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Religion (1896); and Philippine Affairs: A Retrospect and an Outlook (1902).

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SCHURZ, shurts, CARL (1829-). A GermanAmerican soldier and political leader, born at Liblar, Prussia. He was educated at the gymnasium of Cologne and the University of Bonn, at which latter place he became the associate of Gottfried Kinkel (q.v.), then professor at Bonn, in the publication of a liberal newspaper, and was engaged in the revolutionary movement of 1848-49, as a result of which he was forced to retire to Switzerland. In 1850 Schurz returned secretly to Germany, and with great skill succeeded in bringing about the memorable escape of Kinkel from the fortress of Spandau. After residence in Paris as correspondent for German papers, and in London, where he was a teacher, he emigrated to the United States in 1852, settling first in Philadelphia and afterwards in Wisconsin, where he made Republican campaign speeches in German in 1856, and the next year was an unsuccessful candidate for Lieutenant-Governor. In 1859 he began to practice law in Milwaukee. He was a delegate to the National Republican Convention in 1860, and delivered both English and German speeches, of remarkable eloquence, during the canvass of that year. In 1861 he was appointed Minister to Spain by President Lincoln, but resigned on the outbreak of the Civil War and joined the army. He was made brigadier-general in 1862; commanded a division at the second battle of Bull Run, was commissioned major-general in 1863, led the Eleventh Corps at Chancellorsville, participated in the battles of Gettysburg and Chattanooga, and at the close of the war made a tour of inspection through the Southern States as a special commissioner appointed by President Johnson to inquire into the condition of affairs in the seceded States, his report having considerable influence. He was Washington correspondent of the New York Tribune in 1865-66, founded the Detroit Post in 1866, and the next year became editor of the Saint Louis Westliche Post.

From 1869 to 1875 he served as United States Senator from Missouri. He opposed many of the measures of the Grant administration, took a leading part in the organization of the Liberal Republican movement, and in 1872 presided over the Cincinnati convention which nominated Greeley for President. He supported Hayes in 1876, and afterwards served in his Cabinet as Secretary of the Interior (1877-81). In 188184 he was editor of the New York Evening Post. In the Presidential campaign of 1884 he was one of the earliest among the Independent Republicans to repudiate the nomination of Blaine, and in New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, and several Western States, he made vigorous speeches, favoring the election of Cleveland. During his term of office as Secretary of the Interior and after his retirement from public life, he was an enthusiastic advocate of civil-service reform, in support of which he wrote many articles and reports and delivered many speeches. His publications include biographies of Henry Clay (1887) and of Abraham Lincoln (1891).

SCHÜTT, shut. Two islands in the Danube, situated in the Hungarian plain between Pressburg and Komorn, and mostly in these two counties. GREAT SCHÜTT ISLAND is bordered by the

Danube proper on the south and west, and by the Little Danube and the Schwarzwasser (Oeregduna) (Map: Hungary, E 3). It is 58 miles long, from 10 to 20 miles wide, and is subject to the floods of the rivers, being low and even. Owing to its rich soil, it is called the Golden Garden of Hungary. Grain, fruits, and vegetables are raised. There are sugar factories. It has several towns, including Komorn, which is situated in the southeast corner of the island. The total population is about 23,500.-LITTLE SCHÜTT ISLAND, bordered by the Danube proper on the north and east, and by the Wieselburger Danube, and lying to the southwest of Great Schütt Island, is 28 miles long. It belongs to the counties of Raab and Wieselburg.

SCHÜTZ, shuts, HEINRICH, known by the Latinized form of his name as SAGITTARIUS (1585-1672). The most important German composer of the seventeenth century, born at Köstritz, near Gera, Saxony. At the age of fourteen he became a chorister of the Court Chapel at Cassel, in which city he also attended the gymnasium. In 1607 he went to Marburg University, to study jurisprudence. He abandoned the law, however, and went to Italy, where he studied under Giovanni Gabrieli until the death of that master in 1612. In 1617 he was appointed Kapellmeister to the Elector of Saxony in Dresden, with whose orchestra he had been connected for two years. He was a prolific composer and writer and has been well described as "standing at the parting of the ways between Palestrina and Bach." In his writing he combined the impressive Italian choral style with the new dramatic monodic style of Monteverde. He was the composer of the first German opera, Dafne (1627).

