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keeping the stumps as even and straight as possible delivering them then to the buyer at his sheds. In either case the buyer pays cash down for the article on receiving it in good order and condition at his works. The next process is that of retting (rotting) in vats by fermentation or maceration, by which the fibre is rendered easily detachable from the boom. Great care is required here, for if the flax receive too mild treatment, or, on the contrary, too severe a treatment, it is equally complained of by the spinner. Next comes the drying. This has been and is in most cases now done out of doors, and, being dependent on the weather, is a very precarious process. Of late a mode of expressing the water from the stumps after leaving the vats, by which they are partly dried, has been introduced, and it is found that the article may be artificially dried to advantage. The stumps, being dried, are next broken by machinery, that is, the boom is broken to render the separation from the fibre more easy. This being done, they are scutched, or, by means of machinery, the fibre is separated from the boom. That which is long is called flax, the shorter fibres are called tow. It is now sold to the spinner for cash, so that the whole business is a cash business.
fortunate manufacturer of super-phosphate of lime, and therefore lays perhaps a little too much stress on the paucity of that ingredient in Mr. Pettitt's guano."
As to the name, were we to give up that of guano to please Mr. Lawes, we should perhaps displease some one else, but this is a trifling matter. The manure will be of no greater or less value whatever name it bear. Mr. Pettitt may claim, justly, I think, to be allowed to sell as much water in 100 tons of his manure as is sold in 100 tons of Peruvian guano or ordinary British manures; and this will at least go some way towards saving part of the chemical moisture which was dried out in the analysed specimens; and if ten per cent. more of water be left in the manure, the necessary reduction of ten per cent. in the value will still leave good money's worth in the article to the extent of 8l. 13s. 6d. per ton, taking the mean of the submitted specimens.
Mr. Lawes was in error, as he will have seen, by supposing that Mr. Pettitt was going to propose to introduce a new and cheaper source of nitrogen. There appears rather to be a probability that guano will rise in price, and other nitrogenous compounds pari passu. Any person who entered upon the manufacture of fish manures on a large scale would naturally get as much for it as it would fetch, and the reason why the estimated price of the fish guano was taken at 77. a ton, was to prevent any person from arguing that it was over-estimated. A mere glance, however, will show any one that there is a considerable difference between 77. and 81. 13s. 6d., and that beyond all doubt a few favourable results from its application would establish Pettitt's manure at a price nearer the latter than the former.
that, if driven into a corner, I should be obliged to say I think it could sometimes be got for much less.
I have now given you an outline of the successive stages of the process of retting and scutching flax, and you will see that, with so many manipulations of so bulky an article as line stumps, great care and judgment must be used, and that the aim and object should be to invent plans by which fewer manipulations may be required. As one step in this direction I have taken out a patent for a machine which, after the stumps come out of the vats, is intended to wash, squeeze, dry, and As for the great supply question, I regret the time did break, in one continuous process, thus rendering sure that not allow of my reading some of the evidence collected which is now so uncertain, besides materially reducing on the subject. My convictions on the point, corrobothe labour required, and consequently the expense. I rated by the opinion of competent persons whom I have have no hesitation in saying that, with capital invested of consulted are so strong, that, low as I have estimated the about £10,000, one ton of flax per diem may be pro-average cost of raw material, I am compelled to confess duced; or the produce of from 1,000 to 1,200 English acres, which will not cost, including cost of material at a fair remunerative price to the farmer, rent, rates, taxes, interest, wear and tear, &c., &c., more than at the outside £35, and that it will readily sell at from £50 to £100, according to quality. From this a calculation may be made either way; but allowing such a rettery to be established in the centre of a circle twenty miles in diameter, throughout our agricultural counties, what incalculable good must result, especially if we cast our eyes abroad at the present time, and see that there is a probability of one great source of our supply in flax being cut off. However, such retteries will not be established till some spirited monied party or parties set the example in a proper manner, and all I can do is, where I have an oppor tunity, to urge it. I believe your Society has practical improvement in all ways as its object; and should there be, as there must be, men wishful to promote the question of flax-growing and preparing, they cannot employ their SIR, AS a listener to the discussion on Mr. Pettitt's money more profitably or to a greater public good. Will Fish Guano Paper at your Society's House on Wednesday you draw the attention of your scientific chemists to the night, I venture to trouble you with a suggestion which I fact that whoever can discover the means of dissolving dare say will not be thrown away, as this matter is not the broken shove or boom, which adheres to the scutch-one to be summarily dismissed from further consideration ing-tow, and thus renders it nearly useless, without injuring the fibre, will confer a great benefit, and moreover may count on making a rapid fortune. Selby.
