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almost in sight of Colonel Alexander's command. It was expected that three divisions of troops, under Colonels Alexander, Johnston, and Cook, would soon be concentrated, and Governor Cummings had expressed his intention to push on to Salt Lake city, if possible, before the setting in of winter, and take with him the other territorial officers. One slight but indecisive skirmish had taken place between the Mormons and part of the United States troops. Late Mexican
news represent the situation of Comonfort as materially improved, and several successes won against the pronunciados at Puebla and other points. Comonfort and the Council were duly installed in their new powers on the 1st December.... Mr. Thaddeus Hyatt, of this city, has very generously tendered to the Police Commissioners the use of an unoccupied building belonging to him, at No. 120 West Broadway, as a sleeping place for the poor during the winter.
The Will of the Hon. George Washington Parke Custis has just been admitted to probate. By it he provides for the freeing of all his slaves, five or six hundred in number, within five or six years.... The Legislature of South Carolina has indefinitely postponed all its resolutions and reports in reference to Kansas.. A letter from Halifax says, Sir Gaspard Le Marchant, promoted to the Governorship of Malta, is to be succeeded here by the Earl of Mulgrave, who leaves England in January.. The contract for building the new Arsenal on Seventh Avenue, for the State, has been awarded to Mr. Richard Cabrow, Jr., his bid for the work, sixty-three thousand seven hundred dollars, being the lowest. . . . The ship Abbey Brown, Captain O. L. Bearse, arrived at this port, with a valuable cargo from Marseilles, narrowly escaped shipwreck on the voyage, by losing the rudder, when thirty days out. Two rudders were successively made and lost; but the third, constructed out of most scanty materials, held out until the vessel came safely into port. Her seamade rudder, number three, was an object of much curiosity and admiration. . . A Delegate Convention was held at Lawrence, Kansas, on the 2d December, Governor Robinson in the chair. Resolutions were passed repudiating the Lecompton Constitution, and demanding that both that and the Topeka one should be submitted to the people. Resolutions were also passed thanking Secretary Stanton for calling together the legislative body. On the re-assembling of Congress after the Christmas recess, Mr. Pugh, of Ohio, introduced into the Senate a bill for the admission of Kansas, which was referred to the Territorial Committee. It provides for the admission of Kansas under the Lecompton Constitution, and requires that the clause relative to slavery shall be submitted to a direct vote of the people on the seventh of April next; also, that the Constitution shall not be construed so as to impair the right of the people to alter or amend it at any time.
In England financial matters were more quiet. On the third of December the English Parliament was opened by the queen in person, in a speech displaying no points of great interest. No remarks were made in it indicating the course which would be pursued in Indian affairs, though it was currently reported that very soon after the meeting of Parliament a movement would be made for the abrogation of the East India Company's government, and the placing of India under the direct control of the crown. The idea seemed to meet with the most general favor in England.. The Chancellor of the Exchequer has introduced a bill of indemnity for the Bank of England in the House of Commons, and steps were to be taken, as far
as possible, for the relief of all the moneyed interests of the kingdom. . . A Deputation had waited upon Lord Clarendon to remonstrate against the immigration slave-trade now being carried on by the French from the west coast of Africa, and requesting that a remonstrance should be made to the French government on the subject. Lord Clarendon, in his reply, strongly deprecated the trade, did not believe that it would be carried to much greater length, and promised to use the whole legitimate influence of the government against it. Another move is at once to be made in Parliament for the admission of the Jews, and again there is a belief expressed by many that it will be successful.... The national balance sheet of Great Britain for the past year has been issued. The gross income was seventy-one million one hundred and seventy-eight thousand six hundred and sixty-t vo pounds, and the expenditure was less by a sum of four hundred and eighty-four thousand three hundred and thirty-six pounds. The army and navy took upward of twenty-five millions, and the Persian expedition is set down as having cost nine hundred thousand. . . At latest accounts the people of Madrid were completely taken up with presenting congratulatory addresses to the queen on the occasion of the birth of a prince royal. Queen Christina had sent a most affectionate dispatch to her daughter on the happy event. The Spanish-Mexican dispute was, at latest dates, in a train of diplomatic adjustment. . . . On the twenty-fifth of January Prince William of Prussia was to be married to the Princess Royal of England. . . . The Russian Government have issued an ukase prohibiting the taking of whales within the waters of their Asiatic possessions, and sent a fleet to enforce the order. It is believed that the move will create some trouble with our whalers. The act (final) settling the frontiers of Russia and Turkey in Asia was signed at Constantinople on the fourth ult. . . . The latest accounts received from India were of a most gloomy character. There had been very severe fighting at Lucknow, during which General Outram was wounded. General Havelock was at one time surrounded by an immense force of Sepoys, and his position was most critical. He, however, has since been relieved by Sir Colin Campbell. The launch of the Leviathan has been further suspended. An embassador from Holland had arrived in London, and officially demanded the hand of the Princess Alice (fourteen years of age) for the Prince of Orange, son of the king, and heir apparent. ... The contractors for raising the sunken ships in the harbor of Sevastopol have abandoned the work. . . .