SCHUYLER, ski'ler, EUGENE (1840-90). An American diplomat and historian. He was born in Ithaca, N. Y. After graduation at Yale (1859), he practiced law in New York, entered the diplomatic service (1866), was made consul at Moscow (1867-69), at Reval (1869-70), and secretary of legation at Saint Petersburg (1870-76). In 1873 he traveled for eight months through Russian Turkestan, Khokan, and Bokhara, and wrote Turkestan (1876). In 1876 he was made secretary of legation and Consul-General at Constantinople, and prepared a report on Bulgarian atrocities that had international consequences. He was subsequently consul at Birmingham (1878) and Rome (1879), chargé d'affaires and Consul-General at Bucharest (1880), and (18821884) Minister Resident and Consul-General to Greece, Servia, and Rumania; then, returning to America, he devoted himself to literary work. He was Consul-General at Cairo till his death. His chief books are Peter the Great, Emperor of Russia (1884) and American Diplomacy and the Furtherance of Commerce (1886). His chief essays were posthumously collected in Italian Influences, with an accompanying volume Selected Essays, with a Memoir by Evelyn Schuyler Schaeffer (1901). Schuyler was also translator of Turgenieff's Fathers and Sons (1867) and Tolstoy's The Cossacks (1878).

SCHUYLER, MONTGOMERY (1843-). An American journalist, born in Ithaca, N. Y. He studied at Hobart College, but did not graduate, and in 1865 joined the staff of the New York

World, remaining with that paper in various capacities until 1883, after which he was an editorial writer on the New York Times. He made a special study of architecture, upon which subject he was a frequent contributor to magazines. He published The Brooklyn Bridge (1883), with William C. Conant, and Studies in American Architecture (1892).

SCHUYLER, PHILIP (1733-1804). An eminent American soldier and statesman, born November 20, 1733, at Albany, N. Y. Entering the English army on the outbreak of the French and Indian War, he served as captain in 1755, and as captain and commissary in 1756. In 1757 he resigned, but reëntered the army, as major, in 1758, and served as such until the close of the war. He was elected to the Colonial Assembly in 1768, and in May, 1775, was a delegate to the Continental Congress, by which he was made a major-general on June 19. Being assigned by Washington to the command of the Northern Department, he organized the expedition against Canada, which was to proceed by way of Lake Champlain, but he was forced by illness to depute the active leadership of the invading troops to General Richard Montgomery (q.v.). Returning to Albany, he directed operations against the Indians and Tories, and, as Indian Commissioner, carried on important negotiations with the Six Nations. Meanwhile General Horatio Gates (q.v.) and many of the New England delegates, who had been offended by Schuyler's attitude in the New-York-Massachusetts boundary disputes, began scheming for his removal; and in September, 1776, disgusted at these intrigues, he sent in his resignation, which, however, was not accepted by Congress. In April, 1777, a Congressional court of inquiry strongly commended him for his conduct hitherto, but the attacks continued, being especially bitter after St. Clair's evacuation of Ticonderoga, and on August 19 General Gates was appointed to supersede him in command of the Northern Department. Schuyler, however, remained with the army and assisted very materially in the operations against Burgoyne. A court-martial, convened in October, 1778, acquitted him with the highest honor of all charges, and his resignation having been accepted April 19, 1779, he became one of New York's representatives in Congress, serving until 1781. After the war he was one of the leaders of the Federalist Party, and held many important State offices, besides representing New York in the United States Senate in 1789-91 and again in 1797-98. While serving in the State Senate he helped codify the New York laws, and ardently advocated the building of State canals. Throughout his public career he was conspicuous for his great abilities, his stanch patriotism, and his unselfish devotion to duty. His daughter Elizabeth married Alexander Hamilton. Consult his Life by Lossing (New York, 1872) and Tuckerman (ib., 1903).

SCHUYLKILL, skool'kil. A river of Pennsylvania, rising in the highlands of Schuylkill County and flowing southeast 125 miles to the Delaware, which it joins at Philadelphia (Map: Pennsylvania, F 3). It has been improved for slack-water navigation nearly to its source; it furnishes the greater part of Philadelphia's water supply, and affords extensive wharfage in its course through the city.

