Puslapio vaizdai

SAUGERTIES, sąʼgēr-têz. A village in Ulster County, N. Y., 12 miles north of Kingston; on the Hudson River, and on the West Shore Railroad (Map: New York, F. 3). It is in a farming region, and has important stone quarries. Paper, blank books, brick, and cement are manufactured. There is a public library. The first settlers probably came as early as 1687, and in 1710 a colony of Palatines settled here. Until 1811, when the town was incorporated, Saugerties was part of Kingston. The village was incorporated in 1831. Population, in 1890, 4237; in 1900, 3697. Consult: Brink, The Early History of Saugerties (Kingston, N. Y., 1902).

SAUGOR'. A low swampy island of Bengal, India, at the mouth of the Hugli (Map: India, E 4). It is one of the holy places of the Hindu religion, noted formerly for its infant sacrifices. It is visited by multitudes of pilgrims in November and January at the time of the full moon, when, after the ceremony of purification, a great fair takes place. The island has an area of 225 square miles, chiefly covered with jungle, infested by tigers and other wild animals. Among its structures are a lighthouse, visible 15 miles, and meteorological stations. The population is not large, a cyclone and a tidal wave having devastated the island in 1864, sweeping away over two-thirds of the inhabitants.

SAUGUS, sąʼgūs. A town, including three villages, in Essex County, Mass., 8 miles north of Boston; on the Saugus River and Massachusetts Bay, and on the Boston and Maine Railroad (Map: Massachusetts, F 3). It has a public library with more than 6000 volumes. Brick, spices, and woolen goods are manufactured. The government is administered by town meetings, convening annually. Saugus was incorporated in 1815. Population, in 1890, 3673; in 1900, 5084.

SAUK (from their own name, Osagi, of uncertain etymology, also known as Sac, and frequently referred to, in connection with their confederated tribe, under the compound title of Sacs

and Foxes). A prominent and warlike tribe of Algonquian stock (q.v.), formerly holding both banks of the Mississippi and the entire Rock River region in northwestern Illinois, eastern Iowa, and southwestern Wisconsin, with a portion of Missouri. According to tradition they

once lived on the Ottawa River, Canada, but, with other tribes, were driven out by the attacks of the Iroquois. About 1670 they were found by the French in northern Wisconsin, in immediate vicinity of their close kindred, the Muskwaki or Foxes. From this position the two tribes were gradually pressed southward by the Ojibwa. The Foxes suffered severely in a war with the French, and in a great battle with the Ojibwa about 1760 were so greatly reduced that they were forced to confederate with the Sauk, who retained the leading position. On the conquest of the Illinois about 1765 the Sauk took possession of the Rock River country of Illinois and the adjacent territory in Iowa. In 1832 a considerable party, led by Black Hawk (q.v.), combined to resist the execution of a treaty by which the Indians were to give up all their lands east of the Mississippi, but in the short war they were defeated. The Indians were removed to the west side of the Mississippi, in Iowa, and subsequently, in different bodies, to Kansas and the Indian

Territory. A part of those who removed to Kansas, chiefly of the Muskwaki or Fox tribe, afterwards returned to Iowa and repurchased lands near Tama. In 1903 the Sauk and Muskwaki numbered together about 930. As a people they are strongly conservative.

SAUL (Heb. shaul, asked [of Yahweh], or devoted [to Yahweh], pass. part. of shaal, to ask). reign is placed at about B.C. 1050. He was a son of The first King of Israel, the beginning of whose Kish, of the tribe of Benjamin. The account of his career, embodied in I. Sam. ix. to II. Sam. i., represents a combination of the two chief sources believed by modern critics to be found in the books of Samuel (q.v.). As a consequence it is asserted that we have two varying accounts of the manner in which he came to occupy his position as head of the people. According to one of these accounts, it was while searching for the lost asses belonging to his father that he encountered the seer Samuel, who announced to Saul that he was destined to deliver Israel from the oppression of the Ammonites and Philistines. Soon afterwards Nahash, a chief of the Ammonites, laid siege to Jabesh-Gilead. The inhabitants appealed to the West-Jordan tribes for aid, and when the news reached Saul he gathered a force with which he inflicted a crushing defeat on Nahash. At Samuel's bidding the people then gathered at Gilgal and solemnly crowned Saul as King. The other account represents the people as dissatisfied with their condition and demanding of Samuel that a king be placed at their head. Samuel, while rebuking the people, nevertheless yields to the popular request and at an assembly held at Mizpah Saul is chosen.

