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66

MADONNA OF THE HARPIES," FROM THE PAINTING IN THE UFFIZI GALLERY, FLORENCE

tentrionalis Exsiccata, which was never completed.

SA'RUM, OLD. A former city and borough and now a parish in Wiltshire, England, on a hill two miles to the north of Salisbury (q.v.). It dated from the time of the Romans, by whom it was known as Sorbiodunum, and remained an important town under the Saxons. A Witenagemote was held at Old Sarum in 960; and here William the Conqueror assembled all the barons of his kingdom in 1086. In 1220 the cathedral was removed to New Sarum, now Salisbury (q.v.), and was followed by most of the inhabitants. In Henry VII.'s time it was almost wholly deserted. Traces of walls and ramparts

and of its cathedral and castle are still seen. Though without a house, two members represented it in Parliament till Old Sarum became proverbial as the type of a rotten borough. It was disfranchised by the Reform Bill of 1832. William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, first sat in Parliament for Old Sarum in 1735. Population of parish, 300.

SARZANA, särd-zä'nå. A city in the Prov. ince of Genoa, Italy, on the Magra, eight miles by rail east of Spezia (Map: Italy D 3). The Gothic cathedral, begun in 1355, is rich in paintings and marbles. The ancient citadel is used as a prison. There are a seminary and a tech

nical school. Sarzana has manufactures of silk

and glass; wine and olive oil are made. Population (commune), in 1901, 12,141.

SASKATCHEWAN. A large river of Canada forming the upper course of the Nelson River (q.v.), together with which it forms one of the four great river systems of North America east of the Continental Divide (Map: Canada, K 6). It rises in the Rocky Mountains by two main branches, the North and South Saskatchewan, which unite near Prince Albert in Saskatchewan Territory, whence the main stream flows eastward to the northwestern corner of Lake Winnipeg. The main river has a length of 282 miles, and the total length, including the South Branch, is 1090 miles. The North Branch rises in the glaciers on Mount Hooker and flows east on the southern border of the forest country through the Territories of Alberta and Saskatchewan. The South Branch has several headstreams, some of which rise in the extreme northern part of Montana. Its course after leaving the mountains lies entirely within the Great Plains. It flows northeast through Alberta, Assiniboia, and Saskatchewan. Before entering Lake Winnipeg the main river flows through several lakes, the largest of which, Cedar Lake, is 30 miles long. Between Cedar Lake and its mouth it is interrupted by rapids. The whole river is narrow, and the South Branch is obstructed by shoals and sand bars. Steamers, however, ascend the North Branch to Edmonton, 850 miles from Lake Winnipeg, and smaller boats can go 150 miles farther to Rocky Mountain House.

wooded with forests of aspen poplar, pine, and spruce; the southwestern half is prairie land in the main, only the hills being wooded. The winters are very cold, but are free from blizzards, The summers are warm, and, though short, perand the atmosphere is clear and exhilarating. mit the growth and maturing of many varieties of farm crops. Precipitation is light (about 13 inches), but is greatest in the growing summer months when it is most needed. Over the greater portion of the southern half the soil is very rich. Wheat, oats, barley, and the root crops thrive, the conditions being especially favorable for wheat, which is beginning to be extensively raised is an important factor in the development of the in the district. The Saskatchewan River (q.v.) district, inasmuch as it affords navigation the entire length of the region, and by way of Lake Winnipeg admits of water communication with the country to the south. With some expense in the removal of obstacles now in its course a navigable length of 1500 miles will be afforded, making possible a water communication with the coal fields to the west. Another means of communication has been established by the construction of the Qu'Appelle, Long Lake and Saskatchewan Railroad, which connects Prince Albert with Regina, on the trunk line of the Canadian Pacific Railroad. Lakes Winnipeg and Winnipegoosis, which project well into the eastern end of the district, are of value not only for purposes of navigation, but also for the enormous numbers of whitefish, pickerel, sturgeon, and other varieties of fish which they contain. Settlements in the district are most numerous in the southeast part and along the course of the Saskatchewan, the Prince Albert region in the centre of the district being the most highly developed. In 1901 the total population was 25,679. For governmental purposes it is a part of the Northwest Territories (q.v.). The seat of administration is Battleford.