SCHWAB, shväb, GUSTAV (1792-1850). A German poet, scholar, and pastor, born at Stuttgart. He studied at Tübingen, taught at Stuttgart, became pastor at Gomaringen (1837) and in Stuttgart (1841). In poetry he regarded himself as "the eldest pupil of Uhland," but he lacked his classic simplicity and sense of form. Several of his ballads are deservedly popular for their purity and warmth of feeling. His Gedichte (1828-29) were revised and pruned as Neue Auswahl (1838) and are still reprinted. Schwab wrote in prose a Life of Schiller (1840), Die schönsten Sagen des klassischen Altertums (1838-40; often reëdited), Deutsche Volksbücher (1843; often reprinted), and a Wegweiser durch die Litteratur der Deutschen (1846). Consult Klüpfel, Gustav Schwab als Dichter und Schriftsteller (Stuttgart, 1884).

SCHWAB, shwäb, JOHN CHRISTOPHER (1865 -). An American economist and historian, born in New York City. He graduated at Yale in 1886, and after postgraduate study there, at Berlin, and at Göttingen, became professor of economics at Yale in 1898. He wrote History of the New York Property Tax in the publications of the American Economic Association (vol. v., 1890; and in German in the Jenaer staatswissenschaftliche Studien, vol. iii., pt. 3, 1890); a monograph on the history of the curriculum of Yale College; and the important The Confederate States of America (1901).

SCHWABACH, shvä'bäg. A town of the Province of Middle Franconia, Bavaria, 9 miles south of Nuremberg. The Gothic Church of Saint John, dating from 1469, contains a magnificent altar-piece by Veit Stoss, and fine old paintings. The Gothic ciborium, nearly fifty feet high, is the work of A. Krafft. The market place contains a beautiful fountain built in 1617. Gold and silver wire is manufactured. The famous Schwabach needles are made here. The Schwabach Articles (1529) were the basis for the Augsburg Confession (1530). Population, in 1900,

9385.

SCHWABE, shvä'be, LUDWIG VON (1835-). A German classical philologist, born at Giessen. He became professor in the University of Tübingen. His important publications are: Quæstiones Catulliance (1862); Catullus (1866, 1886); De Museo Nonni Imitatore (1876). He was also editor of the fifth edition of Teuffel's Geschichte der römischen Litteratur (1890).

SCHWABENSPIEGEL, shvä'ben - shpegel (Swabian Mirror). A mediæval German lawbook, compiled probably by an ecclesiastic of the cathedral chapter at Bamberg, about 1259. Its main source was the Sachsenspiegel (q.v.), and it attained legal authority chiefly in Swabia, Alsace, Franconia, Switzerland, and Austria. It was written in Upper-German and printed at an early period, probably at Augsberg; the first dated edition is of 1480. A thorough critical edition, by Rockinger, under the auspices of the Vienna Academy of Sciences, is in preparation.

SCHWÄBISCH HALL, shvä'bish häl. A town of Germany. See HALL.

SCHWALBACH, shväl'båk (officially called LANGEN-SCHWALBACH). A mineral spa, 13 miles by rail northwest of Wiesbaden, in Hesse-Nassau, Germany. It was a fashionable watering place in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, but is

now annually visited by only 7000 persons. The waters contain iron and carbonic acid. Population, in 1900, 2677.

SCHWALBE, shväl'be, BENEDIKT. A German Benedictine monk. See CHELIDONIUS.

SCHWANN, shvän, THEODOR (1810-82). A German physiologist and histologist, born at Neuss and educated in Bonn, Würzburg, and Berlin. In the Anatomical Musem of Berlin, he assisted Johannes Müller from 1834 to 1838, and discovered pepsin, made valuable studies on artificial digestion, fermentation, and putrefaction, the organic nature of yeast, the mechanism of muscular and arterial contraction, the double direction of nerves, and the envelop of nerve fibres. In 183848 he was professor at Louvain, and then held a chair at Liège for another decade. Schwann made many physiological discoveries, but his most important achievement was his foundation of the modern cellular theory in Microscopical Investigations on the Accordance in the Structure and Growth of Plants and Animals (1839; Eng. version, 1847). He wrote "Anatomie du corps humain" for the Brussels Encylopédie populaire (1855).

