Puslapio vaizdai

paratively easy to proceed from this point to the reading of complicated scores. No one should attempt playing from score who has not a thorough knowledge of harmony as well as a fair knowledge of counterpoint. In reading a large score it is impossible to look at every individual note. A glance at the double-basses, violins, and horns, as a rule, will suffice to establish the particular chord. The fundamental bass part and the melodic outline must be strictly preserved, but the intermediate harmonies must be recog nized at a glance and distributed on the spur of the moment. On account of the transposing instruments, skill in transposition is essential.

SCOREL, skō'rěl, JAN VAN (also SCHOREEL and SCHOORLE) (1495-1562). A Dutch landscape, historical, and portrait painter, the first to bring the influence of the Italian Renaissance into Holland. He was born at Schoorl, near Alkmaar, studied under the brothers Jacob and Willem Cornelisz at Haarlem and Amsterdam, and finally became a pupil of Albert Dürer in Nuremberg. Subsequently he went to Rome, where he was made overseer of the Vatican Gallery by his countryman, Pope Adrian VI. His pictures are now rather scarce, as many of them were destroyed by the Dutch iconoclasts. There are a "Magdalen," a "Queen of Sheba," a "Bathsheba," and an "Adonis," in the museum at Amsterdam; a Madonna and portraits of a man and of a boy, in Rotterdam; "The Fall of Man," "The Baptism of Christ," "Saint Cecilia," and a portrait group of Knights Templars at Haarlem.

SCORESBY, skōrz'bi, WILLIAM (1789-1857). An English Arctic explorer and physicist. He was born near Whitby, Yorkshire. When only eleven years of age the boy accompanied his father, a whaler, to Greenland and afterwards he was his constant companion on his voyages. During the winter months he studied in Edinburgh University, navigation, mathematics, natural history, chemistry, and some other branches. After 1806 he began the study of the meteorology and natural history of the Arctic regions, and attracted the attention of scientific men by his careful and accurate papers on these topics. In 1806, while chief officer on his father's ship Resolution, he reached latitude 81° 30′ N. in longitude 19° E., the most northern point authentically known to have been attained up to that time. His father and he saw the unknown coasts of East Greenland in their voyages of 1817 and 1821. It was in 1822, however, that Scoresby made his most important voyage. Early in June he was near enough to Greenland to chart the coast from Cape Hold with Hope (discovered and named by Hudson in 1607 on the north side of the entrance of Franz Josef Fiord in 73° 30' N.) to Gale Hamke Bay, 75° N., named after its Dutch discoverer in 1654. During the next three months he surveyed and charted with great care and accuracy 800 miles of winding coasts, completely changing the supposed geographic features of East Greenland.

valuable observations on the height of Atlantic waves during two visits to America. He was also much interested in social problems and especially in improving the condition of factory operatives. His Arctic books are History and Description of the Arctic Regions (1820), and Journal of a Voyage to the Northern Whale Fishery, Including Researches and Discoveries on the Eastern Coast of Greenland (1823). His Journal of a Voyage to Australia for Magnetical Research was published in 1859, after his death. His nephew, Dr. R. E. Scoresby-Jackson, published Life of William Scoresby (London, 1861).

Scoresby afterwards entered the Church and was appointed curate of Bassingby in 1825. His scientific labors, however, ended only with his life. He contributed largely to the knowledge of terrestrial magnetism, made a voyage to Australia in 1856 to obtain new data on this subject, wrote many papers for the Royal and other societies on this and other branches of science, and made

pl., from Lat. scorpaena, from Gk. σкóряαα, SCORPÆNIDÆ, skôr-pe'ni-dê (Neo-Lat. nom. skorpaina, sort of fish, from σкоpós, skorpios, of spiny-rayed fishes, the rockfishes (q.v.). The scorpion). A very large and important family body is elongate, compressed, and bears ctenoid scales. The head is large and armed to a greater or less extent with ridges or spines. The mouth is usually large, the teeth villiform. The dorsal anal short, with three spines, and 5 to 10 soft fin is long, the anterior portion spinous; the rays. Many of the species are viviparous, the young being when born about one-fourth inch long. They are non-migratory fishes, inhabiting the rocky margins of all seas, especially the temperate Pacific. The family includes about 30 genera and 250 species, many of them of large size and all good as food-fishes. Many of the species are reddish and are hence called 'rosefishes' (q.v.).

