas! with slight effect, to mitigate the sufferings generated by the pursuit of a calling, in which the maximum of labour realises but the minimum of reward.

The following Institutions have been taken Emigration has rescued a few from the miseries of into Union since the last announcement:their position, and the extension of the fields of employment for females has led to the adoption by others of pro328. Ashton and Dukinfield, Mechanics' Institution. fessions of a less prejudical character then that of the dress329. Croydon, Literary and Scientific Institution. maker; but as long as there is a demand for needlework, 330. East Dereham, Institute. and that demand can be supplied by human hands, there 331. Masham, Mechanics' Institution and Literary Society. will be numerous disciples of the trade, because it is Previous to the reading of the Paper, the learnt with ease, and can be followed at an early period Secretary stated that he had received a commu- the position it necessitates upon the human form, the conof life its ultimate effect upon the eyes, the influence of nication from M. Demolon, of Paris, relative to sequences to the lungs and the general health, of the Fish Guano, accompanied with a sample, in which confinement in crowded rooms or small and close aparthe said that he had been, for some time past, ments which must be the portion of the Sempstress, all manufacturing it to a considerable extent. With are forgotten in the pressure of the moment, and the eager desire to eat the bread of industry. Hundreds of reference to the supply of fish for the purpose, thousands at this moment toil in unwholesome, localities M. Demolon had found there was no difficulty at a pernicious avocation for many hours a-day, for wages in procuring any amount at about 20 francs, that barely tend to hold life and soul together, neglecting, or 16 shillings, per ton. The Secretary also in the ardour stimulated by want, the adoption of purcalled attention to some samples of a substance suits of a more profitable and health-promoting character. In this view and who shall say that it is false or exreceived from Madras, which appeared similar, aggerated-the Sewing Machine is calculated to prove in some respects, to Gutta Percha. Dr. Ferguson an incalculable blessing to the needle-plyers in Great Branson's Specimens illustrative of the applica-Britain, for it must ultimately supersede their devastating tion of Soap as a Means of Art, were exhibited profession. to the meeting, including drawings on soap, plaster and metal casts taken from Gutta Percha impressions of the soap drawing, embossed leather and paper, etchings, &c., &c. The Paper read was


But the Sewing Machine is an American Invention. Machinery is the grand necessity of the United States, for population has not augmented to a point which renders the number of needlewomen adequate to the demand upon their industry. America almost denudes Germany of her Sempstresses, and still production falls infinitely short of her requirements. She is thus compelled to employ Steel and Iron to do the work of humanity, for what is machinery but a mimicry of the physical faculties, multiplied to an almost indefinite extent? And perhaps there is hardly an instance on record, of a more simple application of that principle, than the Sewing Machine presents. It can do the work of between thirty and forty hands; it can accomplish 500 stiches in one minute.

In submitting to the Society of Arts a specimen of a Machine which enjoys an almost unparalleled degree of patronage in Great Britain and America, among those manufacturers for the execution of whose work it is especially intended, I derive a high degree of satisfaction from An example of its great rapidity of motion may here the reflection, that few inventions have wrought so little be quoted:-The Messrs. Nicoll, of Regent-street, whom injury to the interest of the labourers in the department it will be afterwards shown,have been the chief introducers into which it enters as a competitor. To say that a ma- of the Sewing Machine for practical use in England, were chine does not supersede a certain amount of human directed to exhibit the Machine, and specimens of its prohandicraft by an enhanced celerity and increase of produc-ductions, to the Royal Family of Belgium, when recently tion, would be tantamount to registering the uselessness staying at Windsor Castle, and not having a specimen of the invention, and offering a puzzling anomaly for so-completed that they deemed to be worthy of the occasion, lution All machines must, more or less, interfere with the artizan on their first appearance in the labour market, for the simple reason, that they rival his occupation, and cast him upon other resources, before they have sufficiently

one or two Machines were set in motion, and that which was but shapeless cloth, was, within four hours from the receipt of the command, on the road to Windsor in the form of a travelling wrapper, containing a greater number

of stitches than one operative could, in the old manner, have produced in three weeks.

plan for stitching upon quite a different principle, doing away with the shuttle entirely, and forming altogether a different stitch.