Brandt, born at Southgate, England. After a first early marriage she became the wife of the banker Von Schwartz, of Hamburg, from whom she eventually was separated. She then settled in Rome and devoted herself to literary work. A friendship with Garibaldi was one of the interesting features of her residence in Italy. Among her numerous works may be named: Blätter aus dem afrikanischen Reisetagebuche keiten (1861); Die Insel Kreta unter der ottoeiner Dame (1849); Garibaldis Denkwürdigmanischen Verwaltung (1867); Kreta-Biene, oder retische Volkslieder, Sagen, Liebes-, Denk-, und Sittensprüche (1874); Garibaldi (1884).

SCHWARTZ, shvärts, MARIE ESPÉRANCE VON (known also as Elpis Melena) (1821-99). A German author, daughter of the Hamburg banker

an

SCHWARTZ, MARIE SOFIA (1819-84). A Swedish novelist, born at Borås. As author she was very popular, not only in Sweden, but also in Germany, where most of her writings were published. Her novels were frequently collected in German versions. The chief are: Mannen of Bördoch Quinnan of Falket (1858); Arbetet Adlar Mannen (1859); and Arbetets barn, which has been reprinted in America (1894).

SCHWARTZ, WILHELM (1821-99). A German mythologist. He was born in Berlin, studied there and in Leipzig, taught for twenty years in the Werder gymnasium in Berlin, and was director, successively, of the gymnasiums at Neuruppin (1864-72), then, until 1882, of the Friedrich-Wilhelm Gymnasium at Posen, and from 1882 until 1894 of the Luisen Gymnasium at Berlin. He wrote: Märkische Sagen und Märchen (1843) and Norddeutsche Sagen (1849), both results of early studies and travels with Adalbert Kuhn; Ursprung der Mythologie (1860); Die poetischen Naturanschauungen der Griechen, Römer und Deutschen in ihrer Beziehung zur Mythologie (1864-79); Prähistorisch-anthropologische Studien (1884); and Nachklänge prähistorischen Volksglaubens im Homer (1894).

SCHWANTHALER, shvän'tä'ler, LUDWIG VON (1802-48). A German sculptor, born at Munich. He studied under his father, Franz Schwanthaler (1762-1820), a sculptor, and in the Munich Academy. His first royal commission was received in 1824 from King Maximilian I., an order for a silver épergne with reliefs from the myth of Prometheus. Thereafter he enjoyed a greater share of the patronage bestowed upon the art by the House of Wittelsbach. In 1826 King Louis I. sent him to Rome. Upon his return to Munich the next year, he was commissioned to execute reliefs and decorative features for the New Glyptothek. To this period, also, belong the statue of Shakespeare in the vestibule of the Royal Theatre and the Bacchus frieze (205 feet long) in Duke Max's banqueting hall. In 1832 he went again to Rome, where he executed several groups for the southern pediment of the. A German aurist, born at Neuhof, in PomeWalhalla at Regensburg, and models for his 24 rania, and educated in Berlin and Würzburg. statues of painters in the New Pinakothek. In director of the aural clinic in 1884 at the UniHe became docent in 1863, professor in 1868, and 1835 he was appointed professor at the Munich versity of Halle. One of the founders of modern Academy. About him gathered many of the most otology, Schwartze made a particular study of promising young sculptors in Germany, who were the anatomy of the ear and improved the methods of great assistance in his numerous commissions. of paracentesis on the tympanic membrane, and

SCHWARTZE, shvär'tse, HERMANN (1837

For Louis I. he executed Homeric reliefs in the Königsbau, and twelve colossal statues of Wittelsbach princes; also the pediments of the Walhalla at Regensburg and of the Propylæum at

Munich, and the colossal bronze statue of Bavaria

of the opening of inflamed apophyses of the middle ear. He wrote Praktische Beiträge zur des Ohrs (1878), and Lehrbuch der chirurgischen Ohrenheilkunde (1864), Pathologische Anatomie Krankheiten des Ohrs (1885); was coëditor with Berthold of the Handbuch der Ohrenheilkunde (1892-93); and in 1872 became editor of the Archiv für Ohrenheilkunde.

(1844-50), nearly 63 feet high, in front of the Ruhmeshalle at Munich. Mention must be made as well of his monuments to Jean Paul (1841), at Bayreuth; to Mozart (1842), at Salzburg; and to Goethe (1843), at Frankfort; of his statues of the Grand Duke Charles Frederick of Baden (1840; Karlsruhe), the Grand Duke Louis of Hesse (Darmstadt), the Margrave Frederick Alexander of Brandenburg (1843; Erlangen), and the Emperor Rudolph of Hapsburg (1843; Speyer cathedral); and of the charming relief of two dancers, besides other figures in the palace at Wiesbaden. Consult Trautmann, Schwanthalers Reliquien (Munich, 1858).