SCORPION (Lat. scorpio, from Gk. σкоρπlos, skorpios, scorpion). One of the tailed arachnids of the order Scorpionida, natives of warm countries in both the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. The body is divided into a short, compact, leg-bearing cephalothorax and a long segmented abdomen. The last five segments of the abdomen form a slender, taillike portion. The terminal segment is modified into a curved sharp sting provided with two pores from which the poison flows. The poison is supplied by two poison glands at the base of the segment. To the cephalothorax are attached six pairs of appendages. The first pair (mandibles) is short, the second pair (palpi) long, and both pairs bear pincers. Those of the palpi are very large and resemble lobster claws. The four succeeding 1, Full figure of Scorpairs of appendages are true pio afer: 2, mouth-parts legs. The abdomen is with- b, lateral'ocelli; c, cenout appendages save the sec- trallarge ocelli; d, maxond segment, which bears illary palpi: e, telson (the sting). two comb-like organs, the pectines, the function of which is not known. There are four spiracles or breathing pores on each side of the abdomen. There are from three to six pairs of eyes. The sexes differ in the broader pincers and longer abdomen of the male. They are viviparous and the mother carries her young about with her for some time after they are born. They cling to all parts of her body by means of their pincers. Scorpions feed on spiders and


enlarged; a, cheliceræ;


large insects, which they seize with their claws and kill by their poisonous sting. They hide by day in crevices, under stones or in dark holes, and are largely nocturnal in their habits. They run with great swiftness and with the tail curved over the back. Some species may enter houses and hide in boots, shoes, or garments, and, when disturbed, sting human beings. The sting is very painful, but rarely, if ever, fatal. The poison should be pressed or sucked out of the wound and ammonia should be applied externally and taken internally. No scorpions occur in the United States north of Nebraska, but in the South about 20 species are known.

Scorpions are the most primitive of living arachnids, show very close resemblance to the king crab (q.v.), and occur as fossils in the Silurian rocks, but the early forms differ little from modern types. The word 'scorpion' is used in combination in the common names of other closely related orders such as the false scorpions and whip-scorpions. (See ARACHNIDA.) The false scorpions (order Pseudoscorpiones) are small Arachnida which resemble the true scorpions, but lack the long jointed tail. The abdomen is ovate and broader than the cephalothorax, and there is no poison sting. The jaws are fitted for sucking, but the palpi bear large pincers as in the true scorpions. There are two pairs of spiracles and two or four eyes, although some forms are blind. The female lays eggs which she carries attached to the first segment of the abdomen. The false scorpions are swift runners, moving sidewise and backward with equal facility. They feed on mites, psocids, and other

minute insects and are found in moss, under the bark of trees, or between the leaves of dusty books. Chelifer cancroides is common in storerooms in old houses. They are often found attached to other insects, especially to flies. The whip-scorpions, or 'whiptails' (order Pedipalpi) are arachnids with a long body, segmented thorax, and a long whip-like appendage at the tip of the abdomen. The fore legs have many tarsal joints and are elongated and whip-like. The mandibles are furnished with claws and the palpi are very large and are armed with strong spines. The whip-scorpions are tropical in their distribution. One species (Thelyphonus giganteus) is found in the Southern United States, where it is known as the 'mule-killer,' 'vinaigrier,' or 'vinegarone,' the latter names derived from an acid secretion which has the odor of vinegar, and which is ejected by the creature when disturbed or alarmed. Although very dangerous in appearance, it is perfectly harmless to man. It feeds upon insects during its whole life, the adults destroying large grasshoppers and beetles. Consult: Kingsley, Standard Natural History (Boston, 1884); Comstock, Manual for the Study of Insects (Ithaca, 1895); Lankester, "Limulus an Arachnid," in Quarterly Journal Microscopical Science (London, 1881); Laurie (ib., 1890).

SCORPION-FISH, or SCORPENE. A fish of the genus Scorpaena, typical of the Scorpaenidae (q.v.); specifically, the common market-fish of southern California (Scorpæna guttata), which is about a foot long, and brown, mottled, rosy, olive, and other tints.

