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for the same year was 1,149,200 tons. Scotland has become widely known for its ship-building, the Clyde being the largest ship-building centre in the world. The vessels of the Cunard Line are built in the Clyde shipyards. There are also a number of other ship-building centres, but of much less importance. The industry, though subject to occasional checks, is growing. In 1901 376 vessels were built, having an aggregate tonnage of 554,406 tons. There is a large variety of less important industries such as the manufacture of chemicals, pottery, confectionery, and preserves, etc.

TRANSPORTATION AND COMMERCE. The railroad mileage increased from 2999 in 1884 to 3485 in 1900. The Caledonian Canal, connecting Moray Firth with Loch Linnhe and completed in 1847, served for a time as a ship canal, but as vessels became larger their transit through the canal became impossible, and it is now used mainly for purposes of local traffic. Some of the canals of the Lowland district have been superseded by railroads. The course of the Clyde River has been greatly improved, until ocean vessels can reach the city of Glasgow. This city is the principal port of Scotland. The total tonnage entered and cleared at its port in 1901, excluding the coastwise trade, was 3,825,890. Leith, the next most important port, was credited with a tonnage of 1,945,754 for the same year. These are followed at a distance by Dundee, Grangemouth, Greenock, and Aberdeen. In 1900 the total tonnage entering Scottish ports in the coastwise trade was 7,213,574, and in the colonial and foreign trade 5,657,200. The value of imports into Scotland in the foreign and colonial trade increased from £8,921,108 in 1851 to £31,012,750 in 1874, and to £38,691,245 in 1900. The value of the exports leaving Scottish ports increased from £5,016,116 in 1851 to £17,912,932 in 1874, and to £32,166,561 in 1900, Scotland having a large percentage of this trade. A considerable export trade not represented in these figures passes through the English ports. See the paragraph

Commerce in the article GREAT BRITAIN. FINANCE. Scotland is subject to the same fiscal system as are the other members of the United Kingdom, a discussion of which will be found in the article GREAT BRITAIN, paragraph Finance. For the fiscal year ending March 31, 1902, the amount contributed by Scotland to the revenue collected by Imperial officers was £16,055,000, of which £13,115,000 was collected from taxes. The largest item was the excise tax, productive of £4,326,000, followed by the income tax, £3,645,000; customs, £2,981,000; estate, etc., duties, £1,411,000; stamps, £604,000; land tax and house duty, £148,000. The non-tax revenue, chiefly from postal and telegraph services, amounted to £1,858,000, and the revenue derived from local taxation amounted to £1,082,000. The expenditure for Scottish services during the same year amounted to £5,059,000. The aggregate amount raised by local authorities for local purposes increased from £8,097,456 in 1890-91 to £13,804,788 in 1898-99.

For Banks, Government, and Charitable and Penal Institutions, see under GREAT BRITAIN. POPULATION. The population of Scotland at the time of the Union in 1707 was estimated at 1,000,000. The first official census taken of the population in 1801 showed the inhabitants to number 1,608,420. By the middle of the century

(1851) it had further increased to 2,888,742, in 1891 to 4,025,647, and in 1901 to 4,472,103. In the last of these years Scotland contained 10.8 per cent. of the total population of the United King dom, which was but slightly greater than the corresponding per cent. at the beginning of the nineteenth century. The density per square mile in 1901 was 149, as against 606 for England. The population, however, is very unevenly distributed, being quite sparse over the large Highland area, while the Lowlands, namely the Glasgow-Edinburgh region, is one of the most densely populated districts in Great Britain. Between 1891 and 1901 the town districts-places having 2000 inhabitants and over-increased in aggregate population from 2,925,080 to 3,367,280, while during the same period the mainland rural districts made only the slight gain of from 974,841 to 983,274, and the insular rural districts decreased in population from 125,726 to 121,446. The following table shows the growth of the larger cities:

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places out of Europe. Considerably over onehalf of the Scotch emigrants in the last half of the nineteenth century went to the United States. Many of the Irish and the other non-Scotch elements residing in the country also have left for other lands. In 1901 the males numbered 2,173,151 and the females 2,294,849. In the same year the births numbered 132,178, the deaths 80,103. The numbers engaged in occupations according to the returns of 1891 were classified as follows: Professional, 111,319; domestic, 203,153; commercial, 180,952; agricultural and fishing, 249, 124; industrial, 1,032,404; and the remainder or unproductive class, 2,248,655.