Several thousands of Sepoys are to be transported from India to the British West Indies, ten thousand of whom are destined for Demerara, where their labor will be directed to the culture of cotton, rice, and tobacco. . . . A large meeting had been held in London, and resolutions passed strongly favorable to the assumption of immediate control over the East Indian possessions by the British government. In Parliament no direct move had been made to that end. It was evident, however, that it would be at an early day, and equally evident that the movement would be combated by the whole power of the Fast India Company, who have no idea of relinquishing their prestige without a fierce struggle.
A decision has been given in the English Vice-Chancellor's Court, which in fact invalidates the marriage of any British subject with the sister of a deceased wife, not only in England, but in any foreign possession. The decision had excited some surprise and much feeling.
AUGUSTUS THOLUCK, D.D.
THE subject of this brief sketch was born at Breslau, March 30, 1799. His father was a goldsmith, and the son is said to have wrought at the same business in his early youth. After pursuing a course of literature in the University at Breslau, he went to Berlin, and began to study the Oriental languages. A distinguished philologist adopting him as a son, took him under his care, and gave him ample opportunity for literary pursuits. After the death of his patron he was encouraged by another scholar of eminence, while his advantages continued the same.
By a dispensation of Providence, of which it was the writer's good fortune to hear from his own lips, his attention was directed to the study of theology. At a VOL. XII.-15
social gathering at the house of the professor, he had been speaking of the death of a student's father, and was showing the good that afflictions and sickness bring with them. "They always have a deep meaning and a valuable lesson," said he ; "and now I will tell you what a change sickness made in me. I was nineteen years old, and was driving with all my sails spread into the study of ancient languages. Suddenly I was attacked with a hemorrhage of the lungs, and had to lie in my bed eighteen months. During that time all the physicians in Berlin had told me that there was no more hope for me, and that I must die. I gradually grew worse; and at a time when my friends supposed that death was very near, a dear
friend (there is reason to believe that this friend was Neander) came to my bedside, and said to me, 'Don't you think that your short life would have been more useful, if you had turned your attention to the study of theology?' I turned over to him, and looked at him. I thought a moment, and said Yes; and if I could live longer I should do it.' From that moment I grew better, and ever afterward I have been longing and trying to know more of God." Such was the simple story; and as he closed it, a thrill seemed to go through every student, and that evening tears fell from eyes that were not used to weep.
Having recovered from his sickness, and having carried out, with untiring industry, the resolution then made, he entered, in 1829, upon his duties as professor of theology in the University of Halle, which position he still holds. He was called to Halle to counteract, if possible, the prevailing spirit of Rationalism, which at that time was exerting a powerful influence in the seats of learning, and in the clergy and laity of Germany. He had been taught in the right school; and Neander, whom we Americans have long since learned to love, exerted no little influence in turning his mind to a heart-felt evangelical Christianity. When Dr. Tholuck first commenced his labors in the University, there was but one man who would associate with him, or have the least intercourse with him. The professors were Rationalists, and all pointed the finger of scorn at him. They exclaimed, with one voice, "O that pietist, that mystic; we will have nothing to do with him!" But the tables have long been turned, and Tholuck now enjoys, not only the love of every student, but the respect of every professor.