SCORPION-FLY. Any one of the curious insects belonging to the order Mecoptera, which

contains the single family Panorpida. Strictly speaking, the term 'scorpion-fly' should be restricted to the members of the typical genus Panorpa, which have the terminal segments of the abdomen elongate and very mobile, while the genital organs are curiously enlarged and modified. This tail-like structure is carried in a curved position over the back, somewhat after the manner of the true scorpions. The scorpionflies have four wings, with many veins, and the head is prolonged to form a deflexed beak which is provided with palpi near the apex. The metamorphoses are complete. The larvæ are provided with legs and usually with numerous prolegs like the sawflies. The larvæ are carnivorous and live near the surface of the ground. They feed usually upon dead animals, including such soft-bodied insects as caterpillars and grubs. The representatives of the family in the United States are all contained in the genera Panorpa, Bittacus, and Boreus. The panorpas are very common insects in the midsummer in most parts of the United States. Some of them have spotted wings and are seen flying in the bright sunlight in places where tall herbage abounds. The genus Boreus is composed of wingless forms which look something like minute grasshoppers, and occur in the winter upon snow in the Northern States.

SCORʼZONE'RA (It., black bark). A rather large genus of plants of the natural order Composita, natives mostly of Europe and Asia. The common scorzonera or black salsify (Scorzonera Hispanica), a native of Southern Europe, has long been cultivated for its tapering black escu

lent roots about the thickness of a man's finger. The leaves are sometimes used to feed silkworms. SCOTCH FANCY CANARY. See CANARY. SCOTCH LAW. The most ancient records of this body of law indicate that its fundamental principles and institutions are very similar to those of Anglo-Saxon England. At a very early period, however, the jurisprudence of Scotland began to diverge from that of its southern neighbor. In England a system of national courts was established as early as the thirteenth century, whose decisions were reported and formed precedents for future cases. Not until the middle of the sixteenth century, however, did Scotland secure anything in the nature of a complete judicial system. A century earlier, it is true, a Court of Session had been established, consisting of certain persons named by the King out of the three estates of Parliament, and receiving its name from the fact that it was to hold a certain number of sessions annually at places to be named by the King. It was a court of first instance, in the main, and no appeal lay from its decisions. Its judges were so negligent in the performance of their duties, however, that it was abolished in 1532, and a new Court of Session and College of Justice instituted. Until the middle of the sixteenth century, therefore, there was no opportunity for the development of a national system of Scotch law. Nearly all litigation was conducted in local tribunals, of which the most important was the Sheriff's Court enforced, but a common law of the realm was not (q.v.). In these, local usages and customs were and could not be evolved. “A private transcript of Glanvil's Treatise on the Laws of England, altered so as to adapt it to the notorious prac

tice in Scotland, and feigned to have been compiled by order of David I.," appears to have been received by the Scotch Parliament and judges as a correct statement of their written law down to the opening of the sixteenth century. After the establishment of the College of Justice, the unwritten law of Scotland developed rapidly, although along lines quite different from those followed in England. The tribunal itself had been modeled not after any English court, but after the constitution of the Parliament of Paris. Its judges consisted of seven churchmen, seven laymen, and a president. After the Reformation clergymen were received as judges, until 1640; but since then only duly qualified advocates are appointed to this court, and their selection is a prerogative of the sovereign. The system of legal rules administered by this tribunal was not so much that of England as that of Rome. Scotch lawyers were educated in France or Italy or Hol

land, where the Roman civil law prevailed. Scotch judges had no such antipathy to that law, either in its original form or in the modified form in the canon law, as characterized the judges of England. As a result, modern Scotch law has a very large infusion of the principles of the Roman law. Even at present admission to the Faculty of Advocates is conditioned upon a successful examination in the Roman law, and

no one not an advocate is qualified for a judge ship in the Court of Session unless he has passed such an examination.

Since the union of Scotland and England the tendency of legislation has been toward the assimilation of the legal systems of the two countries. Lord Cockburn declared in 1846 that "the improvements introduced or recommended in England by law reformers amount, in a really surprising number of instances, to little else than an approximation to the law of Scotland." While this is true, it is also to be said that the most recent legislation has modified many of the Scotch rules and brought them into accord with those of English common law. Notwithstanding the process of assimilation which has been going on for two centuries, nevertheless the two legal systems present many striking differences still. Some of the most important are the following:

Scotch law classifies them as contracts (subdividing these in accordance with the Roman law into real and consensual), quasi-contracts, delicts, and quasi-delicts. Under the head of quasi-contracts it places certain obligations not so classed by the Roman law. Delict includes those torts of the English law which are also criminal offenses; while quasi-delict includes torts of negligence or imprudence. Consult: Paterson, A Compendium of English and Scotch Law (Edinburgh, 1865); Lorimer, A Handbook of the Law of Scotland (Edinburgh, 1894); Erskine, Principles of the Law of Scotland (Edinburgh, 1895); MacKenzie, Studies of Roman Law, with Comparative Views of the Laws of France, England, and Scotland (Edinburgh and London, 1898).