Those who accept the above theory conclude from these varying accounts that it was not so much Samuel's interference as the natural course of events that brought Saul forward. The chief efforts of his career were directed toward reof well-directed campaigns he drove the Philisducing the power of the Philistines. In a series tines back to their territory along the seacoast. He was equally successful in his campaign against the Amalekites. His victory over them represents the climax in his career. Intertribal jealousies and family intrigues loosened the porarily passed, while the growing popularity of union of the tribes after the crisis had been temthe youthful David (q.v.), originally introduced at Saul's court as a skillful harp-player, brought out the worst elements in Saul's nature. A strange melancholy settled upon him, and this illness, which at times resembled madness, was a factor leading to the quarrel between Saul and David; and while David was obliged to take flight, he did more harm to Saul's cause by alliances with the enemies of Israel than he could possibly have done had he remained in Saul's service. Encouraged by this state of affairs, the Philistines roused themselves to renewed action, and at Mount Gilboa succeeded in defeating the Hebrew army. Saul's three sons perished in the battle, while the King himself, when he realized the desperateness of the situation, "fell on his sword" and thus put an end to his life. Consult: the chapters on Saul in the Hebrew histories of Stade, vol. i. (Giessen, 1881), Guthe (Freiburg, 1899), Renan (Paris, 1887), Piepenbring (ib., 1899), Kent (New York, 1891), and Wellhausen (Berlin, 1895). See DAVID.

SAUL. (1) An oratorio by Handel (q.v.). (2) A poem by Robert Browning (q.v.).

SAULCY, so'se', LOUIS FÉLICIEN JOSEPH CAIGNART DE (1807-80). An Oriental numismatist and antiquary. He was born at Lille, studied at the Ecole Polytechnique, in 1838 became professor of mechanics at Metz, and was later appointed conservator of the museum of artillery at Paris. His activity was mainly devoted to numismatics and archæology. In 1842 he became a member of the French Academy. Among his publications may be mentioned Essai de classification des suites monétaires byzantines (1836); Recherches sur la numismatique punique (1843); Recherches sur la numismatique judaïque (1854); Voyage en Terre-Sainte (1865); Sept siècles de l'histoire judaïque (1874); and Histoire des Machabées (1880).

SAULT SAINTE MARIE, soo sant ma'rê, Fr. pron. so sant må're'. A port of entry of Algoma District, Ontario, Canada, opposite its Michigan namesake, on the Saint Mary's River and the Saint Mary's Falls ship-canal (Map: Ontario, N 9). A railway bridge, one mile long, spans the river between the two towns and connects the Northern Pacific Railroad with the Canadian Pacific Railway by the Sault or "Soo" branch line. The town has agricultural, mining, manufacturing, and shipping interests. It owns its water-works and electric lighting plant. Population, in 1891, 2414; in 1901, 7169.

SAULT SAINTE MARIE. The county-seat of Chippewa County, Michigan, 350 miles westnorthwest of Detroit; on the Saint Mary's River, and on the Canadian Pacific, the Duluth, South Shore and Atlantic, and the Minneapolis, Saint Paul and Sault Ste. Marie railroads (Map: Michigan, J 2). The ship canal here, connecting Lakes Superior and Huron, is noted for its extensive freight traffic. New locks have been constructed from time to time by the Federal Government to meet the demands of the constantly increasing commerce. The last of these, costing about $4,000,000, was opened in 1896. It is 800 feet long and 100 feet wide, and will admit vessels drawing 21 feet of water. (For illustration, see CANAL.) Other noteworthy features are the International Bridge across the rapids of the Saint Mary's River, a public library, Fort Brady, and Canal Park. The water power afforded by the rapids near the city generates electrical energy equivalent to 100,000 horse power. The power is utilized by several important industries. There are lumber mills, paper mills, a carbide manufactory, dredging machinery works, flour and woolen mills, and fish-packing establishments. The government, under the revised charter of 1897, is vested in a mayor, elected biennially, and a unicameral council. In 1641 the Jesuit Fathers Raymbault and Jogues established a mission here, but it was soon abandoned. In 1662 Father Marquette founded here the first permanent settlement within the present limits of Michigan. At this place in 1671 the French convoked a great congress of the Indian nations. Sault Sainte Marie was first incorporated in 1887. Population, in 1890, 5760; in 1900, 10,538.

