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and, when he resided in any State, did blame its Great Officers1" But when the Ch'un Ch'it finds fault with arrogant ministers, is not this attaching a similar value to concord? When Confucius speaks of "overflowing in love to all, and cultivating the friendship of the good," and of how "the extensive conferring of benefits constitutes a sage," does he not teach universal love? When he advises "the esteem of the worthy;" when he arranged his disciples into "the four classes," so stimulating and commending them; when he says that "the superior man dislikes the thought of his name not being mentioned after death: "does not this show the estimation he gave to men of worth? When "he sacrificed as if the spiritual beings were present," and condemned "those who sacrificed as if they were not really sacrificing";" when he said, "When I sacrifice, I shall receive blessing: "-was not this acknowledging spiritual beings? The literati and Mo equally approve of Yâo and Shun, and equally condemn Chieh and Châu; they equally teach the cultivation of the person, and the rectifying of the heart, reaching on to the good government of the nation, with all its States and Families-why should they be so hostile to each other? In my opinion, the discussions which we hear are the work of their followers, vaunting on each side the sayings of their Teacher; there is no such contrariety between the real doctrines of the two Teachers. Confucius would have made use of Mo's views; and Mo would have made use of those of Confucius. If they would not have made use of each other's sentiments,, they could not have been K'ung and Mo.'

4. It seems proper, in closing this discussion of Mo's views, to notice the manner in which the subject of 'universal love' appears in Christianity. Its whole law is comprehended in the one wordLove; but how wide is the scope of the term compared with all which it ever entered into the mind of Chinese sage or philosopher to conceive!

Fan Ch'ih, Analects, VI. xx, that wisdom consists in respecting spiritual beings, but at the same time keeping aloof from them. But as between Confucius and Mo, on this point we would agree rather with the latter. He holds an important truth, mingled with superstition ; the sage would seem to be sceptical.

1 Han avoids saying anything on this point. The author of 'Supplemental Observations' is equally silent.

* Han is here quoting Analects, III. xii. 2, *****, which he points and interprets after a way of his own. He does not read but, in the sense of 'to grant to,' 'to approve of.'

It is most authoritative where the teachers of China are altogether silent, and commands:Thou shalt love the Lord, thy God, with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy strength, and with all thy mind.' For the Divine Being Christianity thus demands from all men supreme love;—the love of all that is majestic, awing the soul; the love of all that is beautiful, wooing the heart; the love of all that is good, possessing and mastering the entire nature. Such a love, existing, would necessitate obedience to every law, natural or revealed. Christianity, however, goes on to specify the duties which every man owes, as the complement of love to God, to his fellow-men-Owe no man anything, but to love one another, for he that loveth another hath fulfilled the law. For this "Thou shalt not cominit adultery," "Thou shalt not kill," "Thou shalt not steal," "Thou shalt not bear false witness," "Thou shalt not covet;" and if there be any other commandment:-the whole is briefly comprehended in this saying, "Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself." This commandment is 'like to' the other, differing from it only in not requiring the supreme love which is due to God alone. The rule which it prescribes,-such love to others as we feel for ourselves,—is much more definitely and intelligibly expressed than anything we find in Mo, and is not liable to the cavils with which his doctrine was assailed. Such a love to men, existing, would necessitate the performance of every relative and social duty; we could not help doing to others as we would that they should do to us.

Mo's universal love was to find its scope and consummation in the good government of China. He had not the idea of man as man, any more than Confucius or Mencius. How can that idea be fully realised, indeed, where there is not the right knowledge of one living and true God, the creator and common parent of all? The love which Christianity inculcates is a law of humanity; paramount to all selfish, personal feelings; paramount to all relative, local, national attachments; paramount to all distinctions of race or of religion. Apprehended in the spirit of Christ, it will go forth even to the love of enemies; it will energize in a determination to be always increasing the sum of others' happiness, limited only by the means of doing so.

But I stop. These prolegomena are not the place for disquisition; but I deemed it right to say thus much here of that true, universal love, which at once gives glory to God and effects peace on earth.

CHAPTER IV.

WORKS WHICH HAVE BEEN CONSULTED IN THE
PREPARATION OF THIS VOLUME.

The Works which have been consulted are mostly the same as those used in the preparation of the first volume, of which a list is there given. I have only to add to that :

I.- -OF CHINESE WORKS.