The nomenclature is so different that a learned writer upon the topic has declared that an interpreter is generally required in case of consultations between English and Scotch lawyers.

In matter of substance, the two legal systems are quite as much at variance as in terminology. English law divides property into real estate and personalty. Scotch law classifies it as heritable or movable. Heritable property includes not only lands and all rights of or affecting lands, but various forms of personal property such as certain bonds; also chattels which the owner directs shall vest in his heirs. Movables are all kinds of property which go not to the heir, but to the executor. Again, English law requires that every contract not under seal must have a consideration, while "in Scotland it is not essential to the validity of an obligation that it should be granted for a valuable consideration, or, indeed, for any consideration, an obligation undertaken deliberately, though gratuitously, being binding." In English law, obligations are divided into those of contract (q.v.) and those in tort (q.v.).

SCOTCH MUSIC. The music of Scotland is of the same general character as that of Ireland and Wales. (See CELTIC MUSIC.) The national

melodies are generally considered to be of great antiquity. No musical manuscript of Scotch airs is now known to exist of an older date than 1627; and we have no knowledge when and by whom the early Scotch melodies were composed. Their disappearance seems to have been due first to the strong measures resorted to, about 1530, by both civil and ecclesiastical authorities, to put down all ballads reflecting on the Roman Catholic hierarchy, and afterwards to the ill-will shown by the dominant Presbyterians toward worldly amusements. The most valuable existing early collection of Scotch melodies is the Skene manuscript, in the Advocates' Library, noted down by Sir John Skene of Hallyards about the year 1630. It contains a number of native airs, mixed with some foreign dance-tunes-upward of a hundred in all. Many of the Scotch melodies exhibit beauties which the changes these airs have undergone have only tended to destroy.

Among the peculiarities which give character to the music of Scotland, the most prominent is the prevalent omission of the fourth and seventh of the scale, and consequent absence of semitones. Another characteristic is the substitution of the descending for the ascending sixth and seventh in the minor scale, as at the beginning of the air called Adew, Dundee, in the Skene manuscript. A very prevalent course of modulation is an alternation between the major key and its relative minor, the melody thus ever keeping true to the diatonic scale of the principal key, without the introduction of accidentals. The closing note is by no means necessarily the key-note, a peculiarity especially remarkable in the Highland airs, which, if in a major key, most frequently terminate in the second; if in a minor, on the seventh. Closes are also to be found on the third, fifth, and sixth. Among the printed collections of Scotch melodies with words, the most important is George Thomson's collection, with symphonies and accompaniments by Pleyel, Kozeluch, Haydn, Beethoven, Bishop, Hummel, and Weber (vols. i.-iv., 1793-1805; vol. v.. 1826; and vol. vi., 1841), one distinguishing feature of which was the appearance of Burns's words conjoined with the old melodies of the country. Consult: Ballantine, "Historical Epitome of Scottish Songs," in Fulcher's Lays and Lyrics of Scotland (Glasgow, 1870); Stenhouse, Illustrations of the Lyric Poetry and Music of Scotland (Edinburgh, 1853). See BAGPIPE; PIBROCH; REEL.


SCOTCH SCHOOL OF PHILOSOPHY. term used to designate the philosophie tendency represented by Thomas Reid, Sir William Hamilton, James Beattie, James Oswald, Dugald Stewart, James McCosh, and others. The leading tenet of the school is that we have an immediate and intuitive knowledge of the external world and of first principles. See the articles on the above-named thinkers; also PHILOSOPHY, HIS

25 and 146 miles. The total area of Scotland, including the islands, is 29,785 square miles. A general discussion of the topographical, climatic, biological, and geological features of Scotland, together with those of England and Wales, is given under the title GREAT BRITAIN, reference to which is made also for each of the headings below.