RELIGION. Scotland is the stronghold of Presbyterianism, and the mass of the population belong to that faith. The established branch of the Presbyterian Church includes about one-half of the Protestant Church population. In 1899 the congregations of this Church numbered 1447 and the membership 648,476. In 1900 the two branches-the Free Church of Scotland and the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland-were united under the name of the United Free Church of Scotland. Before the union the Free Church had 1109 congregations with 404,828 members and an additional 61,000 adherents, and the United Presbyterian had 589 congregations with 177,517 members. There are a number of other non-conforming bodies, but all of them small. The Episcopalian Church in 1899 had 356 congregations and over 114,000 communicants and other members. The Catholic population was estimated in 1898 at 413,000; it consists mainly of the Irish element.

private boarding schools have never been widely patronized in Scotland. Burgh schools were established prior to the Reformation; they were regulated by the burgh authorities and open to the general community, but there was never any provision by national enactment for their or ganization or financial support. The desire for more modern or practical courses of instruction resulted about the middle of the eighteenth century in the establishment of academies. However, the opportunities to receive a university preparation were always, and still remain, in a measure inadequate, necessitating the assumption of that work by the universities themselves. A Parliamentary act was passed in 1887 making technical education possible.

EDUCATION. The supremacy of Scotland over the other parts of the British Isles in elementary and secondary education is generally admitted. In remarkable contrast with England, the country is distinguished for having early made public provision for instruction, and the religious controversies did not prevent the development of a homogeneous system. An act passed in 1696 obligated the landowners to the support of schools, and they with the ministers of the parishes had charge of the administration of the system. An educational committee reported in 1829 that their schools were open freely to Roman Catholics and that the teachers were directed not to press on them any instruction to which their parents or priests might object. Small Parliamentary grants to education began between 1830 and 1840. After 1861 it was only required of the teachers that they should not teach opinions opposed to the divine authority of the Scriptures or to the doctrine of the Shorter Catechism. By the Parliamentary Educational Act of 1872 the board system was established, in accordance with which a school board elected in every parish and burgh every three years has charge of both elementary and secondary education. School boards have the power of prescribing religious instruction, but the time of giving it must be such that children absenting themselves will not miss any of the secular instruction. Since 1891 instruction has been free for children from three to fifteen years of age and compulsory between the ages of five and fourteen, with conditional exemption after twelve. The instruction given in the parish schools has been mainly elementary, and secondary instruction was provided by the burgh schools and the academies. Unlike England,

VOL. XVII.-45.

In proportion to population Scotland has a larger number of universities and a much larger attendance than has England. The universities are Saint Andrews, founded in 1411; Glasgow, 1450; Aberdeen, 1494; and Edinburgh, 1582. The Scotch universities contrast strikingly with the older English universities in that the expense incurred in taking the course is much smaller in the former. Governmental financial support has never been very liberally extended, but has increased in recent years, which, together with the Carnegie gifts, has placed them upon a much better financial footing than ever before. Women are admitted to the universities under the same conditions as are men.

ETHNOLOGY. The people of Scotland, called Scots or Scotch after a Celtic tribe originally from Ireland, are derived from widely different stocks. The most primitive race were longheaded and they have been classed with Sergi's Mediterraneans. These were followed by a brachycephalic people like Ripley's Alpine race, but in Scotland they were tall, with massive jaws and broad faces. The third ingredient is a long-headed race, Teutonic, and of lofty stature. From the Stone Age until the eleventh century of our era there is evidence of a continuous Scandinavian invasion penetrating into the north country and entering largely into the composition of the Scotch Highlanders. They belong to the tallest people in the world, having an average height of 1.746 meters, in Ayrshire 1.782 meters, and in Galloway 1.792 meters; the cephalic index is 76.2-77.9. There are two centres of speech in Scotland. In the north Gaelic is spoken, belonging, with Irish and Manx, to the Gædhelic division of the Celtic mother tongue. In the south it is Lowland Scotch, an interesting local mixture of Scandinavian and English.

HISTORY.