SCHWARZ, shvärts, BERTHOLD. A Franciscan monk of the fourteenth century, whose name is thought to have been Konstantin Ancklitzen. He is said to have discovered gunpowder while in prison for sorcery, about 1330. It is, however, probable that gunpowder had been known before, and that Schwarz only utilized it for military purposes. There is a monument to him at Freiburg, which is assumed to be his birthplace.

SCHWARZ, HERMANN AMANDUS (1843—). A German mathematician, born at Hermsdorf, in Silesia, and educated in Berlin. He became professor at Halle in 1867, at the Zurich Polytechnic

in 1869, at the University of Göttingen in 1875, and at Berlin in 1892. Schwarz was a follower of Weierstrass, some of whose lectures he edited under the title Formeln und Lehrsätze zum Gebrauche der elliptischen Funktionen (1883-85; 2d ed. 1893). His own works on minimal surfaces and the theory of functions include Bestimmung einer speziellen Minimalfläche, which was crowned by the Berlin Academy in 1867 and printed in 1871, and Gesammelte mathematische Abhandlungen (1890).

SEINSHEIM purchased the lordship of Schwarzenberg in Franconia, and in 1429 he was made a baron of the Empire by the Emperor Sigismund. Several of this family have been prominent in European affairs. The most notable are: (1) ADAM, Count of Schwarzenberg, was born in 1584, and became a privy councilor of George William, Elector of Brandenburg. He was largely responsible for the vacillating policy of Brandenburg during the Thirty Years' War, a course most unfortunate in its results, and for this he was punished after the accession of the Great Elector, in 1640, by imprisonment in the fortress of Spandau, where he died March 14, 1641. (2) KARL PHILIPP, Prince of Schwarzenberg. He was born at Vienna, April 15, 1771, served against the Turks, and rose to the grade of lieutenant field-marshal in 1799. He commanded a division under Mack in the campaign of 1805, and took part in the battle of Austerlitz. He was appointed Ambassador at the Russian Court in 1808, by the express wish of the Emperor Alexander; fought at Wagram in 1809; and after the Treaty of Schönbrunn conducted the negotiations preliminary to the marriage of the Archduchess Maria Louisa to Napoleon. Both in this capacity and as Ambassador at Paris he gained the esteem of Napoleon, and the latter expressly demanded for him the post of General-in-Chief of the Austrian contingent of 30,000 men which had been sent to aid France against Russia in 1812. Schwarzenberg with his little army entered Russia from Galicia, crossed the Bug, and achieved some slight successes, but was afterward driven into the Grand Duchy of Warsaw, and took up a position at Paltusk, where he concluded with the Russians an armistice which secured the French retreat. Schwarzenberg was much blamed for his dilatory conduct at the time; but Napoleon concealed any dissatisfaction he might have felt, and demanded for him from the Austrian Government the baton of field-marshal. After a brief sojourn at Paris, in April, 1813, Schwarzenberg was appointed to the command of the Austrian army of observation in Bohemia; and when Austria joined the allied powers, he became generalissimo of the armies of the coalition, was defeated by Napoleon at Dresden, but the united army under him gained the great victory of Leipzig. His dilatory tactics during the pursuit of the French across Germany and after the crossing of the Rhine was regarded with extreme dissatisfaction by men of the type of Blücher and Gneisenau, who were anxious to strike a decisive blow at the heart of the enemy. On the return of Napoleon from Elba, he obtained the command of the allied army on the Upper Rhine, and a second time entered France. On his return to Vienna he was made president of the Imperial Council for War. He died of apoplexy at Leipzig, October 15, 1820. Consult ProkeschOsten, Denkwürdigkeiten aus dem Leben des Feldmarschalls Fürsten Schwarzenberg (Vienna, 1822). (3) His nephew, FELIX, an Austrian statesman, was born October 2, 1800, at Krumau, Bohemia. He entered the army, became military attaché of the Austrian embassy at Saint Petersburg in 1824, and afterwards held several diplomatic appointments. He was envoy to Naples when the revolution of 1848 broke out. He SCHWARZENBERG, shvärts'en-běrk. A took the field in Upper Italy as a brigade comprincely family, originally of Franconia, but mander, and soon after was made a lieulater of Austria. About 1420 ERKINGER VON tenant field-marshal. He was called to the head