57+1%,\-The Philosopher Mo, in fifteen Books, with one Book on the Titles of his Essays.' This Work was edited and annotated in the forty-eighth year of Ch'ien-lung (A. D. 1784), by Pi Yuan (), lieutenant-governor of Shen-hst. From the notes appended to Mo's Essay on 'Universal Love' in the last chapter, it will be seen that the task of editing has been very imperfectly executed. I suppose it is vain to express a wish that some foreign scholar would take it in hand.

五百家註音辯韓昌黎先生全集, 'The Collected Writings of Han Ch'ang-li, with the Verbal and Critical Notes of five hundred Scholars.' Ch'ang-li is a local designation for Han Yü, styled Tai-chih (Z), and canonized as Wăn-kung (★ 4), or 'Prince of Literature.' I have said, p. 12, that he was a scholar of the eighth century, but he extended on into the ninth, dying A.D. 824. He stands out as perhaps the most distinguished scholar of the long space between the Han and Sung dynasties. The edition of his Works which I have, with such a collation of commentators, was first published by a Hsu Tâo-cht (†), in the twenty-eighth year of Ch'ien-lung (A.D. 1761).

II. OF TRANSLATIONS AND OTHER WORKS.

MENG TSEU, vel MENCIUM, inter Sinenses Philosophos, Ingenio, Doctrina, Nominisque Claritate, CONFUCIO PROXIMUM, edidit, Latina interpretatione, ad interpretationem Tartaricam utramque recensita, instruxit, et perpetuo commentario, e Sinicis deprompto, illustravit Stanislaus Julien. Paris, 1824-1829.

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CHAPTER I. 1. Mencius went to see king Hûi of Liang.

MEN

2. The king said, 'Venerable sir, since you have not counted it far to come here, a distance of a thousand lt, may I presume that you are provided with counsels to profit my kingdom??

was one

TITLE OF THE WORK., The philoso- COUNTRY PROSPEROUS. 1. 'King Hui of Liang.' pher Ming.' The Work thus simply bears the-In the time of Confucius, Tsin () name, or surname rather, of him whose conver- of the great States of the nation, but the power sations and opinions it relates, and is said to of it was usurped by six great families. By have been compiled in its present form by the B.C. 452, three of those were absorbed by the author himself. On the use of F, after the other three, viz. Wei, Chao, and Han ( surname, see on Analects, L. 1. The surname and ), which continued to encroach on the and this 子 were combined by the Romish small remaining power of their prince, until at missionaries, and latinized into Mencius, which last they extinguished the ruling house, and it is well to adopt throughout the translation, divided the whole territory among themselves.

and thereby avoid the constant repetition of The sovereign Wei Lieh (F), in his 23rd

the word 'philosopher,' Mäng not being dis

tinguished, like Kung (Confucius), by the year, B.C. 402, conferred on the chief of each crowning epithet of "The Master.' family the title of Marquis (). Wei, called -Alikewise, from the name of its capital, Liang,

TITLE OF THIS

occupied the south-eastern part of Tain, Han and 'King Hai of Liang, in chapters and sen- Chão lying to the west and north-west of it. tences. Part I.' Like the Books of the Con- The Liang, where Mencius visited king Hui, is fucian Analects, those of this Work are headed said to have been in the present department of by two or three charactors at or near their com- K'ai-fang. Hûi, 'The Kindly,' is the posthumencement. Each Book is divided into two mous epithet of the king, whose name was Yung

parts, called, Upper and Lower.' This (). The title of king had been usurped by arrangement was made by Chao Ch't), Ying, at some time before Mencius first visitod a scholar of the eastern Han dynasty (died A. D. of his government, B.C. 336. Mencius visited him, which, it is said, he did in the 35th year 201), by whom the chapters and sentences were him on invitation, it must be supposed, and the

also divided, and the 章句上章句下ampio見-被招往見

2. Mencius was

remain to the present day, a memorial of his work.

1. BENEVOLEXOR AND RIGHTEOUSNESS MENCIUS'S ONLY TOPICS WITH THE PRINCES OF HIS TIME ;

AND THE ONLY PRINCIPLES WHICH CAN MAKE A department of Yen-châu (JH), in Shan

a native of Tsau (), in Lû, the name of

which is still retained in the Tsau district of the

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