Sir Hyde Parker in the action of the Dogger Bank in 1781. In 1782, as commander of the Russell, he shared Rodney's victory over De Grasse. After living some years on shore, he made a gallant capture of the French frigate La Réunion in 1793. He fought in the battles of l'Orient (1795), Saint Vincent (1797), and the Nile (1798). He became Rear-Admiral of the Blue in 1801, and in the same year gained a splendid victory over the French and Spanish off Cadiz (July 12). He subsequently commanded the Baltic fleet for a number of years. He became admiral in 1814, vice-admiral of Great Britain in 1821, and was raised to the peerage in 1831.

SAUMAREZ, so'må'râ', JAMES, Baron de (1757-1836). A British admiral. He was born in the Isle of Guernsey and entered the British navy in 1770. He distinguished himself during the attack on Charleston in 1776, and was under

SAUMUR, so'mur'. The capital of an arrondissement in the Department of Maine-et-Loire, France, 28 miles southeast of Angers (Map: France, F 4). It is dominated by a castlecrowned hill and is built partly on the left bank of the Loire and partly on an island. The school for cavalry, founded here in 1768, occupies a magnificent building, and has extensive parade grounds. Other prominent features include the Church of Saint Pierre, dating from the twelfth century, the pilgrimage Church of Notre Dame de Nantilly the sixteenth-century town hall, the pilgrimage Church of Notre Dame College, and the Museum of Science and Archæology. The town is noted for its wines and manufactures enameled goods. Saumur was one of the leading centres of Protestantism in France, but lost half of its population and its commercial prestige by the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. Population, in 1901, 16,233.

SAUN'DERS, FREDERICK (1807-1902). An American librarian and author, born in London, gaged in publishing, and was a pioneer in the England. He came to New York (1837), enagitation for international copyright. For some time he was city editor of the Evening Post. In 1859 he became assistant librarian of the Astor Library, and head librarian in 1876, resigning in 1896. Among many volumes, chiefly of ephemeral interest, the more noteworthy were: Salad for the Solitary by an Epicure (1853); Salad for the Social (1856), both frequently reprinted; Evenings with the Sacred Poets (1869); Pastime Papers (1885); and Story of Some Famous Books (1887). He edited, with H. T. Tuckerman, Homes of American Authors (1853).

SAUNDERS, RICHARD. The name used by Benjamin Franklin for the supposed author of

Poor Richard's Almanac.

SAUNDERS, THOMAS BAILEY (1860-). An English author, born in Alice, Cape Colony, and educated at King's College, London, and at University College, Oxford. He translated Schopenhauer's essays under the titles The Wisdom of Life, Studies in Pessimism, The Art of Litera ture, and On Human Nature (1889-96); maxims and reflections from Goethe (1893); and Harnack's Christianity and History (1896), Thoughts on Protestantism (1899), and What is Christianity (1900); and wrote Schopenhauer (1901), and Professor Harnack and His Oxford Critics (1902).

SAUN'DERSON, or SANDERSON, NICHOLAS (1682-1739). An English mathematician, born at Thurlston, near Penniston, in Yorkshire. When only one year of age he lost his sight from smallpox. In spite of this infirmity,

he became proficient in the classics and in mathematics. At the age of 25 he was taken to Christ's College, Cambridge, where he had hoped to be admitted. Lack of means, however, barred him from becoming a student there, but by the consent of Whiston, then Lucasian professor, he was allowed to lecture on mathematical physics. On Whiston's expulsion from his professorship, Saunderson was considered for the place, and finally, by special royal patent, was made M.A. (1711) and installed in it. He was a fellow of the Royal Society (1719). Saunderson was an indefatigable teacher. His Algebra, written during his later years, was published soon after his death (2 vols., 1740-41). A few years later some of his manuscripts were published under the title, The Method of Fluxions, etc. (1751), and an abridged edition of his Algebra appeared (1761). For his biography, consult the preface to his Algebra (Cambridge, 1740-41).


