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after all, forms are merely forms, of no particular value unless they are the necessary and adequate clothing to some particular manner of thought."

The "New Poetry" to Miss Lowell, then, means, mainly, a new manner of poetic thinking, incidentally a new manner of expressing that thinking in lines and words.

Some such basic understanding or conception is highly necessary, surely, when considering such widely differing exponents of the "new" poetic school as Robert Frost, and Masters, as Ezra Pound and Eunice Tietjens, or Carl Sandburg and "H. D."

Says Miss Lowell further:

"The modern poets are less concerned with dogma and more with truth. They see in the universe a huge symbol, and so absolute has this symbol become to them that they have no need to dwell constantly upon its symbolic meaning. For this reason, the symbol has taken on a new intensity, and is given much prominence. What appear to be pure nature poems are of course so, but in a different way from most nature poems of the older

writers; for nature is not now something separate from man, man and nature are recognized as part of a whole, man being a part of nature, and all falling into a place in a vast plan, the key to which is natural science.

"In some modern American poets this attitude is more conscious than in others, but all have been affected by it; it has modified poetry, as it is more slowly modifying the whole of our social fabric.

"What sets the poets of today apart from those of the Victorian era is an entire difference of outlook. Ideas believed to be fundamental have disappeared and given place to others. And as poetry is the expression of the heart of man, so it reflects this change to the smallest particle."

All of which, of course, is but another manner of saying that modern poetry, the poetry of all nations, but especially, perhaps, of America, is merely undergoing changes noticeable in all other forms of human existence and development. But it should be noted, in this connection, that not all modern poets feel the need of the highly symbolic medium

-so symbolic, in some cases, as to become decidedly obscure. Consider, for illustration, that doubly characteristic excerpt from the "Lustra" of Ezra Pound, "Women Before a Shop: "

The gew-gaws of false amber and false
turquoise attract them.

"Like to like nature:" those agglutinous

Which delightful fragment, like many of its distinctly imagistic fellows, indubitably means more to the writer than to the general reader. The question is whether or not it is wise or artistic to invade poetic areas with material so bound, in Mr. Pound's own words concerning certain of his own poems, to become "a very depleted fashion,

A homely, transient antiquity." Such poetry, if, for the moment and for the sake of argument, we concede the title, is not of the sort that lives.

Or analyze, for second specimen, Walter Conrad Arensberg's "Ing."

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Decidedly, distinctly, "revolutionary," not to say interesting, that strange-collection of words. But is it poetry? Defer decisive judgment by terse recapitulation of the "new" poetry's principal tenets and aims as expressed in the "Imagistic Creed" self acclaimed by the comparatively small group of writers who, because of the marked peculiarities of their chosen modes, have been credited with more than their fair share of new poetry" glory and fame.

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1. To use the language of common speech, but to employ always the exact word, not the

near-exact, nor the merely decorative word. 2. To create new rhythms -as the expression of new moods-and not to copy old rhythms, which merely echo old moods. We do not insist upon "free verse" as the only method of writing poetry. We fight for it as a principle of liberty. We believe that the individuality of a poet may often be better expressed in free verse than in conventional form. In poetry a new cadence means a new idea.

3. To allow absolute freedom in the choice of subject. It is not good art to write badly of aeroplanes and automobiles, nor is it necessarily bad art to write well about the past. We believe passionately in the artistic values of modern life, but we wish to point out that there is nothing so uninspiring nor so oldfashioned as an aeroplane of the year 1911.

4. To present an image (hence the name: "Imagist"). We are not a school of painters, but we believe that poetry should render particulars exactly and not deal in vague generalities, however magnificent and sonorous. It is for this reason that we oppose the cosmic

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