Your most obedient servant,
G. A. CATOR.
I have met with several gentlemen, on the other hand, who were disposed to raise the estimated price a sovereign for every ten shillings I reduce it. But, generally speaking, these persons have not had time, opportunities, let alone inclination, to spend as many hours in the search after facts bearing on the case, as I and some others have weeks. I shall, and I am sure Mr. Pettitt will, feel obliged by any hints or advice from those members of your body or of your affiliated Societies who may feel an interest in the subject.
I am, Sir, your obedient servant, HORACE GREEN. 145, Upper Thames street, London, Dec. 27, 1853.
on the mere bare statement of one party that there is fish enough, and of another that such is not the case.
I should suggest, then, that your Society should communicate one or two questions, bearing on the subject, to such of the societies in union (if any there are in such a position) as may be situated in maritime towns, and request communications on the subject, which I feel sure would be readily furnished, as also by members of your Society whose vicinity to the coasts, or whose occupations bring them into communication with fishermen.
PETTITT'S FISHERIES GUANO. SIR,-May I request you to correct your report of one observation of mine on the 21st of December, with reference to Mr. Lawes. I said, and I am of opinion, that I have felt enough interested in the subject to take such "This gentleman's observations on agriculture I would steps for myself, and have already received a conclusive be content to receive with considerable respect; but that statement affirming the fact, a great supply of fish being I would recommend those on manure-making to be re-procurable at a nominal price on the French side of the ceived 'cum grano salis,' as Mr. Lawes is a very great and Channel.
I shall soon, I believe, receive a report from the coast of Suffolk and Essex, and shall communicate the result to you, if agreeable. I received a pamphlet in the room, containing a resumé of evidence on the subject, which does not appear to have been read at the meeting. As I do not doubt that the documents there printed were bonâ fide, I confess they give me an idea that there is a greater quantity of valuable matter than some of the speakers seemed to imagine. I am, Sir, your most obedient servant,
King William-st. City, 27th Dec. 1853.
Proceedings of Institutions.
son, J. Taylor, W. Corden, W. Cubley. Officers-Curator, Mr. W. Paling; Treasurer, Mr. R. Warwick; Secretary, Mr. J. Buzzard.
SOUTHAMPTON.-The concluding lecture of the first part of the 25th session of the Polytechnic Institution was delivered on Wednesday evening, by the Rev. J. Scotland, M.A., on the "Spirit of Enterprise," which was defined to be a separate and independent principle, the mainspring of all great movements, and, when associated with moral attributes, such as scrupulous integrity, punctuality, and indomitable perseverance, it is the means by which the mightiest and noblest objects are achieved. The subject was appositely illustrated by the lives of celebrated men, as Columbus, Wilberforce,- -our good and patriotic Alfred the Great, whose memory has been embalmed in the admiration and affection of all succeeding generations of his countrymen-and that prince of philanthropists, John Howard.