SAUPPE, zoup'pe, HERMANN (1809-93). German classical scholar, born at Wesenstein, near Dresden. After studying at Leipzig, he was professor extraordinary at the University of

Zurich in 1838-45; director of the Gymnasium at Weimar in 1845-56, and finally professor of philology at the University of Göttingen, where he remained until his death. Sauppe won his greatest fame by his researches in the field of Greek oratory. Among his works on this subject are editions of the Oratores Attici (9 vols., with Baiter, 1839-50); selected orations of Demosthenes (1845); and the Epistola Critica ad Godofredum Hermannum (1842), considered one of the most valuable modern treatises on the methodology of textual criticism. His other works in cluded editions of Philodemy's De Vitiis, liber x. (1853); Plato's Protagoras (1857, 4th ed. 1854), which appeared in a well-known Sammlung griechischer und lateinischer Schriftsteller mit Anmerkungen, founded by Sauppe and Haupt, in 1848; and Eugippii Vita S. Severini (published in the Monumenta Germania Historica). His library was bought by Bryn Mawr College.

SAUREL. A small active carangid marine fish of the genus Trachurus. One species (Trachurus saurus) is mainly South-European, and is known to the English as horse-mackerel ; another (Trachurus symmetricus) is the 'horsemackerel' of California. These fishes share the names 'jurel' and 'gascon' with related genera. See Plate of HORSE MACKEREL.

SAURET, sô'rå', EMILE (1852-). A French violinist, born at Dun-le-Roi, Cher. He studied at the Paris Conservatory and was a pupil of Bériot at Brussels. From 1880 to 1881 he was teacher at Kullak's Akademie in Berlin, and, in 1890, was appointed professor of the violin at the London Royal Academy of Music to succeed Sainton. Among his works are: Gradus ad Parnassum du violoniste (1894); 2 violin concertos; about 130 other pieces for the violin, with or without the orchestra; 20 grandes études; 12 études artistiques; and about 25 transcriptions. SAURIA (Neo-Lat. nom. pl., from Gk. oaûpos, sauros, lizard). A subclass of the Reptilia, including the Autosauri or Lacertilia (lizards), and the Ophidia (snakes), defined by Gadow as reptiles with movable quadrate bones, with a transverse external cloacal opening, near the posterior lateral corners of which open the reversible paired copulatory organs. See REPTILE.

Consult Gadow, Amphibia and Reptiles (London, 1901).

SAURIN, sô'rǎN', JACQUES (1677-1730). A celebrated French Protestant preacher. He was born at Nîmes, studied at Geneva, and was chosen minister of a Walloon church in London in 1701. In 1705 he settled at The Hague, where his extraordinary gift of pulpit oratory was much admired. As a preacher, Saurin has often been compared with Bossuet, whom he rivals in force, if not in grace and subtlety of religious sentiment. His discourses upon the more memorable events in the Bible were published at The Hague, 1728-39, and his sermons, 1748-65; an English translation of the latter appeared at London, 1824. Consult his Life, by Berthault (Paris, 1875).