SCHWARZBURG-RUDOLSTADT, shvärts'. boork roo'dol-stát. A principality and constituent State of the German Empire, situated in Thuringia, and consisting of several detached portions. The capital, Rudolstadt, is 18 miles south of Weimar. Total area, 363 square miles. The western and larger part belongs to the region of the Thuringian Forest, and reaches an elevation of 2900 feet. The eastern part is lower. The chief river is the Saale. Agriculture is the principal occupation. There are extensive forests in the western part, and good pasture land. The chief mineral deposits are iron, lignite, gypsum, and slate. In the western district are numerous glass and porcelain factories. Other manufactures are paper, toys, textiles, musical instruments, and flour. The Diet of the principality consists of 16 members, of whom four are elected by the highest taxed citizens and the rest by the general population for three years. The principality has one vote in the Bundesrat, and returns one member to the Reichstag. Population, in 1900, 93,059, chiefly Protestants. In this principality is the Castle of Schwarzburg, romantically situated on the Schwarza, the summer residence of the Prince.

The ruling family is one of the oldest of the Thuringian princely houses. The medieval countship of Schwarzburg was divided at the close of the sixteenth century into the two countships of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt and Schwarzburg-Arnstadt, the later Schwarzburg-Sondershausen. About a century later the ruling houses were elevated to the princely dignity.

SCHWARZBURG - SONDERSHAUSEN, zon'ders-houʼzen. A principality and constituent State of the German Empire, situated in Thuringia, and consisting of several detached districts, the main portion being inclosed within the Prussian Province of Saxony. Total area, 333 square miles. The Thuringian Forest covers part of the principality. The soil is mostly fertile, and agriculture is the principal industry. The forests are also important. There are numerous small porcelain factories, glass works, machine works, paint factories, tanneries, shoe factories, and sugar mills. The Constitution of the principality, dating from 1857, provides for a Diet of 15 members, of whom five are appointed by the Prince, five are elected by the highest taxed citizens, and five by the inhabitants in general, for a term of four years. The principality has one vote in the Bundesrat and returns one Deputy to the Reichstag. Population, in 1890, 75,510; in 1900, 80.898, principally Protestants. The capital is Sondershausen (q.v.); the largest town is Arnstadt. For history, see SCHWARZ

BURG-RUDOLSTADT.

of the Government in Vienna in November, 1848, opposed the German nationalist plans advocated at Frankfort, obtained the aid of Russia to suppress the Hungarian rising, and followed the policy of Metternich in opposing Prussia. died in Vienna April 5, 1852. Consult Berger, Leben des Fürsten Felix zu Schwarzenberg (Leipzig, 1853; Vienna, 1881).

He

The Ger

SCHWARZWALD, shvärts'vält. man name of the Black Forest (q.v.). SCHWATKA, shwōt'kå, FREDERICK (184992). An American explorer, born at Galena, Ill. He graduated at West Point in 1871, was commissioned second lieutenant, and served on garrison and frontier duty until 1877. During his army life he studied both law and medicine, was admitted to the Nebraska bar in 1875, and received his medical degree in New York in 1876. In 1878 he obtained leave of absence from the War Department, and conducted, with W. H. Gilder, the final land search for traces of the Franklin expedition. Wintering (1878-79) among the Eskimos near Chesterfield Inlet, Hudson Bay, he set out in April, 1879, with four whites, fourteen Eskimos, and abundant ammunition, for the northern edge of the continent. He explored minutely the continental coast line to Point Seaforth, crossed Simpson Strait to King William Land, and thoroughly searched the region traversed by Franklin's retreating party. During three months on King William Land Schwatka found four despoiled graves, six unburied skeletons, and many relics of the ill-fated expedition. The journey was one of the most remarkable in the history of Arctic sledging and made Schwatka famous. In the 355 days during which he was absent from his base of supplies he traveled 2819 geographical miles, depending for food upon the game he killed. In 1883 he explored the course of the Yukon River, Alaska. He resigned his commission in the army in 1885, and in the following year made an unsuccessful attempt to ascend Mount Saint Elias. In 1889 he engaged in exploring work in Mexico. He received the Roquette Arctic Medal from the Geographical Society of Paris, and the medal of the Imperial Geographical Society of Russia. His great Arctic journey was described by Colonel Gilder in Schwatka's Search (New York, 1881); also in The Franklin Search, Under Lieutenant Schwatka (1881). His own writings were Along Alaska's Great River (1885); Nimrod in the North (1885); Children of the Cold (1886); and many articles contributed to geographical and other publications.