NEWARK. The seventeenth annual meeting of the Mechanics' Institution was held on Thursday the 2nd inst. STAMFORD AND PETERBOROUGH.-Mr. Robert Scott Burn Mr. W. N. Nicholson, Vice-President, in the chair. The member of the Society of Arts, recently delivered hi business of the meeting commenced by the Secretary, lecture on "Sanitary Science as applied to House Con Mr. Buzzard, reading the report, which was unani-struction and Conveniences" to the members of the Insti mously adopted. From this it appeared, that during the tutions in these places. The following is the syllabus o past twelve months the improved position of the Institu- the lecture :-Introduction.-Present state and future tion had been steadily maintained. The abstract of prospects of the Science, its importance to the community; accounts showed that, after the payment of all liabilities, Connection between defective Sanitary precautions and there remained a balance in the hands of the treasurer the extension of disease; Costliness of want of Sanitary of 631. 68. 7d. The Institution now numbers 246 members, arrangements; All preventible Deaths entail a pecuniary of these 54 were annual, 178 quarterly, and 14 juvenile, loss upon the Survivors. Practical subjects to be discussed. The library has received, during the past year, an Site and Position.-Prevention of Damp; Drainage of augmentation of 145 vols., and the whole stock of books Site. Sewerage Drainage.-Importance of good Drainage has undergone a careful examination. A Catalogue will as a preventative of Disease; Brief exposition of the prinshortly be issued. In conformity with a suggestion con- ciples regulating the practice of House Drainage; tained in last year's report, an effort was made, in the early Appliances in connection with House Drains, Traps, Venpart of the present year, to establish elementary classes tilation of Drains, &c., &c. Supply of Water.-Plans for reading, writing and arithmetic. The attempt was adopted by the Ancients to ensure a good supply to as successful as could have been anticipated, and steps are their Cities; Comparison of these with the defective about to be taken for their re-organization. The news- supply to the Towns in Great Britain; Impurities of room continues to be a valuable adjunct. It is well sup- Water; Chemical; Organic; Methods of Purifying, plied with papers, and, in a pecuniary point of view, is ad- Filtration, &c., &c. Ventilation.-Brief exposition of its vantageous. During the past year only one lecture has been Theory; Application to the Ventilation of Dwelling delivered to the members of the Institution, namely, that Houses; Different methods of supplying fresh air to given by E. H. Vernon, Esq., M.P. After the passing of apartments; Different methods of withdrawing detrithe usual votes of thanks, it was proposed by Mr. Green mental air; General remarks on the arrangement of side, seconded by Mr. Newton, and resolved, that a debat- apartments in Dwelling Houses and of various appliance ing society should be established. Mr. Newton subsequent- to ensure, as far as obtainable by constructive arrangely proposed that 251., from the balance of the general fund, ments, Healthy Homes' for all classes. Concluding should be devoted as the nucleus of a building fund for a Observations.-Connection between Physical and Moral lecture-room. This proposal was agreed to. Mr. Paling, Degradation; Amelioration of Physical Condition of the the curator, in adverting to the history of the past year, Labouring Classes, the great economic feature of the thought that the chief cause which had retarded the pro- age, must precede all other remedial measures; The gress of the museum was the want of a suitable room for duty of the more fortunate classes of society to remove the deposit of articles, as very little money was required from amongst us so much Physical and Moral Degrafor the purchase or exchange of minerals, fossils, and other dation." It will be remembered that it was announced objects of natural history, many members having gratuit- in the Journal in October last, that Mr. Burn was willing ously offered a variety. He strongly urged that the sug- to deliver his lecture free of all charge whatever, save gestion of the Society of Arts, for an interchange of speci- and except that he would leave it for circumstances to mens of manufactures and natural history, should be fully decide as to whether he would make a claim for tracarried out. Newark could produce specimens of sulphate velling expenses, in cases where the institutions were of lime, gypsum or plaster, in all its varieties, and also a not notoriously poor. In consequence of this announceconsiderable quantity of fossils from the Lias and lower ment Mr. Burn has arranged to visit the principal towns oolitic formations. Mr. Paling then exhibited to the of England and Scotland, and is still quite ready to meeting some very fine specimens of the fossils, &c., extend his engagements. The Council of the Society which had been collected by himself and Mr. Buzzard of Arts would urge upon Institutions the importance of during the past year, and were intended to be presented endeavouring to obtain influential and numerous auto the Institution, whenever a suitable place was provided diences, and of giving to the townspeople, as well as for the purpose. A special vote of thanks was unanimously to the members, the privilege of attendance, as was the given to Messrs. Paling and Buzzard for their services. case at Peterborough. It is obvious that Mr. Burn's The following_gentlemen were declared duly elected to efforts will be useless unless seconded by the instituserve on the Committee during the ensuing year--the tions themselves. The subject is one of such pressing Rev. H. Bacon, Rev. J. Waterworth, Messrs. W. Bousfield, importance, on which nearly all of us require to be F. Buck, C. Baily, W. Hall, W. Newton, G. Chew, C. informed, that it is hoped these few remarks will lead Ridge, W. N. Nicholson, J. Wright, M. March, F. Bar- to the endeavours which are being made to extend a ton, J. Crossley, E. Bousfield, C. Esberger, E. Greenep, proper knowledge of the subject, being fully appreciated T. Mackenzie, E. Marshall, S. Pocklington, R. Bichard- and responded to.