SAUROP'SIDA (Neo-Lat. nom. pl., from Gk. oaûpos, sauros, lizard + ois, opsis, appearance). A division of Vertebrata, proposed by Huxley to include the birds and reptiles, which are closely related, as contrasted with the Ichthy

opsida (fishes and amphibians), or with the



SAUSAGE POISON. A disease, sometimes called BOTULISMUS, caused by eating diseased sausage or ham. In 1898 Van Ermengem discovered in unboiled ham, as well as in the spleen of persons who were poisoned by eating of it, a rod-shaped bacterium with spore formation at its end, which he termed bacillus botulismus. Filtered and germ-free solutions of this ham contained a toxin fatal to animals. See TRICHI


SAUSSIER, sô'syâ', FÉLIX GUSTAVE (1828-). A French general, born at Troyes. He studied at Saint-Cyr and entered the army as lieutenant Crimean War, the Italian War of 1859, and the in 1850. He fought in Algeria, took part in the Mexican expedition, and in 1869 was made colonel. In the Franco-German War he distinguished himself at Colombey-Nouilly and Gravelotte. Taken prisoner at Metz in 1870, he escaped, returned to France by way of Austria and Italy, and joined the Army of the Loire. He was made a brigadier-general, and from 1871 to 1873 served against the Kabyles in Africa. In 1873 he was returned as Deputy for the Department of Aube, and in the National Assembly adhered to the Left Centre, taking an active share in all questions of military reform. In 1878 he became general of division, in 1881 was commander-inchief of the army in Algeria and repressed a formidable uprising in Tunis, and in 1884 was appointed military governor at Paris. He retired in 1898.

SAUSSURE, so'sur', HORACE BÉNÉDICT DE (1740-99). A Swiss physicist and geologist born at Conches, near Geneva. When only twenty-two years of age he obtained the professorship of physics and natural philosophy at the University of Geneva. In 1768 he commenced the series of scientific journeys that have made him famous, during the course of which he traversed the Alps, the Jura, the Vosges, and the mountains of England, France, Germany, Italy, and other countries. The results of his extensive observations of the geological, botanical, and meteorological features of the mountainous region he visited were

embodied in Voyages dans les Alpes (4 vols., 177996). His writings include: Observations sur l'écorce des feuilles et des pétales (1762); De Præcipuis Errorum Nostrorum Causis, ex Mentis Facultatibus Oriundis (1762); De Electricitate (1766); De Aqua (1771); and Sur l'hygrométrie (1783), the last named embodying the results of researches in regard to the properties of moistureladen air.

an illegitimate son of Richard Savage, Lord Rivers, by the Countess of Macclesfield. The Countess, while living apart from her husband, Charles Gerard, second Earl of Macclesfield, bore to Lord Rivers two children, a daughter, who died in infancy (1695), and a son, christened Richard Smith (January 18, 1697), who seems to have died the year of his birth. The Earl obtained a divorce from his wife (1698), who married (1700) Colonel Henry Brett (d.1724). The poet, Richard Savage, probably of obscure birth, openly claimed to be the son christened Richard Smith. According to the usual story, to which Dr. Johnson gave currency in his famous Life of Savage (1744), the child, neglected by the Countess, was committed to a nurse and afterwards to her mother, Lady Mason, who sent him to a grammar school at Saint Albans. The Countess prevented Lord Rivers from leaving him £6000, attempted to have him kidnapped and sent off to the West Indies, and finally in despair apprenticed him to a London shoemaker. An accident revealed the secret of his birth, and the boy quitted his obscure trade. The entire account was derived solely from Savage's own statements, and is now wholly discredited. Savage profited by the legend. In 1727 Savage killed a man in a tavern brawl and was sentenced to death, but a pardon was obtained by the intercession of the Countess of Hertford. Lord Tyrconnel, a nephew of Mrs. Brett, received him into his household. In course of time the two men quarreled, and Savage was thrown upon the world. On the death of Laurence Eusden (1730), Savage tried to obtain the laureateship, but failed. The Queen, however, permitted him to address odes to her, and conferred upon him a pension of £50 a year. Two years after the death of the Queen a pension of the same amount was raised by Pope and others (1739), and Savage was sent off to Swansea in Wales. After staying there for a year he went to Bristol, where he was arrested for debt. He died in prison August 1, 1743. His works comprise: Woman's a Riddle (perSir Thomas Overbury, a tragedy (1723); The formed 1716); The Convocation, a poem (1717); Bastard, a poem (1728); The Wanderer, a poem (1729); and considerable occasional verse.