His manner in the lecture-room is, in some respects, the same as in the pulpit. He does not adhere strictly to his manuscript, but frequently grows earnest, forgets his notes, and becomes absorbed in his subject. It is only then that he is truly eloquent: the students drop their pens to look at him, and listen to his burning words. I know of no German professor who is so enthusiastic in his manner, so wrapped up in his subject, with the single exception of Professor Umbreit, of Heidelberg.
same lectures twice. His course is almost the same every year; but every time he delivers them, he changes and improves them. On speaking to a couple of his American students with regard to the American professors, one day not long ago, he asked them if the American professors labored as hard as those in Germany. One of us told him that he thought the American professors were better paid, and performed less labor. We have to labor, said the doctor, night and day to make our lectures popular and instructive; for if they are not, nobody will want to hear them. The American told him, too, that the German professors lectured oftener in the day than our professors. "Lecture, lecture," said the doctor; "why I could lecture half a dozen times a day. There is not the labor, but it is preparing for a lecture. "How so?" inquired the student. "I supposed you had been giving pretty much the same lectures to the Halle students for over twenty-five years.” "No, indeed," replied the doctor; "I must work on every one of them. I have been lecturing on Paul's Epistle to the Romans ever since I have been in Halle. My Commentary has gone through seven editions, and still I labor three hours to make each lecture better. But it is not in that particular course alone that I labor; it is the same with all. I could not give exactly the same things over again; they would be dull thoughts, and, what is more, they must be improved."
Whatever may be the subject of his lectures, practical truths and precepts always find their way into them, and his teaching of religion is no sublimated, incomprehensible theorizing, but truth, plain truth, and the Bible doctrines in their strictest
But these are not the only means which he employs to instruct and encourage the Halle students to lead a strictly Christian life. He has not such ideas of professorial dignity as will keep him from having frequent and friendly intercourse with the students. Every day he takes a two hours' walk, and he always has one or two students with him. He so manages, in the course of a semester, as to have a walk with a great many of them, and to get from them their ideas on religious subjects; dispute certain points with them; show them their errors, and before the walk is finished, he gives such
Dr. Tholuck never gives exactly the practical hints and ideas, as save many a
AUGUSTUS THOLUCK, D.D.
student from the errors of skepticism. He tells them what books to read for light on certain doctrinal points; and in his next walk he never forgets what was said before. Besides a daily walk with some of the students, he has a two hours' talk every other Wednesday evening to all the young theologians in his own house. They are all invited, and all are expected to come. The door to the room is opened some time before he enters, and all the prominent books that have appeared in Germany during the last two weeks are These are for the laid upon the table. students to look at and examine before he enters. Here he talks to them on different subjects. It may be history, travel, or the religious tendencies of the day. Whatever topic he talks to them about, has connection with theology and the progress of religion. Last winter, for instance, one of his topics was a foot-excursion which he made in certain portions of France; another was the history of Leipsic University; and thus he interests and improves the general knowledge of the Halle theological students. He does all the talking, and he is familiar in his manner and style, as much so as at his own fireside.
In his own family Dr. Tholuck is most pleasing; and it is there that one is most apt to love him. He is unreserved and communicative, but unostentatious. You forget that he is a great man; you only think of that after you have gone to your room, It is and reflect upon what he said. scarcely necessary to say that he is acquainted with a great many Americans. His name has too long been familiar to us not to be known by us, and not to be acquainted with us. Our great men, in visiting Germany, I mean our theologians, consider it almost a duty to visit him. He never demands letters of introduction, and always considers it a compliment when you pay him your visit without one.
American visited him last year without any letter whatever. "I am glad," said the doctor," that one American has come to see me without a letter of introduction." He does not soon forget those who pay him visits, but remembers all his former American students. On one occasion he spoke in the highest terms of a prominent minister in the American Presbyterian Church. "He has a great mind," said the professor; "but, although I have associated with him
a great deal, I never saw him laugh in all
Tholuck, as was the case with our own