At the end of the fifth century the Scots, an Irish people, settled in modern Argyll, and soon spread along the western coast from the Clyde to modern Ross. Their kingdom was called Dalriada. To the east of them, occupying the whole country north of the Forth, was the Pictish kingdom (see PICTS), and to their south lay the British Kingdom of Cumbria, which extended along the western coast from the Clyde to the border of Wales. The English Kingdom of Bernicia, a part of Northumbria, occupied the remainder of modern Scotland south of the Forth.

The early history of the Dalriad Scots is a narrative of warfare with the other kingdoms. Their first King of whom we have record, Fergus

MacErc, is said to have come from Ireland in 502, with the blessing of Saint Patrick himself. The Dalriads were Christians, and their King, Conal, gave the isle of Iona to Saint Columba, the apostle of the northern Picts. Aidan, another of their kings, repeatedly invaded Bernicia, but was beaten by the heathen Ethelfried at Degastan in 603. There followed a short period of English supremacy over both Scots and Picts, but in the decisive battle of Nechtansmere (685) the latter destroyed an English army, and both peoples became independent. About 730 the Pictish King, Angus MacFergus, subdued both the Scots and the Britons. But internal dissensions and the attacks of the Northmen broke the strength of the Pictish kingdom, and in 843 Kenneth MacAlpin, King of the Scots, was acknowledged King of Pictland. All the country north of the Forth and the Clyde was thus united into one kingdom. It was at first called Alban, but in the tenth century the name Scotland became common. Kenneth I. (843-860) transferred his seat to Forteviot in Stratherne, the Pictish capital. By the marriage of his daughter to the King of Cumbria he secured an alliance of all the Celts of Scotland against the Teutonic invaders. He often raided Lothian, and repulsed the Northmen from Dalriada, but neither he nor his successors could prevent them from occupy ing the Orkneys and Shetlands, and from obtaining a foothold in the extreme north of Scotland.

The centre of the Scotch kingdom was the country between the Forth and the Spey, and its kings were constantly engaged in struggles with the rebellious chiefs of Moray. The seven original provinces of Pictland were ruled by underkings, but with the growth of the royal power these kinglets were replaced by mormaers, or great stewards, who were royal officers. The tribal chieftains under them were called toisechs. They, as well as the mormaers, were chosen in the assembly of the free tribesmen from the ruling family. Constantine II. (904-943) fixed the royal residence at Scone. In a national council held at Scone (906) he and his bishop, Cellach, regulated the affairs of the Scottish Church. He repeatedly repulsed the Northmen, but later in his reign formed an alliance with them and with Cumbria against the growing power of Athelstan of England. The allies were defeated in the great battle of Brunanburh (937). Constantine also succeeded in placing his brother Donald upon the throne of Cumbria. His successor, Malcolm I. (943-954), acquired the southern part of Cumbria (modern Cumberland and Westmoreland) from Edmund, King of England, who had conquered it. But the permanent southern borders of Scotland date from the reign of Malcolm II. (1005-34). The royal line of Strathclyde (northern Cumbria) having expired, that country had become a part of Scotland by inheritance. Even more important was the acquisition of Lothian, which Malcolm wrested from the English by his victory of Carham in 1018. Malcolm's attempt to set aside the Scottish law of the succession by the murder of the legitimate heir (i.e. his brother's son) led to the murder of his grandson, Duncan, by Macbeth, Mormaer of Ross and Moray. Shakespeare's wonderful tragedy has treated this event, but his sources were at variance with historic truth. Duncan was in reality an immature youth, and Macbeth, who had married the mother of the

true heir and was his guardian, represented the legitimate succession. Far from being a cruel tyrant, he was an able monarch, whose reign of eighteen years was one of comparative peace and prosperity.

FEUDAL AGE (1054-1286). The accession of Malcolm III. (1054), better known as Malcolm Canmore, marks the beginning of a new epoch in Scottish history. It was the age of the AngloNorman influence, of the introduction of the feudal system in Church and State, and of the foundation and growth of towns. Scotland left her Celtic isolation and entered the community of European nations. The long residence of Malcolm III. in England, and especially his marriage with the sister of Edgar the Atheling, rendered his sympathies English, and involved him in English affairs. He espoused their cause against the Norman conquerors, and received many of the victims of William's devastation of Northumberland as settlers in Scotland. His Queen, who was afterwards canonized as Saint Margaret of Scotland, used her great influence to bring the Celtic Church into the communion of Western Christendom by the assimilation of its usages to those of the Roman Church. On the death of Malcolm (1093) a Celtic reaction occurred. Donald Bane, the King's brother, was chosen to succeed him, and the English courtiers were driven out of Scotland. But English aid soon placed Malcolm's son Edgar on the throne, and during his reign (1097-1107), as well as during the reigns of his brothers Alexander I. and David I., the Anglo-Norman influence triumphed. Edgar's reign was marked by the permanent removal of the royal residence to Edinburgh, and by the loss of the Hebrides and part of the western mainland to the Northmen.