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SAV'AGE, JAMES (1784-1873). An American political leader and antiquary, born in Boston, Mass., and educated at Harvard. He was a member of the State Executive Council, of the Constitutional Convention of 1820, and at different times, of both branches of the Legislature. He founded and was successively secretary, treasurer, vice-president, and president of the Boston Provident Institution for Savings. Among his publications are editions of John Winthrop's History of New England from 1630 to 1649 (1825-26 and 1853), and a valuable Genealogical Dictionary of the First Settlers of New England (1860-64). Consult Hilliard, Memoir of the Hon. James Savage (Boston, 1878).

SAVAGE, MINOT JUDSON (1841-). A Unitarian clergyman. He was born at Norridgewock, Me., entered Bowdoin College, but left before the end of his course, and pursued his theological studies at Bangor Seminary. Commissioned by the American Home Missionary Society in 1864, he spent the three following years at San Mateo and Grass Valley, Cal., then settled at Framingham, Mass., but removed to Hannibal, Mo., in 1869. While preaching in the latter place his views underwent so decided a change that he at length withdrew from the Congregational Church, and in 1873 became pastor of the Third Unitarian Church of Chicago. The next year he was called to the Church of the Unity in Boston and remained there until 1896, when he removed to New York and became minister at the Church of the Messiah, ranking among the advanced thinkers of his denomination. He has published The Religion of Evolution (1876); Life Questions (1879); The Morals of Evolution (1880); Belief in God (1881); Beliefs About Man (1882); Beliefs About the Bible (1883); Man, Woman, and Child (1884); Social Problems (1886); My Creed (1887); Jesus and Modern Life (1893); Life Beyond Death (1899); The Passing and the Permanent in Religion (1901).

SAVAGE, RICHARD (?-1743). An English poet, who was, according to the current legend,



SAVAGE'S STATION, or ALLEN'S FARM, BATTLE OF. A battle fought near Savage's Station, about 10 miles east of Richmond, Va., on June 29, 1862, during the Peninsular campaign of the Civil War, between a part of McClellan's Federal Army of the Potomac, under Generals Sumner and Franklin, and a part of Lee's Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, under General Magruder. It was one of the Seven Days' Battles (q.v.) fought by General McClellan during his change of base from the York to the James River. After the battle of Gaines's Mill (q.v.) Generals Heintzelman, Sumner, and Franklin were directed by McClellan to hold the Federal lines immediately south of the Chickahominy. This force was weakened on the 29th by the withdrawal of Heintzelman across White Oak Swamp, and by the retirement of Slocum's division of Franklin's corps, which had suffered severely at Gaines's Mill. On the same

day Magruder, expecting to be supported by Jack son, who had been ordered to cross the Chickahominy at Sumner's Upper Bridge and strike the Federal right flank, but who had been unavoidably delayed, attacked the Federal force with great energy, first at Allen's Farm and then at Savage's Station, but was finally repulsed. The Federals, however, withdrew across White Oak Swamp during the night, leaving to the Confederates 2500 sick and wounded men in the field hospital at Savage's Station. Before and after the battle the Federals destroyed here large quantities of their supplies and munitions of war. Consult: Johnson and Buel (eds.), Battles and Leaders of the Civil War (vol. ii., New York, 1887); and Webb, The Peninsula (New York, 1881).

for Women, Savannah Hospital, Saint Joseph's Hospital, and the Georgia Infirmary for Colored People are prominent institutions. Near the city are several salt water resorts, which are largely frequented during the summer.

SAVAII, så-vïê, or SAWAII. The largest and westernmost of the Samoan Islands (q.v.) (Map: Samoa, C 5). It is over 40 miles long and has an area of 660 square miles. It is mountainous and covered with craters. The highest peak of the island, as well as of the group, is Mua (4000 feet). The coasts are mostly precipitous and inaccessible, the only place of anchorage being Mataatu, in the north. The interior is densely wooded and sparsely inhabited, but there are stretches of fertile land along the coasts. The island belongs to Germany and is divided into six administrative districts. Population, in 1900, 13,201.