Perhaps the most striking general feature of Scotland is its irregularity in outline. Though much smaller than England in area, it has a SCOTCH TERRIER. See TERRIER; and Plate longer coastline, about 2300 miles, which gives a

of DOGS.

proportion of 1 mile to every 13 square miles of area. Few places lie 40 miles from the sea. The east coast is indented by two large arms of the sea, which almost cut the country into three sections, while the west coast is dissected by numerous fiords, or firths, which have converted many headlands into islands. Prominent among the firths are the Firth of Forth on the east, Moray Firth on the northeast, the Firth of Lorne and the Firth of Clyde on the west, and Solway Firth on the southwest border. Scotland differs from England topographically in that the greater part of its surface is mountainous, only the comparatively small south central portion being

lowland. The lowlands of the south are divided


from the highlands of the north by the broad
short valleys of the Clyde and Forth.
former district resembles fertile England; the
latter, a much more extensive region, is in the
main bare and rugged and capable of supporting
but a sparse population. The extreme southern
part of Scotland is a region of mountains and
hills, embracing fertile valleys. The best known
range here is that of the Cheviot Hills, on the
the Clyde and Forth valleys north to the Cale-
English border. Middle Scotland, extending from
donian Canal, which connects Moray Firth with
the Firth of Lorne, is almost exclusively moun-
tainous, characterized by the Grampian Hills,
and containing Ben Nevis, at the head of the
Firth of Lorne, the highest mountain in Great
Britain (4406 feet). The plain of Strathmore,
however, the most extensive cultivated section in

Scotland, lies in this division of the country,
northeast of Stirling. Southeast and east of this
plain are the Ochil and Sidlaw Hills.
Scotland-the northwestern Highlands-the poor-
est part of the country, is an upland of swamp,
moors, and bald, barren features. The highest
peak in this region is Ben Dearg, 3550 feet. The
scenery here is highly picturesque and inspiring,
being varied by castled elevations, lakes, valleys,
glens, rivers, cascades, and rocky coasts. The
highest peaks in South Scotland have an elevation

of about 2700 feet. The rivers and lakes of Scot-
land are described under GREAT BRITAIN. Geologi-
cally Scotland is more thoroughly of ancient
formation than England. In both the north-
ern and southern highland regions little
but Archæan gneisses and Lower Paleozoic meta-
morphic rocks remain, but in the central de-
pression a large Carboniferous area containing
rich coal fields still survives the long ages of de-
nudation. Igneous rocks of all ages are also
more common in all parts of the country than in

SCOTCH VERDICT. The verdict of 'not proven' which the jury in a criminal trial in Scotland are permitted to find in certain cases. The defendant cannot be again tried on the same charge. See GUILT; VERDICT.


SCOTER (from Icel. skoti, shooter, from skjóta, OHG. sciozan, Ger. schiessen, AS. sceotan, Eng. shoot; ultimately connected with Skt. skand, to leap). A sea-duck of the genus Oidemia, of which there are several species, with tumid or gibbous bill and no frontal processes; the tail has 14 or 16 feathers. The male is black, sometimes with white on head and wings; the female sooty-brown. The largest American species is the white-winged scoter (Oidemia Deglandi), which is 22 inches long and is very similar to the Old World scoter (Oidemia fusca). The surf-scoter (Oidemia perspicillata) is a trifle smaller, and has no white on the wings. The American black scoter (Oidemia Americana) is still smaller (19 inches) and has no white on either head or wings. It is very similar to the European Oidemia nigra. These three American scoters are abundant in winter off the coast of New England and the Middle States. They feed on mussels and other mollusks, and are considered poor eating. All breed in high northern latitudes and lay from 5 to 10 eggs in nests on the ground.

SCOTIA, skō'shå. The hollow or concave molding between the fillets of the tori of the base of Ionic, Corinthian, and derivative orders. (See BASE.) It is also called trochilus, but differs somewhat from the cavetto (q.v.) of the Romans. SCOTIST. A follower of Duns Scotus (q.v.) in philosophy or theology. See SCHOLASTICISM.

SCOTLAND. A constituent member of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. It occupies the northern portion of the island of Great Britain, together with three outlying groups of islands, the Hebrides to the west and the Orkney and Shetland islands to the northeast. Scotland is bounded by the Irish Sea, North Channel, Atlantic Ocean, and the North Sea on all sides except a comparatively short stretch on the southeast where it is contiguous to England. The whole is included between latitudes 54° 38′ and 60° 51' N., the mainland MINING. The annual production of coal is terminating in latitude 58° 41' N. The greatest rapidly increasing. Considerably over half of it extent of the mainland from Dunnet Head in the is mined in the County of Lanark. Other minnortheast to the Mull of Galloway in the south-erals are mined in much smaller quantities. Shale west is 288 miles, and its breadth varies between oil is procured in the lowlands, the value of the

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