SASKATCHEWAN. A district of Canada, lying northwest of Manitoba, between latitudes 52° and 55° N., embracing an area of 114,000 square miles (Map: Northwest Territories, H 4). The surface is a rolling prairie sloping to the east and broken at intervals by groups of hills, the most prominent being those paralleling the Saskatchewan River on the south. The northeastern half of the district is well

SASSAFRAS (Sp. sasafras, variant of salsafras, salsifrax, saxifraga, from Lat. saxifraga, maidenhair, stone-breaker, from saxum, rock +

SASSAFRAS.

frangere, to break), Sassafras. A genus of trees or shrubs of the natural order Lauraceæ. The sassafras tree (Sassafras officinale) of North

America, found from Canada to Florida and west of Kansas and Texas, sometimes attains a height of 100 feet, has deciduous, entire, or three-lobed leaves, yellow flowers, and small dark-blue fruit. The wood is soft, light, coarse-fibred, dirty white and reddish brown, with a strong but agreeable smell, and an aromatic, rather pungent, sweetish taste. The thick spongy bark of the root contains a volatile oil, oil of sassafras, widely used as a flavoring for confectionery. The leaves are said to be used for flavoring soups, as well as for the abundant mucilage they contain.

SASSAN'IDE, or SASSANIDS. The last native dynasty of Persia, which ruled from about A.D. 226 until about 641. The Sassanids succeeded the Arsacidæ (q.v.), and derived their name from Sassan, the grandfather of Ardashir, the first ruler of this line. Ardashir I. came to the throne in 226 and reigned until 241. His father, Papak, was a princeling of Chir, not far from Istakhr (Persepolis), and obtained for his son from his suzerain, the Bazrangi King Gaochithra, the position of commander-in-chief of Darabgerd. This position was utilized by Ardashir to secure kingly power. He extended his sway with the help of his father, who murdered Gaochithra and declared his eldest son Shahpuhr (Sapor) King in defiance of the Parthian sovereign, Artabanus V. On Papak's death Shahpuhr was King for a short time, but being killed by an accident while engaged in an expedition against his brother Ardashir, the latter seized the throne. He put to death all his rivals, including his elder brothers, and crowned a series of minor conquests by the defeat and death of Artabanus at Hormizdagan in 224. Two years later the capital, Ctesiphon, yielded to him. In Armenia, however, which he invaded in 228, he met with no lasting success, and in Georgia the Arsacid dynasty was able to bid him defiance. An attack on the Romans was practically futile, despite his victories at Nisibis and Carrhæ in 237.

Ardashir was succeeded by his son Shahpuhr (Sapor) I. (241-272), who continued his father's policy. Undeterred by a defeat in 242 by the Roman Gordianus at Ras el Ain (Resaina), he secured by a treaty with Philippus, the successor of Gordianus, both Armenia and Mesopotamia (244). The great event of his reign was his victory over the Roman Emperor Valerian (q.v.) at Edessa (Antioch Callirhoë), in Northern Mesopotamia, in 260. In 261 Shahpuhr met with a reverse at the hands of Odenathus (q.v.), who took Carrhæ and Nisibis and threatened Ctesiphon itself. The invader was forced to retreat, however, and the remainder of Shahpuhr's rule was quiet and uneventful. The four following kings-Ormazd I. (272-273), Bahram I. (273276), Bahram II. (276-293), and Bahram III. (293) were not especially noteworthy; but Narses I. (293-303), a son of Shahpuhr I., after a temporary victory over Terdat (Tiridates) of Armenia, was finally defeated by Galerius in 296, losing not only Armenia and Atropatene, but Iberia also, which came under Roman control. Ormazd II. (303-309) was followed by his posthumous son, Shahpuhr II. (309-379), whose reign is one of the most noteworthy in the Sassanid period. It is marked in ecclesiastical history by bitter persecutions of the Christians begun in 342, arising from close affiliations of the Persian Christians with the Eastern Empire of Byzantium, an hereditary foe of Persia. War with

Byzantium soon broke out, at first with varying success. In 345 Shahpuhr was utterly defeated at Singara. In 359 the war began anew, but, despite several victories in Armenia, the Persians made little real headway until Constantius was succeeded by Julian the Apostate (q.v.), who lost his life at Ctesiphon in 363. This victory restored to Persia all that she had lost, and indirectly added Iberia and other Caucasian provinces to her sway. The success of Shahpuhr reestablished the glory of the Sassanids.