It is a well-known custom in Germany to have a Christmas-tree in every house on Christmas eve. The peasant and the prince all reap real enjoyment from the same source. On going through a marketplace in any German town on the approach of Christmas, you get an idea of the love which the people have for such a beautiful custom that will never fade from your memory. The old peasant women bring the green trees into town, and stand them up in different parts of the market-place for sale. The base of the tree is a little box with straw in it. The little box of straw represents the manger where Christ once lay. Then the boughs of the tree are hung with artificial fruits. That, then, is the Tree of Life springing from the birth of Christ. Poor, indeed, Dr. is that German peasant who cannot gladden home with a "Christmas-tree." Tholuck's manner of celebrating the custom is peculiar, and on a larger scale than any other in Halle. He invites forty stu dents, and if there are any Americans in Halle, they are sure to be in the number, provided they ever paid the doctor a visit. The forty guests enter the room in com pany, so that all can get a view of the A band of singers tree at the same time. are singing when the guests enter. The singers represent the choir of angels who celebrate with their songs the birth of Christ. When the Christmas song is finished, the doctor steps out and says a few words by way of welcome and congratulation. A long table extends the whole length of the reception-room. There are forty places at the table corresponding with the number of guests. On each plate is some confectionery, together with a book, or a pamphlet, with the name of him for whom it is intended, and a line or two of advice written by the doctor himself. The students walk around the table until each finds his own name in the plate, and sees the present for him. are often the doctor's own productions, some of his commentaries or sermons, in most cases. In front of each plate is a long round cake, which each student takes home with him when he goes. This is
the reception-room. That communicates His manner is exceedingly impressive, with another room by two large folding- and he conforms to the pulpit rule in the doors, which are thrown open. This Lutheran Church, to preach without a smaller room is still more interesting. In manuscript. In appealing on one occathe center of it there is a large square sion to the coldness and indifference of table, and on it is a farm scene. A beau- the Protestant Church in Germany he tiful miniature barn and stable occupy the said, "What more do we bring from our most of the table. There is also on it the hearts than a poor, feeble, half-whisperfarm-yard, with sheep and cows. The ed yes or no?' The joyful yea and whole scene is complete. All this repre- amen of the bleeding heart never finds sents the manger where Christ was born. its way into any of our congregations The four singers stand on one side of it when they listen to the word of God." and sing Christmas melodies several It is a fact, and his heart bled when he times during the evening. It is a beau- told it to his audience. In speaking of tiful sight to stand by the table and look the German ministry on the occasion of through into the large reception room. the annual Reformation sermon he said: There rises from the middle of the long table a beautiful Christmas tree, and from its boughs flame up many a beautiful light, which makes the whole a dazzling and beautiful scene.
"Where once the pure doctrine was preached, not with the lips alone, but with warm, believing hearts, the people took the preacher for an angel of God. Then the dead arose under their sermons, and hundreds beat their breasts with their hands, and exclaimed, Man of God, what shall I do to be saved? But now, though there are not a few of warm, believing witnesses of the word, when do we ever hear of the dead arising under the influence of their preaching? The great crowd scarcely ever comes into the church, and if it ever happens to come, there it remains, dumb and cold. The Lord himself can preach with his judgments, with the pestilence and cholera,* with the pangs of hunger and the terrors of war, but dumb and impenetrable is every heart. Our hearts are just as the stones in the streets; the rain falls upon them, they are trodden by the foot, the sun shines again upon them, and they are just what they were, stones."
On one of these occasions there happened to be two or three Americans standing together admiring the novel and charming sight. The doctor saw them and came to them. "What would one of your American professors think," he asked, "if he were to see this? I am sure he would consider it a very childish affair of mine." "We are not accustomed to these things," said one of the Americans, "but we can appreciate it better on that account." Toward the last, as the evening grows late, the four singers take their places by the side of the square table, and sing some beautiful Christmas song. Last winter the closing song hap-glish by a young Scotchman, who was pened to be one of Luther's, as touching a one as he ever wrote. The doctor then advanced and made some beautiful remarks relative to Christmas day. He made a practical application of the festival, and no one present could forget how eloquently and touchingly he dwelt upon the blessings we receive from the Saviour's birth.
Dr. Tholuck has been preaching ever since he commenced the labors of a professor. Even before he went to Halle he was the minister to the Prussian embassy (Gesandschaftsprediger) in Rome. It cannot be said of him as of a large portion of the German ministry, that he is cold in his labors, or at all fearful to touch his congregation on those points where they are most sensitive. One or another of the great national sins of Germany forms the theme of many of his sermons.
Very recently a selection of his sermons has been made and translated into En
some time one of Dr. Tholuck's students. They are published in Edinburgh, and I hope an American edition of the volume will soon appear, for it is undoubtedly a valuable contribution to our theological literature. Dr. Tholuck is the university chaplain, (Universitätsprediger,) and the students listen to him as to an oracle. The citizens of every social class take the same interest in his sermons, and I am sure the veriest stranger could walk the streets of Halle on a Sabbath morning and be able to tell from the countenances of the people whom he meets whether or not Dr. Tholuck is to preach that day. An old woman who once heard Dr. Clarke preach, said on her return from the
*The cholera had just put the town of Halle in mourning for hundreds of her sons and daughters, and the war-cry of the Revolution was just dying away in the German towns and cities.