During the reigns of Alexander I. (1107-24) and David I. (1124-53) the feudal system was greatly strengthened in Scotland, both in Church and State. Nine bishoprics were created in place of the single bishopric of the Scots, although Saint Andrews continued to hold the primacy. Parishes were established and endowed throughout the country. Foreign ecclesiastics took the place of the Scotch monks, and stately new abbeys were founded, especially by David, who began the construction of Holyrood, Melrose, and the other principal abbeys of the Lowlands. Charters were introduced to take the place of ancient Celtic customs, the mormaers became earls, and the toisechs thanes-both royal officers holding their land from the King, who thus became the universal landowner, in place of the tribes. Alexander was still surrounded by Celtic lords, but David portioned out the Lowlands among Norman lords in direct feudal relation to the Crown. Nevertheless, the relation of the tenantry to the new lords was the same as it had been to the old, and there was no oppression of the lower classes, such as took place in the Norman conquest of England. The visnet was introduced to take the place of the old practice of compurgation. By this legal process, which was also called the judgment of the peace, every freeman obtained the right to be tried by his peers. The more serious crimes were withdrawn from the lesser courts and made pleas of the Crown. The peace thus became the King's peace, and was maintained by the sovereign in annual judicial circuits until the first half of the fourteenth century, when four justices were appointed to at

tend to the pleas of the Crown. These reforms were begun by Alexander, but carried out, for the most part, by David. The latter granted many new charters and privileges to the burghs, which grew and prospered during his reign. He prized peace, but his English possessions and relationships brought on war. As husband of the heiress of Northumberland, and brother of the Empress Matilda, he took part in the civil war between her and Stephen. Although defeated in the Battle of the Standard, near Northallerton (1138), he nevertheless attained the object of his ambition when he acquired the Earldom of Northumberland for his son Henry. His son William the Lion, who became King in 1165 on the death of his brother Malcolm, was taken prisoner in an invasion of England, and compelled by the Treaty of Falaise (1175) to swear fealty to Henry II. Scotland remained a feudal dependency for fourteen years, but Richard I. of England renounced the treaty for 10,000 marks of silver. William's son, Alexander II., succeeded him and followed his father's policy of siding with the barons of England in their struggle against John. In 1237, however, he renounced his claims to Westmoreland, Cumberland, and Northumberland for a yearly payment of £200. His successor, Alexander III., recovered the western islands from the Northmen by a formal treaty in 1266, though the question had really been decided in the battle of Largs three years earlier. He then married his daughter to the young King of Norway, and her only child, the Maid of Norway, was declared heiress to the Scotch throne. The death of Alexander III., in 1286, ended this long and prosperous epoch.

WAR OF INDEPENDENCE (1286-1328). The feudal relations of Scotland and England have given rise to much controversy between the historians of the two countries. The facts of the case seem to be that while the English kings usually claimed an overlordship, they had never succeeded in enforcing it except in the case of William the Lion noted above. The Scottish kings did homage for their English possessions and for them only. In 1290, however, Edward I. obtained a favorable opportunity to press the English claims. The Maid of Norway, granddaughter of Alexander III., died on the voyage to Scotland. Thirteen claimants to the throne appeared. Edward I. took the matter into his own hands, claiming this right as suzerain of Scotland. He demanded an acknowledgment of his suzerainty, which was acceded to by the Norman lords and bishops. The Scotch commonalty, however, that is to say, the burghs and the gentry, protested, but without avail. At Norham, in 1293, Edward decided in favor of John Baliol (q.v.), a descendant of the royal house by an elder female line. Balio was a submissive man, but by his high-handed enforcement of feudal claims Edward drove Scotland to revolt, and to a league with France the 'auld alliance' with France which lasted over two centuries and a half and was

only ruptured by the Reformation. Edward, therefore, invaded Scotland in 1296 and in the battle of Dunbar defeated the Scotch forces. Balio was deposed and the Norman nobility of Scotland readily swore fealty to Edward as their King.