I do not wish it to be supposed that I demand credit for originality in the present work. To have improved upon the ideas of others-to have overcome difficulties Aided by the advice and suggestions of eight or nine which to them appeared insuperable-to have discovered American gentlemen, I was enabled to give substantial the vital defect of all previous attempts-and to have operation to this new invention, and, that I might not finally brought the machine into practical and profitable in America, I brought it over to England. The favour again encounter the opposition offered on patent grounds operation, forms the foundation of my claim to your at-with which it was received led to the foundation of a tention. The first attempt at stitching by machinery was

made by Mr. Ellis Howe, of Boston, in the United States. company under the designation of the "Lancashire Sewing He conceived the principle of a stitch made by the use of Machine Company." The progress of the invention was, two threads, worked by means of one needle, and a however, slow and tedious; it suffered from a certain shuttle; but after the expenditure of a great deal of amount of interference with labour, excited jealousy and money it proved an utter failure, for want of practical apprehension, and manufacturers dreaded to experimenmechanical means for working the needle and shuttle. talize with what might raise a rebellion in their establishThis was in the early part of the year 1846. From that ment, without giving them a corresponding advantage. time until 1851 numerous attempts were made to remedy At length the matter was taken up by the enterprising the deficiency, attempts as honourable to the ingenuity of and prosperous firm of Messrs. Nicoll, the clothiers already their authors as they were unfortunate in their results. alluded to, and the practical uses of the machine are now Collecting specimens of these inventions, I proceeded to almost universally recognized. The Messrs. Nicoll knew examine in what respect they failed to fulfil the necessary that Mr. Speckmen, of Belfast, who introduced one of the conditions, and, detecting their deficiency, at length con- machines into his establishment, was at first assaulted and trived to produce a practicable working machine, and placarded, and his life placed in danger by his workmen, offered it to the public. My exultation received an im- but they were also aware, that whereas the same person mediate check. The machine was alleged to be an in- previous to the introduction of the machine had only been fringement upon the invention of Mr. Howe, inasmuch as able to employ seventeen hands, he was now, after purhis machine consisted in the application of a shuttle in chasing four more machines, enabled to give employment combination with a needle for the purpose of sewing and to about 150 hands. Balancing the chances of personal stitching, and I was advised that it could not be brought danger and unpopularity among the working classes, into practice until the expiry of his patent. Thus the law against the certain benefits derivable by the public and which was passed to protect for a time the monopoly of an the operative from the uses of the machine, the Messrs. inventor, became in this instance a clog to improvement. Nicoll decided for the adoption of my invention. It rejected a desideratum to conserve a nullity. Baffled I will now proceed to describe the machine itself, and in this instance, I now determined upon carrying out al the manner in which it works.

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The Society is indebted for this woodcut to the proprietors of the Illustrated London News

fancies in personal decoration; and, better than all, impart to the poor the means of obtaining necessary articles of clothing.

I have said that the general application of the sewingmachine will not have any material influence on the immediate interest of the artizans-that is to say, to the extent of depriving them of the means of subsistence. The machines will, in the first place, require the assistance of one or two hands, thus converting the toilsome labourer into an operative, whose duties will be of an easy and by no means a health-destroying character. The vastly-increased quantity of articles partially produced by augmented rapidity of stitch will create a demand for a greater number of hands in cutting and in finishing; for the machine can neither give a form to the cloth to be sewed, nor work button-holes, nor put on buttons. But, that one fact is worth a thousand conjectures, take the example offered by the very house mentioned by me as giving the earliest encouragement to this machine. They, I am informed, are accustomed to employ, in various ways, a number of operatives, usually exceeding one thousand, and not one has been discharged through the introduction of the machine, but many have been employed in a more profitable and healthy manner.

