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亦孟 焉之之君國利利以有 子 不家國者危吾吾利 二對 為萬試必矢身家吾 家取其千萬上士國而王 多千君乘乘下應大已何 矣焉者之之交人夫矣。必 荀子必家國征日日王日 為取百千款利何何日利
3. Mencius replied, Why must your Majesty use that word “ profit?” What I am provided with, are counsels to benevolence and righteousness, and these are my only topics.
4. "If your Majesty say, “What is to be done to profit my kingdom ?” the great officers will say,“ What is to be done to profit our families ?" and the inferior officers and the common people will say, "What is to be done to profit our persons ?” Superiors and inferiors will try to snatch this profit the one from the other, and the kingdom will be endangered. In the kingdom of ten thousand chariots, the murderer of his sovereign shall be the chief of a family of a thousand chariots. In a kingdom of a thousand chariots, the murderer of his prince shall be the chief of a family of a hundred chariots. To have a thousand in ten thousand, and a hundred in a thousand, cannot be said not to be a large allotment, but if righteousness be put last, and profit be put first, they will not be satisfied without snatching all. tung. The king, in complimentary stylo, calls | But this is too far-fetched. Wang Yin-chih
inclines to consider us for the most part It is dificult to say what was the exact length of the ancient ti. At present it is a little more merely a helping partiole; espooially does hora than one-third of an English mile. The Heard it so after in an interrogativo olano. * also,' occasions some dificulty. With refer. Obøerve the force of the delicately and engren ence to what is it spoken? Some compare the #... with 7 ***, Analecta, I. 2. tively putting the question
. S-marking Others say that the king refers to the many
the answer of an inferior, used from roupoot scholars who at the time made it their
business to the king. Er is 'to say,' followed directly to wander from country to country, as advisers by the words spokon. It is not 'to speak of.' &c. Then, when Mencius, in par. 3, repliesie mark very dooidedly Monoto's #Ethey say that he refers to Yao, purpose to converse only off and 4. Shun, de, as his modelo :-'I, lipo thom,' &o. 11E-here = }, "to take.' Die , matually
the distance from Tsau to Liang a thousand
樂孟鹿立圖而君者譬。後 此子日於孟者也未義 不對賢沼子矣也未有而 賢日者上見何王有仁先 者賢亦顏梁必亦義而利 雖者樂端惠日
日日而遺 有而此厲王利仁後其奪 此後乎。康王 義美親子
5. "There never has been a benevolent man who neglected his parents. There never has been a righteous man who made his sovereign an after consideration.
6. •Let your Majesty also say, “Benevolence and righteousness, and let these be your only thernes.” Why must you use that word—“ profit?”'
CHAP. II. 1. Mencius, another day, saw king Hùi of Liang. The king went and stood with him by a pond, and, looking round at the large geese and deer, said, 'Do wise and good princes also find pleasure in these things ?'
2. Mencius replied, Being wise and good, they have pleasure in these things. If they are not wise and good, though they have these things, they do not find pleasure.
to take ;' i.o. superiors from inferiors, and in compare Analeots, VI. vii, but for which passage feriors from superiors in 4th tone, a I should translate here—over a pond, i.e. in
some building over the water, such as is still carriage or chariot.' The sovereign's domain, 1,000 square, produced 10,000 war chariots
. very common in China. Morten means “large of a hliu, or marquis. He is here called deer, but they are joined here, as adjectives, to
geese,' and is the name for a large kind of 之家 instand of 百乘之君, bocause and 鹿,賢者-賢者之君, the sovereign bas just beon denominated by that worthy princes. It does not refer to Mencius, term. He and i are verba See Analects, as some make it out. The reply makes this
plain. The king's inquiry is prompted by a VLXX. 5. The and here are supposod sudden dissatisfaction with himself, for being to result from the sovereign's example.
occupied so much with such material gratifica
tions, and - Amid all their cares of govern. 2. RULERS XUST SHARE THEIR PLEASURES WITH ment do these pleasures find a place with THE PEOPLE. THEY CAN ONLY BE HAPPY WHEN good princes ?' 3. See the Shih-ching, III i.
It ;-ode VIII. ct. 1, a. The ode tells how his people "The king stond;' and the meaning is not that delighted in king Wån. For the shih. Mandius found him by the pond. The king seems to have received him graciously, and to shing reads FA is read wih
, an interjechavo led him into the park. th d E:- tion. Z referring to king Wan, but
THST BULB OVER HAPPY SUBJECTS.
日人靈之以鶴塵始營不 時與沼謂民王 王鹿 日民樂其力 傷借其臺為靈伏庶民詩 惡樂有日臺沼磨民攻云 子故應靈為於鹿子之
子之經 及能鹿臺沼灌來不始 攻藥魚謂而魚混王
3. •It is said in the Book of Poetry,
He measured it out and planned it.