But the Scotch people were unsubdued, and they soon found a leader in William Wallace (q.v.). After a series of remarkable adven

tures he succeeded in arousing the country against the English, and in the battle of Stirling (1297) he destroyed a superior English army. But in 1298 Edward returned with an overwhelming army, and by a new and skillful use of his archers defeated the Scotch at Falkirk. Nevertheless, although Edward repeatedly invaded Scotland, and although in 1305 Wallace was captured and cruelly put to death, the country was not subdued. After the death of Wallace the cause of liberty was taken up by Robert Bruce (q.v.), the grandson of Robert Bruce, Baliol's rival for the throne of Scotland. The nobility supported him as it had never supported Wallace, and he was crowned King at Scone. He gained a series of minor victories over the English, and at length completely routed their superior army at Bannockburn in 1314. From that time until 1328, when the independence of Scotland was formally acknowledged, there were constant invasions of Northern England.

During the War of Independence the Parliament of Scotland first took its definite form. Its origin is to be found in the feudal council of tenants-in-chief summoned by David I. which superseded the council of the seven mormaers. To the feudal council belonged the lords spiritual (bishops, abbots, priors), and the lords temporal, including the lesser, as well as the greater, barons. With the towns the kings negotiated directly in two groups-the four burghs of the south, of which Edinburgh was the leader, and the Hanse burghs of the north, grouped about Aberdeen. The burghs first appear as an estate in the Parliament of Cambuskenneth, which Bruce called, in 1326, to aid him in the struggle against England. From this date only can we speak of a Scottish Parliament. The three estates sat in the same house, under the presidency of the Chancellor of the Exchequer. The Scotch Parliament, however, never attained the constitutional importance of the English, because the Scotch kings lived within their means, and seldom made demands for money.

SUPREMACY OF THE NOBILITY (1329-1546). In Scotland the nobility was far more powerful than in England. There were many more exemptions from royal judicature, and the royal office of sheriff had become hereditary among the nobility. The prevalence of the tribal system in the Highlands, and to some extent in the Lowlands, strengthened the nobility, because of the intimate personal relation which existed between tribesmen and chief. Moreover, Scotland was unfortunate during the period following the struggle for independence in having most of her kings succeed as minors. During the minorities disorders and feuds prevailed, and peace existed in the royal burghs only. To disorder at home was added almost perpetual warfare on the English border-a dreary chronicle of raids and petty victories on either side. Under David II., the son of Robert Bruce (1329-71), Parliament attained its greatest power, practically conducting the affairs of State, and determining the succession to the throne contrary to the King's desire. In 1371 Robert II., a grandson of Robert Bruce, inaugurated the Stuart dynasty. During the latter part of his reign, which ended in 1396, the Duke of Albany was virtual ruler of Scotland, a position which he held under Robert III. (1396-1406) and during the minority of James

I. (1406-37). It was not until some years after his death that James I., who had been prisoner in England since 1405, was permitted to return. James was a prince of great ability. With a strong hand he curbed the nobility, not hesitating to attain his ends by putting to death his opponents. In his attempt to bring order into Scotland he was aided by the towns. He also sought to make Parliament an instrument to crush the nobility. Finding it impossible to induce the lesser nobility to attend Parliament, he ordained in 1427 that two representative knights should be sent from each sheriffdom in the kingdom, on the model of the English system. This act was unsuccessful, but it became of constitutional importance, because it was reenacted by the Reformation Parliament in 1560, and in 1585 was finally established as a law.