SUBSTITUTE FOR COFFEE.-Asparagus, according to Liebig, contains, in common with tea and coffee, a principle which he to the health of all who do not take strong exercise. Reading calls "Taurine," and which, by the way, he considers essential this led me to think that asparagus might be made a good substitute for coffee. The young shoots which I first prepared were not agreeable, having an alkaline flavour. I then tried the ripe seeds; these, roasted and ground, make a full-flavoured coffee, not easily distinguishable from fine Mocha. The seeds are easily freed from the berries by drying them in a cool oven, and then rubbing them on a sieve.-Correspondent of the Gardener's
WOOLLEN EXPORTS.-The Board of Trade, through their statistical secretary (Mr. A. W. Fonblanque), acting upon a suggestion of the Bradford Chamber of Commerce, have written, among others, to the Leeds Chamber of Commerce, stating that, a change in the classification of woollen manufactures being cation:-1. Woollen goods, comprehen ling all goods of which under the consideration of the Board, the opinion of the Leeds Chamber was requested upon the following new form of classifieither the warpor the weft, or both, are woollen-pieces and value. 2. Worsted goods, comprehending all goods of which either the warp or the weft, or both, are worsted pieces and value. 3. Flannels-yards and value. 4. Carpets-viz., carpets and druggets made of wool; carpets composed of wool mixed with 5. Blancotton, linen, or other material-yards and value. kets-pairs and value. 6. Shawls, wollen or worsted-number and value. 7. Hosiery, woollen or worsted-viz., stockings and other articles-dozens and value. 8. Small wares and articles, woollen or worsted, not properly falling under any of the and value. The subject is now under the consideration of a foregoing heads-value. 9. Yarn, woollen or worsted-pounds committee of the Leeds Chamber of Commerce.
WILKINS' NEW TELEGRAPH.-This telegraph is in many respects similar to Morse's, the one chiefly used in America. In Morse's telegraph the message is printed upon a ribbon of thin tissue paper, both by the instrument sending it and by that by which it is received. This paper ribbon is unwound by a clock work apparatus from a reel, and passes between a needle and a wheel covered with carbonized paper, such as is used for manifold writing. When, therefore, the operator touches a spring the needle of both instruments is brought in contact with the ribbon, and makes either a dot or a stroke, according as the touch is instantaneous only, or as it is continued for a short time. The alphabet is, of course, formed by different combinations of these dots and strokes. As by this plan a copy of the message remains in the hands of the sender, he can tell whether it has been correctly transmitted, and thus the expense, the trouble, and delay of "repeating" is avoided. In Mr. Wilkins' telegraph, the needle presses continuously on the paper, and therefore as soon as the moving apparatus is set in motion, it traces a straight line upon the paper ribbon. By means of two springs he causes a divergence of the needle to the extent of an eighth of an inch to the right and left; and the alphabet is thus formed by a series of strokes and zigzags. The advantages claimed for it are greater simplicity, freedom from error, and rapidity. It is also said that a far less number of clerks would be necessary. In addition to this, great advantages are anticipated from a new method of in- WED. sulating the wire, for one only will be necessary.
MEETINGS FOR THE ENSUING WEEK.
CRYSTAL PALACE.-Some interesting experiments have recently been made with respect to the power required by an organ to fill the building, and a report has been presented to the directors on the subject. As the central transept alone covers a larger area than is occupied by the cathedral at York, some idea of the vast size and power of an instrument which should be heard in all parts of the building may be formed. The committee report that the area required for the instrument would FRI. not be less than 5,400 feet, the depth of the organ 50 feet, and its altitude from the ground 140 feet. The cost would not be less than £25,000, and its construction would extend over a period of three years.