SCHWEGLER, shvaк'ler, ALBERT (1819-57). A German theologian and writer on the history of philosophy. He was born at Michelbach, in Württemberg, studied theology at the University of Tübingen, and was appointed professor there of classical philology in 1848. In theology and criticism he was of the "Tübingen school.' In 1844 he started the Jahrbücher der Gegenwart. He published an annotated edition and translation of Aristotle's Metaphysics (1844-48); Der Montanismus und die christliche Kirche des zweiten Jahrhunderts (1841); Das nach-apostolische Zeitalter (1846); Geschichte der Philosophie (1848; Eng. trans. by J. H. Seelye, New York, 1856, and by J. H. Stirling, London, 2d ed., 1868); Römische Geschichte (1853-58; 2d ed.

1867-73). His Geschichte der griechischen Philosophie was published after his death (1859).

placed by promenades.

SCHWEIDNITZ, shvid'nits. A town in the Province of Silesia, Prussia, on the Weistritz, 31 miles southwest of Breslau (Map: Prussia, Its ancient fortifications have been reG 3). The manufactures include woolens, leather, machinery, furniture, gloves, cigars, and organs. There are important cattle and grain markets. Schweidnitz was founded in the eleventh century, and received municipal privileges in 1250. It was formerly the capital of the Principality of Schweidnitz. Population, in 1900, 28,432.

SCHWEIGER - LERCHENFELD, lĕr Kenfelt, AMAND, Baron von (1846-). An Austrian traveler and writer, born in Vienna. He served in the army from 1865 to 1871, then set out on extensive travels, which he described in numerous popular works, and made Vienna his usual residence. A partial list of his writings includes: Unter dem Halbmond (1876); Bosnien (2d ed. 1879); Serail und Hohe Pforte (anon., 1879); Das Frauenleben der Erde (1881); Der Orient (1882); Griechenland in Wort und Bild (1882); Das eiserne Jahrhundert (1883); Von Ozean zu Ozean (1884); Die Araber der Gegenwart (1885); Das Mittelmeer (1888); Die Erde in Karten und Bildern (1889); Unterwegs, traveling pictures (1891-95); Die Donau (1895); Im Lande der Cyclopen (1899); Das neue Buch von der Weltpost (1901).

SCHWEIGGER, shvi'ger, JOHANN SALOMO CHRISTOPH (1779-1857). A German physicist, born and educated in Erlangen. There he became docent in 1800, and, after teaching at Bayreuth (1803-11), and at the Nuremberg Polytechnic, returned to Erlangen as professor of physics and chemistry in 1817. Two years later he went to Halle. Schweigger devised an electrometer in 1808, and in 1820 invented the glavanometer (q.v.), in which he made use of Oersted's discovery of the effect of a current in a magnetic needle by surrounding the latter with a number of turns of the wire carrying the current. He founded the Journal für Chemie und Physik.

SCHWEIGGER, KARL (1830-). A German born in Halle, studied there, at Erlangen, and ophthalmologist, son of the preceding. He was Würzburg, and went to Berlin as assistant to Gräfe (1858-65). From 1868 to 1871 he was professor in Göttingen, and then succeeded Gräfe in Berlin. He edited the Archiv für Augenheilkunde (1881 et seq.), published a chart of optical tests (1876; 3d ed. 1895), and wrote a Handbuch der speziellen Augenheilkunde (1871), which passed through several editions.

SCHWEINFURT, shvin'foort. A town in Lower Franconia, Bavaria, on the Main, 28 miles by rail northeast of Würzburg (Map: Germany, D 3). The sixteenth-century town hall contains a library and a museum of history and art. Schweinfurt is noted for its manufactures of dyes, including the well-known Schweinfurt green. Machinery, ball-bearings, engines, shoes, sugar, and tobacco are among its numerous products. There are important cattle, sheep, and swine markets. Schweinfurt, first mentioned in 791, became a free Imperial city in the twelfth century. It passed to Bavaria in 1803. Population, in 1900, 15,295.

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