It is composed of a flat iron surface, about twelve inches square, resting upon four legs of substantial make and form. From one side of this surface an arm rises erect to the height of about ten inches, and then passes over to the opposite side. From the extremity of the arm descends a moveable bar, to the bottom of which is fixed a needle, the eye being about half an inch from the point, and on the top of the arm is fixed a reel or bobbin filled with silk or other thread. Fixed to a main shaft is a wheel turned by a handle, which also can be worked by a treadle, or steam engine, that gives motion to a lever within the arm, and which moves the vertical needle up and down. Beneath the visible surface, or base, is a second reel of thread supplying another needle, which instead of being straight is circular and works horizontally, and consequently at right angles to its stitching companion, which descends from the arm. Supposing the thread to be passed through the eye of each needle, and the apparatus set to work, the process is thus performed: The vertical needle descends and passes through the two pieces of cloth to be united, carrying with it the thread to perhaps half an inch below the under side of the cloth; as the needle rises the thread is left behind in the form of a noose, or loop, through which the horizontal needle passes; the horizontal needle instantly reversing its motion, leaves a loop into which the vertical needle descends. Both needles thus progress, making a series of stitches, each stitch Mr. JUDKIN here showed, by means of a board perforbeing quite fast, even should its neighbour be severed. ated with holes, and two pieces of cord, how the stitch was More than five hundred stitches can be made in this man-made, it being a combination of loops which gave on the ner in one minute. The eloseness and tightness of the under side of the work a "chain" stitch, and on the upper threads are regulated by a screw, and as each stitch is of the ordinary-looking" stiching" stitch. equal tension a great advantage is secured in the regular appearance of the work. The length of the stitch, by turning a small nut, can be increased or diminished to The CHAIRMAN, in inviting discussion, stated that the any degree of fineness, and perfect uniformity secured. paper opened up two or three questions of political The cloth to be worked upon is adjusted by an attend-economy which it would appear to be hardly necessary ant, who with one hand turns the wheel. and with the to discuss in the present day, were it not for the fact that other guides the cloth forward after cach stitch. Some- the operatives appeared, from time to time, to forget that times two hands are employed, a girl or boy giving the introduction of machinery had always, after a short rotatory motion to the wheel, while the other attendant time, proved advantageous to themselves; for though in regulates the movement of the cloth. The operative the first instance it might appear likely to displace labour, by his actions can cause the sewing to be straight, yet, from the increased stimulus that was given to proangular, or circular. duction, and the cheapening the article produced, a demand arose by which, though the same operatives might not be employed, others obtained work at good wages, and added to the wealth of the country.

It will be obvious that, upon the principle o sewing herein applied, an infinite variety of work can be completed; from delicate cambric work to the sewing of the hempen cloth of which sails, sacks, and bags are composed, everything is germane to the machine. In the operation of the tailor and the sempstress it is of the greatest importance. Trousers and shirts are made with extraordinary rapidity. It has been proved over and over again that, excepting in the construction of the buttonholes, a pair of trousers can be fashioned and stitched in less than an hour. And of what vast importance in the affairs of life is this economy of time? A vessel in a gale of wind, or a sudden squall, has her sails rent and tattered. The sailmaker's hands could not supply their places in many days. The machine refits the yards in a few hours. Thousands of bags are needed for erecting fortifications and batteries. The exigency of the service demands the instant raising and equipment of a military force. The contractor for army clothing would require weeks for the production of a thousand of loosely manufactured suits. The machines could equip an army in a day or two. A person has a sudden occasion to leave England for India, or Australia, or China, within twentyfour hours. He needs an outfit of clothes; the machine promptly ministers to his requirements. The cases might be multiplied a hundred-fold. And how many articles to which sewing is now a stranger, may be suggested by the appearance of a process of manufacture hitherto unknown, if not unimagined? Parva componere magnis. The railway has given an impetus to travelling -has created new towns and villages-enlarged th demand for literature, and excited new tastes and desires. In like manner the sewing machine may engender fresh


The machine was also put in motion, and did its work with great rapidity.

Mr. POWELL wished to know, supposing one or two of the vertical stitches of the work were to be cut or wear through, what effect it would have in causing the others to run.

Mr. JUDKIN could not say exactly, but certainly very few would run-not so many as in ordinary stitching.

The SECRETARY wished to mention that he had received from Mr. Douglass some specimens of stitching by another machine, of which, however, he had no explination beyond this--that it was called a back-stitching" machine, and only one thread was used.

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Mr. HEAL wished to know on what data it was stated the machine would do the work of 30 or 40 women. He could bear testimony to the advantages of the machine, but his experience did not lead him to anything like such a difference. He should therefore like to know, in making the calculation, what kind of work was referred to.

Mr. JUDKIN replied, in sewing the seams of garments, such as coats, trowsers, &e.,where close and fine work was required. It was not pretended that it would make buttonholes or put on buttons, neither would it earn the same proportion with regard to cheap work, such as bags &c., where long stitches were taken by the work woman, whilst the machine gave them short and close stitches.

Mr. HEAL said that he employed the machine in making mattresses, but he did not find it would do more than the work of two or three women.

Mr. STOCQUELER had been round to the shops of some most eminent shirt-makers, and asked them what they paid for shirts-how long it would take to make the hons

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