SAVANNAH. The second largest city of Georgia and the county-seat of Chatham County, situated on the west bank of the Savannah River, 18 miles from the Atlantic Ocean (Map: Georgia, E 3). Geographically and commercially it enjoys a position of unusual advantage; historically, it is one of the most interesting cities of the South. The climate, greatly influenced by the Gulf Stream, is mild and pleasant. Though it is hot in summer, cool breezes prevail at night. The average temperature is 66 degrees.

Savannah is situated on a plateau 50 feet above sea level. The plan of the city, in all its extensions, has followed that originally projected by Oglethorpe. The streets, broad and straight and luxuriantly 'shaded, cross each other at right angles. The number of trees and their beauty have given Savannah the name of 'Forest City. Among them are magnolias, japonicas, and catalpas. The squares of the city, which, in the original design, were intended as rallying places for the colonists, are especially noteworthy. Forsyth Park is the largest of these places of resort. A handsome monument to the Confederate dead stands in the Parade Ground, the southern extension of the park. In other squares are monuments in honor of Gen. Nathanael Greene, William Washington Gordon, builder of the Central of Georgia Railway, Sergeant William Jasper, the Revolutionary patriot, and Count Casimir Pulaski.

Among the more imposing public buildings are the Post-Office, the Custom-House, the County Court-House, the City Exchange, the Telfair Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the Public Library. The church edifices are numerous and handsome, the style of architecture representing in large measure old colonial ideals. There are a number of good private schools, besides an efficient public-school system. Telfair Hospital

Savannah is surrounded by a fertile territory, especially adapted to the cultivation of rice, cotton, sugar-cane, vegetables, and fruits. Four great railway lines enter the city: the Atlantic Coast Line, the Seaboard Air Line, the Southern, and the Central of Georgia. Its facilities for the expeditious handling of ocean and coastwise freights in large quantities have made it the most prosperous of South Atlantic ports. The broad channel is 26 feet in depth, and is being improved by the Government to afford a greater depth. The terminals of the railroads occupy nah is the first cotton port on the South Atlantic in the aggregate three miles of wharves. Savanworld. Its exports of lumber are large and are coast and the first naval stores port in the rapidly increasing. The annual export of phosphate rock exceeds that of any other South Atlantic port. The total foreign commerce for the year 1901 amounted to $47,384,000, mostly exports, making it rank fifth among Atlantic ports. Though Savannah is preeminently a shipping centre, considerable manufacturing is carried on, There are, howbut chiefly for local markets. ever, large railroad car and repair shops, fertilizer manufactories, foundries and machine shops, cottonseed oil mills, lumber mills, patent medicine factories, etc. In the census year 1900 the various industries had $5,716,000 capital and an output valued at $6,462,000.

The government is vested in a mayor and a board of aldermen, elected every two years. Most of the administrative officers are chosen by the city council, the park and tree commissioners, however, being nominated by the mayor and confirmed by the council. The board of education is, in a large degree, a self-perpetuating body, entirely removed from partisan politics.

Population, in 1800, 5146; in 1850, 15,312; in 1860, 22,292; in 1870, 28,235; in 1880, 30,709; in 1890, 43,189; in 1900, 54,244. The total in 1900 included 28,090 persons of negro descent. foreign-born population was small, only 3434.


Savannah was settled in 1733 by a small company under the leadership of Gen. James Edward Oglethorpe. (See GEORGIA.) During the next few years a considerable number of German, English, and Scotch immigrants arrived, among them (in 1735) being Charles and John Wesley. During the Revolutionary War Savannah was fortified by the Americans, and in December, 1778, when occupied by a force of less than 1000, under Howe, it was attacked and captured, December 29th, by 3000 British under Colonel Campbell. In the fall of 1779 an allied army of French and American troops, under D'Estaing and Lincoln, attempted to recapture it, but were repeatedly repulsed, and in the disastrous attack of October 9th the allies lost more than 800 men, Count Pulaski and Sergeant Jasper being mortally wounded. Savannah was incorporated as a city in 1789. In 1796, and again in 1820, it was ravaged by fire, the loss being more than $1,000,000 in the first case and more than $4,000,000 in the second. The first steamship to cross the Atlantic was owned and projected in Savannah, was named after the city, and sailed from this

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