Actuaries, 7.-Mr. Charles Jellicoe, "On the Rates of Mortality prevailing amongst the Male and Female Lives Assured in the Eagle Insurance Company." Entomological, 8. 1.—Mr. W. C. Hewitson, Descriptions of Butterflies presented to the Entomological Society, by T. J. Stevens, of Bogota." 2. Dr. J. Davy, "On the Excrement of Insects, with reference to its Chemical Qualities." 3. Mr. J. J. Baly, "A Monograph of the Chrysomelidæ of Australia." 4. Mr. W. Varney, "On the Habits of
London Inst., 2.-Mr. M. T. Masters, "On Elementary Botany."
Royal Inst., 3.-Professor Faraday,
PATENT LAW AMENDMENT ACT, 1852.
APPLICATIONS FOR PATENTS AND PROTECTION ALLOWED.
[From Gazette, 23rd December, 1853.]
PREVENTION OF SMOKE.-The Portsmouth correspondent of the "Times" states that a method for the prevention of smoke, invented by Mr. Prideaux, has been tested in the Royal Dockyard, and has been found successful. No alteration will be required either in the furnace or the boiler, and the apparatus may be fitted to the largest vessel in her Majesty's navy in 48 hours. Each furnace will require a new furnace-door, to which must be fitted Mr. Prideaux's invention. This consists of a gradually self-closing valve, of a peculiar arrangement, and of a very simple character, insuring intense heating and minute subdivision of the air in its passage through it. To indicate in some measure the perfection of the arrangement for transferring 2276. W. Crofts, Derby terrace, Nottingham park-Figuring in the heat radiated from the furnace to the entering air, the backs of the hands were placed on the front of the furnace door, when it was found that they could be kept there for an indefinite 2290. C. A. Holm, 21, Cecil street, Strand-Machinery for raising period, while the fire within was at an intense heat. The experiment was performed with north-country coal, which, from the large quantity of smoke it produces, offers the severest test 2406. G. Gidley, 43, Robert street, Hoxton, and J. B. Muschanp, of the capabilities of the apparatus.
PARIS EXHIBITION OF 1855.-The "Moniteur" publishes a decree appointing a commission of superintendence of the universal exposition of the products of agriculture, of industry, and of the fine arts, to open in Paris on the 1st of May, 1855. The president is Prince Napoleon; the number of members 37, among whom are MM. Baroche, Blanqui, Delacroix, Charles Dupin, Dumas, Dollfus, Ingres, Michel Chevalier, Count de Morny, Sallandrouze, Duke de Mouchy, Visconti, &c. The commission is divided into two sections one of industry, the other of the fine arts. A special decree appoints Lord Cowley amember of the commission.
Dated 5th October, 1853.
Dated 6th October, 1853. and propelling fluids.
Dated 19th October, 1853.
Claremont house, Kensington-Making India rubber solution.
2452. E. J. M. Archdeacon, Gravel lane, Southwark-Indicating
places, &c., in directories.
2815. C. Buck, Wellington, Somersetshire-Retarding and stopping wheel carriages.
2817. J. and J. E. S. Gwynne, Essex wharf, Strand-Manufacture of fuel, etc., and application to reduction of ores, etc. (Partly a communication.)
Dated 5th December, 1853.
2821. B. Skillman, Crosby hall chambers-Preparing sheets of paper for postal communication.
2823. M. A. Muir, Glasgow-Check and fancy weaving. 2825. T. Storey, Phoenix foundry, Lancaster-Apparatus for sewers. Dated 6th December, 1853.
2829. J. C. Haddan, Chelsea-Cartridges."
Dated December 12th, 1853.
2835. E. O. W. Whitehouse, Brighton-Telegraphs. 2886. T. Hollinsworth, Winwick, Warrington-Railway breaks. 2887. W. Evans, Myrtle street, Hoxton-Motive power. Dated December 13th, 1853.
2888. W. Redgrave, Croxley green, Rickmansworth-Safety travelling 2889. G. K. Hannay, Ulverstone-Composition grinding wheels, etc, 2890. J. Wansbrough, The Grove, Guildford street, SouthwarkWaterproof fabrics.
2891. W. F. Plummer, St. Mary's Overy wharf-Machinery for grinding or crushing, etc.
2831. A. E. L. Bellford, 16, Castle street, Holborn-Tartaric acid. 2892. C. Schiele, North Moor Foundry, Oldham-Preventing oscil(A communication.)