He was followed by his step-brother, Ardashir II. (379-383), and his son, Shahpuhr III. (383388), who lost much of Armenia Minor and was killed in a mutiny, being succeeded by his brother, Bahram IV. (388-399). Yezdegird I. (399-420), whose reign, like the preceding one, was marked by petty events in Armenia, but who personally was upright and peaceful, was followed by Bahram V., surnamed Gur (420-438). In the beginning of his reign he conquered the Haital (Hephthalites, or White Huns), but a persecution of the Christians involved him in a war with the Byzantine Empire, which resulted in his defeat (421). His son Yezdegird II. (438-457) remained at peace with the west, but attempted to compel the Christian Armenians to give up their faith and crushed the Armenian forces at Avarayr in 451. He was followed by his two sons, Ormazd III. (457-459) and Firuz (459-484). The reign of the latter was marked by wars with the White Huns, against whom he made two expeditions, the first of which was unsuccessful, and the second disastrous, Firuz himself being slain near Balkh. His brother Balash (Vologeses) (484488) succeeded him, but was deposed and followed by Kavadh (Kobad) I. (488-531), whose rule was interrupted for a short time by the usurpation of his brother Jamasp (496-498). In this reign Mazdak (q.v.) promulgated his doctrines, and as a result of his favor to them Kavadh was for a while deprived of his throne. He waged war with the Greeks and at one time Belisarius (q.v.), the general of Justinian, was his opponent. He was followed by his son Khosru (Chosroes) I. (531579), surnamed Anushirvan, 'the Immortal Souled.' His reign was chiefly occupied with wars against the Byzantines. After a brief period of peace, Khosru invaded Syria in 540, vexed by the successes of his rival Justinian (q.v.) in Italy and Armenia and by his interference in Oriental politics. Belisarius, however, prevented him from doing serious injury, although a large Byzantine army under Narses was routed by the Persians in 543. The second Byzantine war dragged on from 550 until 557, when it practically ended with the defeat of the Persians at Phasis, near the Black Sea. Khosru then turned his arms against the White Huns, whom he conquered (557). In 572 a third Greek war was begun by Justin II., who refused to abide longer by the treaty which his uncle Justinian had made with Khosru. The Sassanid King overran Armenia, but suffered defeat in the plain of Melitene (Malitia). The Greeks then invaded Persia, and Khosru sued for peace, but died before the negotiations were completed. This reign marks the climax of the Sassanid dynasty, and the golden age of Pahlavi literature.

Khosru was succeeded by his son Ormazd IV. 578-590), whose reign was an unfortunate one. Not only were his wars in Armenia unsuccessful,

on a busy trade, chiefly with Genoa, in grain, wine, fruits, olive oil, and skins. There are manufactures of lead, zinc, matches, and leather. Population (commune), in 1881, 36,317; in 1901, 38,268. The port of Sassari is Porto Torres, 10 miles to the northwest, with a population, in 1901, of 4433.

but his general Bahram Chubin, who had been deposed from his command by Ormazd, revolted in 589. At the same time the King became suspicious of his son, Khosru Parwez, who implored the aid of the Emperor Maurice. Ormazd was dethroned and succeeded by Khosru (590-628). In 604, as the avenger of Maurice, who had been murdered by the Emperor Phocas, he took the field against the Greeks, who made but a feeble resistance to him, despite the efforts of Heraclius (q.v.). The Persians overran Armenia and in 614 penetrated Syria, and even conquered Egypt, which they held until 618. This was, however, the last conquest of the Sassanids. In 623 the tide turned and Heraclius inflicted defeat after defeat on Khosru, until in 627 the King was thrown into prison by one of his younger sons, Kavadh Sheroe, and murdered the year following. This son, who ascended the throne as Kobad II., after a reign of six months was the victim of a pestilence which devastated the country. He was followed by his infant son, Ardashir III. (629-630), who was murdered by Shahrvarez or Farrukhan, the Persian commander-in-chief, himself assassinated in less than two months. Rapid changes of rulers followed, and such was the anarchy in Persia at this time that between the death of Khosru II. in 628 and the accession of Yezdegird III. in 632 there were twelve occupants of the throne. Yezdegird III. (632-651), a grandson of Khosru, was the last of the Sassanids. At the time of his accession the Arabs were just entering upon their great career of conquest. After subjugating Syria they turned toward Persia. The Persians resisted bravely, but their forces were overthrown by those of the Caliph Omar at Kadisiyah (now Kadder) about 635. In the following year Ctesiphon fell, and a series of conquests gave the Arabs complete dominion over Persia. In 641 or 642 the defeat of the Persians at Nehavend terminated the reign of Yezdegird, who as a fugitive dragged out a miserable existence until he was murdered by a peasant for his clothing in 651.