How full was it of fishes leaping about!" King Wăn used the strength of the people to make his tower and bis pond, and yet the people rejoiced to do the work, calling the tower" the marvellous tower,” calling the pond" the marvellous pond," and rejoicing that he had his large deer, his fishes, and turtles. The ancients caused the people to have pleasure as well as themselves, and therefore they could enjoy it.
4. 'In the Declaration of Tang it is said, “O sun, when wilt thou put generally. 4. Seo the Shů-ching, IV. Bk. I had pointed to the sun, saying that, as surely i. 3; -Tang's announcement of his reasons for as the sun was in heaven, so firm was he on his proceeding against the tyrant Chieh. The throne. The people took up his words, and words quoted are those of the people. Chieh pointing to the sun, thus expressed their hatred
人然其因國 烏欲 加 察粟則也 也梁獸 也少 鄰於移盡 盡惠 爱之 算 國河其心 王 人 之内
1、我 對之鄰政河於耳寡 日民國無東河矣哉。 王不 如凶、東河之 好加民寡亦移内於
expire? We will die together with thee.” The people wished for Chieh's death, though they should die with him. Although he had towers, ponds, birds, and animals, how could he have pleasure alone ?'
CHAP. III. 1. King Hui of Liang said, 'Small as my virtue is, in the government of my kingdom, I do indeed exert my mind to the utmost. If the year be bad on the inside of the river, I remove as many of the people as I can to the east of the river, and convey grain to the country in the inside. When the
s bad on the east of the river, I act on the same plan. On examining the government of the neighbouring kingdoms, I do not find that there is any prince who exerts his mind as I do. And yet the people of the neighbouring kingdoms do not decrease, nor do my people increase. How is this?'
2. Mencius replied, 'Your Majesty is fond of war ;-let me take of the tyrant, proferring death with him to life, princes in speaking to their people, 家德 under him. It is read ho; n, in I, the man of small virtue. I shall 4th tone. Chao Ch'i gives quito anothor turn hereafter simply render it by 'I.' Liang was to the quota ion, making the words an address on the south of the river, i.e. the Ho, or Yellow of the people to Tang - This day he (Chich) river, but
portions of the Wei territory lay on must die. We will go with you to kill him.' Chu Hsi's view is to be preferred. I do not the other side, or north of the river. This was think that the last two clauses are to be under called the inside of the river, because the stood generally When the people wish to ancient royal capitals had mostly been there, die with a prince," do. They must specially in the province of Chi (A), compro
8. HALF MEASURES ARE OF LITTLE VAL THE hending the present Shan-hst; and the country GREAT PRINCIPLES OF ROYAL GOVERNIENT KUST BE north of the Ho, looked at from them, was of PASTATULLY AID BY THEIR SPORIT CARRIED OUT. course 'within,' or on this side of it. 1. The combination of particles- 焉耳矣 now used commonly for millet and maize, but --glves emphasis to the king's proforsion of here for grain generally. tom do toh : his own devoted near to his kingdom. I literally, add fow, add many. To explain the was the designation of themselves used by the ting, it is said the expressions - 3 go,
refer to Chieh.
無是何後百刃戰 景農 農望亦如止步既請 斧入時民走日文而接以 冷穀之也不五後棄戰 以
可十止甲喻、 可 於王直步或更境
勝如不笑五兵然 山不食國知百百十 林可也。此步步步 材勝數不則則而或兵
an illustration from war.—The soldiers move forward to the sound of the drums; and after their weapons have been crossed, on one side they throw away their coats of mail, trail their arms behind them, and run. Some run a hundred paces and stop; some run fifty paces and stop. What would you think if those who run fifty paces were to laugh at those who run a hundred paces ?' The king said, 'They should not do so. Though they did not run a hundred paces, yet they also ran away.' •Since your Majesty knows this,' replied Mencius, you need not hope that your people will become more numerous than those of the neighbouring kingdoms.
3. 'If the seasons of husbandry be not interfered with, the grain will be more than can be eaten. If close nets are not allowed to enter the pools and ponds, the fishes and turtles will be more than can be consumed. If the axes and bills enter the hills and forests only at the proper time, the wood will be more than can be used.
外多 , 'not fewer, nor larger than they not imperativo - do not. The first glance should for such States be a bit is said to spring there was the sowing in summer, the exprons tho sound of the drum. In Ź, hooldusere the persons and works of husbandry, he is wood us a verb, and Ź refers to from which the people might not be called om.
ist tone. The dictionary explains it by 士 advance at the sound of the drum, and retreat to bear," *to be adequate to.' PT at the sound of the gong Eti ## -- there is no eating-power adequate to running away? 3. Here we have an outline eat the grain. here read torso, closeof the art principles of royal government, in meshed.' The meshes of a net were anciontly contrast with the measures on which the king required to be large, of the size of four inahes. plumos himself in the 1st pur. The M is People might only eat fish a foot long. H
or soldiers. It was the rule of war to