2833. T. Miles, Leicester-Lined gloves.
2835. R. C. Witty, 1, Portland place, Wandsworth road-Boiler and other furnaces.
2837, J. Bernard, 15, Regent street-Machinery for stitching, etc. 2839. A. V. Newton, 66, Chancery lane-Fire arms. (A communication.) Dated 7th December, 1853.
2840. W. Slater, and R. Halliwell, Bolton le Moors-Spinning machinery.
2841. L. H. Bates, Bradford-Machinery for stamping and cutting metal nuts, etc.
2843. J. Getty, Liverpool-Plating of iron ships, etc.
Dated 8th December, 1853.
2862. A. Shanks, 6, Robert street, Adelphi-Instrument for measuring weights and pressures.
2863. C. Mackenzie, Bayswater, and Dr. A. Turnbull, Manchester
square-Machinery for paring fruit and vegetables.
lation in engines, etc.
1893. A. G. Guesdron, Montmartre, Paris-Producing plans in relievo.
Sealed December 21st, 1853.
Robert Booty Cousens, of Halliford street, Islington-Improve
ments in the manufacture of casks or wooden vessels. John Henry Noon, of Salisbury street, Portman market-Improved method of stopping railway trains, and preventing railway accidents.
1527. Noel Natalis du Chastaingt, of Paris-Improvement in bread 1635. Thomas Kestell, of the Strandmaking. Improvements in walking stick umbrellas, applicable also to parasols. 1781, William Woods Cook, of Bolton-Improvements in the manufacture of woven fabrics and in the apparatus employed therein.
2864. J. Winspear, Liverpool-Coating metals, wood, &c. 2865. R. Eccles, Wigan; J. Mason, Rochdale; and L. Kaberry, Rochdale-Slubbing and roving frames.
2866. J. Sutcliffe, Manchester-Steam engines.
2867. F. Osbourn, Aldersgate-street-Distribution of manure. 2869. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's inn fields-Portable cases for provisions. (A communication.)
2870. G. Morley, Birmingham-Ornamenting japanned goods. 2871. W. Schaeffer, Stanhope street-Purifying spirit.
2872. J. Bourne, Port Glasgow--Steam engines.
Gage Stickney, of Hanover street, Pimlico-Improved construction of blower. (A communication.)
Gage Stickney, of Hanover street, Pimlico-Improved machinery for forging metals. (A communication.)
Capper Pass, of Bedminster-Improvements in the manufacture and refining of copper.
James Greenbank, and Samuel Pilkington, of Whitnell, Lancashire-Improvements in machinery for spinning cotton and other fibrous substances.
Sealed December 23rd, 1853. Andrew Edmund Brae, of Leeds-Method of communicating signals from one part of a railway train to another. Peter Armand Le Comte de Fontaine Moreau, of 4, South street, Finsbury-New distilling apparatus. A communiJohn Lyle, of Glasgow-Improvements in the manufacture of cation.) figured or ornamental fabrics.
1546. Leon Valls, of Paris-Improvements in the production of printing surfaces. (A communication.) 1547. Daniel Illingworth, Alfred Illingworth, and Henry Illingworth, of Bradford, Yorkshire-Improvements in machinery or apparatus for combing wool, cotton, flax, silk, and other fibrous substances.
Willian Needham, of Smallbury green, and James Kite, jun., of Lambeth-Improvements in machinery and apparatus for expressing liquid or moisture from substances.
2873. J. Bourne, Port Glasgow-Machinery for production of iron 1676. Robert Smith Bartleet, of Redditch-Improvements in the ships, &c.
2882. E. Green, Wakefield-Boilers and furnaces.
William Prior Sharp, John Hill the younger, and William Martin, all of Manchester-Improvements in machinery for spinning and doubling cotton and other fibrous substances. Joseph Haley, of Manchester-Improvements in machinery or apparatus for cutting, boring, and shaping metals and other substances. Sealed December 24th, 1853.
2883. N. V. Guibert, Paris, and 4, South street, Finsbury-Forge 1548, Antoine Andraud, of Paris-Certain improvements in railways bammers.
No. 59. Vol. II.] JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY OF ARTS.
Journal of the Society of Arts.