During the following reigns there was more lawlessness than ever. Some of the nobility were always engaged in treasonable negotiations with England. Chief among the King's opponents had always been the Lords of the Isles, who ruled over what was practically an independent principality in the west. The great House of Douglas, famous in border raids, was also very troublesome. Under James II. (1437-60) there was some wise legislation improving the condition of the lesser tenantry and encouraging tillage. The marriage of James III. (1460-88) with the daughter of the King of Norway brought the Orkneys into the possession of Scotland in 1469. James IV. (1485-1513) married Margaret Tudor, the daughter of Henry VII., thus opening the way to peace with England. But family quarrels with Henry VIII. and the renewal of the French alliance led to a Scottish invasion of England, which resulted in the defeat and death of James on Flodden Field in 1513. Under James V. (1513-42) the College of Justice, the Scottish supreme court, was established on the model of the Parlement of Paris in 1532. James's chief minister was Cardinal Beaton, the Archbishop of Saint Andrews, who played in Scotland the rôle of Cardinal Wolsey in England, but with greater success. After the death of James V. he directed the destinies of Scotland. Henry VIII.'s barbarous invasion, in which towns were burned, the country was laid waste, and all the inhabitants that resisted were slain, thwarted

that monarch's design for a marriage between the infant Queen of Scotland and the heir to the English throne. For a time the same policy was continued by the Protector Somerset, and this so incensed the Scotch that Mary was sent to France to marry the Dauphin. With the assassination of Cardinal Beaton in 1546 the power of the Catholic

Church in Scotland was over.

THE REFORMATION AND ITS CONSEQUENCES (1543-1688). James V., although he compelled the clergy to reform abuses, resisted the efforts of Henry VIII. to make him join the Reformation, but after his death Mary of Guise, the Queen mother, in vain attempted to compromise. In 1559 John Knox (q.v.) returned to Scotland and became the greatest power in effecting the Reformation. Urged by his fiery eloquence, many of the nobility organized against the bishops under the name of the Lords of the Congregation. They went through the land suppressing the mass, destroying images, and plundering the monasteries. The Regent secured French aid, but with the as

sistance of Elizabeth the rebellious nobles more than held their own. Peace came in 1560 with the Treaty of Edinburgh, which provided for the withdrawal of both French and English forces, leaving Scotland to settle her own Church affairs. In that year the Reformation Parliament assembled and adopted a thoroughly Calvinistic Confession of Faith drawn up by John Knox, and established the Church on a democratic and Presbyterian basis. See PRESBYTERIANISM, section on The Presbyterian Churches in Scotland.

The subsequent history of Scotland until the Union is the story of its Church, the democratic government of which, like the Parliament in England, trained the people for political liberty. During the Civil War the Scots united with the Parliamentarians and by creating a diversion in the north divided the King's forces. The restoration of Charles II. was followed by the restoration of episcopacy and the bloody persecution of the Covenanters, who adhered to the Presbyterian faith. But the nation remained Presbyterian, and in 1689 the Scottish Parliament passed a bill of rights more radical than the English, and invited William to ascend the throne. In 1690 episcopacy was definitely abolished and Presbyterianism was restored to the position of a State religion. The frequent changes in religion were brought about by Parliament, which was entirely A chief source under the King's control. of Parliamentary weakness lay in the growth committee system. As early as the fourteenth century business had been referred to two committees called the Lords of the Articles, chosen from the three estates. Consolidated by James V. into a single body, this committee obtained such power that by the sixteenth century Parliament met merely method of its appointment enabled the King to to confirm its decisions. In 1621 a change in the fill it with his partisans, and thus control Parliament. But in 1690 the committee of the Articles was abolished, and from that time until the Union Scotland had parliamentary rule.

acts

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for union with the demand for free trade and

THE UNION WITH ENGLAND. In consequence hostile attitude of the English Parliament toward of the massacre of Glencoe in 1692, and of the the Scottish colony at Darien, the Scottish Parliament echoed the popular feeling of hostility toward England. It met the English desire equal rights in the colonies, and on being refused this it passed the Act of Security (1703), practically excluding the successor of Queen Anne from the Scottish throne, and providing for compulsory military training of every Scotsman, In retaliation the English Parliament passed several laws greatly restricting the trading privileges of the Scotch. For a year or two there was imminent danger that the Scots would proceed to extreme measures, but in 1707 the Parliament agreed to the Act of Union. Charges of bribery were made and the whole proceeding was execrated by the people of Scotland. As finally passed the act gave Scotland a representation of forty-five in the British House of Commons and sixteen in the House of Lords, the whole Scotch peerage electing the latter for the Parliamentary term of the British Parliament. Scotland received free trade and retained her own Church and laws. The debts of the two countries were consolidated.

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