FRIDAY, JANUARY 6, 1854.
MEETING OF COUNCIL.
AT a Meeting of Council held on the 4th inst.,
326. Cirencester, Literary, Scientific and Mechanics'
827. Nailsworth, Literary and Mechanics' Institute.
STRIKES AND LOCK-OUTS.
[Jan. 6, 1854.
deal from the privacy of ordinary trade management, and place them under public cognizance, and, if so, how may that publicity be most simply and effectually secured? Ought any legislative provision, or other arrangement, to be made by which the right of association, if obviously exercised to the detriment of the community, might be controlled or neutralised?
2. Strikes and Lockouts. Should partial strikes, intended to take the masters of a locality in detail, be met by lockouts? What other means are likely to be effectual in terminating them?
3. Wages. Does payment by piece-work alter substantially the nature of the relations which would exist between employer and employed were the latter day or weekly labourers? Can lists of prices for piece-work be equitably drawn up so as to meet the varied circumstances of different machinery, different management, different localities, and the constant progress of
THE Council of the Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce, having had the recent disputes between employers and employed in the manufacturing districts under their serious consideration, are of opinion improvement? Ought manufacturers to bind that this Society may be made, in some degree, instrumental in promoting a clear knowledge of the facts and principles involved in the questions at issue, and may offer a neutral ground upon which both parties may fairly and temperately discuss the best modes of either preventing the outbreak of such disastrous quarrels, or terminating them as speedily and satisfactorily as possible to all parties, when they arise.
The Council, therefore, propose, in the first place, to hold a Conference, to which they will invite the General Associations of masters and operatives at Manchester, and the Local Associations of masters and operatives at Preston, to send each a representative. They also propose to invite to the Conference an equal number of those who took the most prominent part on either side of the late dispute among the mechanical engineers. It will further be the care of the Council to bring to the Conference, without bias on one side or other, as many as possible of those who, without being involved in the labour question as partisans, have studied and mastered its various bearings. The Council propose to regulate the order of the proceedings so that they may have a practical tendency, and a business character, and not degenerate into vague, noisy, or useless declamation. For this purpose, each speaker will be strictly limited to a few minutes on each topic; and, that digression may be readily checked, the whole subject will be defined and divided into distinct propositions, such as the following:
1. Combinations. Are they objectionable, whether set on foot by employers or employed, as a means of influencing the value of labour? Would a law of limited liability in partnerships tend to render such combinations unnecessary? Do they remove the questions with which they
together their associations within the limits of a minimum scale of prices for piece-work? Ought the operative to share beyond the market value of his labour in the increased productiveness of improved machinery?
The Council propose that no resolutions should be adopted except where entire unanimity prevails. While they venture, for convenience sake, to prescribe the order of the proceedings, they intend to observe a strict neutrality. They have fixed upon Tuesday, the 24th day of January, for holding the Conference, which is hereby convened at the Society's House, John¬ street, Adelphi, punctually at 10 A.м.
PREVENTION OF SMOKE.
The Secretary has received several communications in reference to the discussions which have taken place at the Society's Meetings on this subject. One correspondent, signing himself Veritas," complains that at the extraordinary meeting held on Monday, the 19th ult., in consequence of the irregular manner in which the proceedings were conducted, "one speaker interrupting another, others adverting in the most unblushing manner to their own particular schemes to the exclusion of all others," pracsuch a field of discussion. He then refers to Mr. Fraser's tical men would not risk their credit and experience in paper, and says, that he considers it was well calculated to elicit a discussion of a character likely to be of sound public service; but, he proceeds, "it must be borne in mind, that Mr. Fraser's paper only professed to give the account of his experience, as he modestly stated, in the hope that other gentlemen would also give to the Society, and thereby to the public, the result of their experience and operations in the same field of inquiry." His letter concludes with the following passage:-"it appears pretty clear, that the most certain methods at present known for effectually consuming smoke, as well as those most under control, are the furnaces known as Jucke's, Hazeldine's, and Hall's; for this you have evidence and opinions formed by practical experience of Professor Brande, Mr. Fraser, Mr. G. F. Wilson and Mr. Siemens. It probably will remain only to be ascertained which of these three contrivances can be erected at the least first cost, and require the least