The Sassanid rule was in general beneficial to Persia. The arts and sciences flourished, the government was just, and the ancient faith of Zoroaster, which had declined, was revived and restored almost to its pristine purity.

Consult: Rawlinson, The Seventh Great Oriental Monarchy (London, 1876); Nöldeke, Geschichte der Perser und Araber zur Zeit der Sasaniden aus der arabischen Chronik des Tabari übersetzt (Leyden, 1879); Casartelli, Philosophy of the Mazdayasnian Religion Under the Sassanids (Bombay, 1889); Justi, Iranisches Namenbuch (Marburg, 1895); id., "Geschichte Irans von den ältesten Zeiten bis zum Ausgang der Sāsāniden," in Geiger and Kuhn, Grundriss der iranischen Philologie (Strassburg, 1900); Browne, Literary History of Persia (London, 1902).

SASSARI, säs'så-rê. The capital of the Prov ince of Sassari, in the northern part of the island of Sardinia, 10 miles from the Gulf of Asinara (Map: Italy, C 7). It has broad streets, spacious squares, and several fine modern buildings. The fifteenth-century cathedral has a richly sculptured façade. The university, founded in 1634, contains a natural history collection and a large library. There are several churches and palaces, a new theatre, a lyceum, a gymnasium, a seminary, and a technical institute. Sassari carries

SASSOFERRATO, säs'sô-fĕr-rä'tô, GIOVANNI BATTISTA SALVI (1605-85). An Italian painter, so called from his birthplace, the Castle of Sassoferrato, near Urbino. He was son and pupil of Tarquinio Salvi, and studied at Rome and Naples. He painted, besides his own portrait now in the Uffizi, only religious subjects. The "Madonna del Rosario" in the Church of Saint Sabina in Rome and a "Crucifixion" in North Cray Church, Kent, are his best works. Others, also simple and devout, are the "Adoration of the Shepherds" and "Joseph's Workshop," both in the Naples Museum, a "Magdalen" in Hampton Court Palace, and at the Louvre an "Assumption," two Madonnas, and a "Sleeping Child Jesus."

SASSULITCH, sås-soo'lich, VERA (1853-). A Russian revolutionist. See ZASULICH.

SASTEAN, säs'tê-an, SHASTIKA, or SHASTA. One of the numerous small linguistic families of Indians who formerly lived in the California-Oregon region. They called themselves Kútikěkanać. Their home was the region drained by the Klamath River and its tributaries from the western base of the Cascade range to the point where the Klamath flows through the ridge of hills east of Happy Creek. They extended over the Siskyou range northward as far as Ashland, Ore. They are now reduced to a mere handful, the most of them on the Grande Ronde and Siletz Reservations in Oregon. The men are smaller and weaker than the women, who are charged with about all the work of their industrial life.

SATAN. See DEVIL.

SATANISM. The cult of Satan and an important phase of occultism. From the character of its worship it is necessarily secret, and precise details are difficult to acquire. The impression which generally prevails, however, that Satanism is a recent and spasmodic outburst of diabolical sacrilege, is certainly incorrect. The cult is an old one, and in its origins reaches far back into primitive religion, while it is apparently a conglomerate of at least three entirely distinct components. Considering first the actual phenomena presented by Satanism, it may be said that the cult reaches its acme in the Black Mass, which stands to it in the same relation as stands the White (or Christian) Mass to the Catholic Church. The Black Mass is the direct opposite of the White Mass. The celebrant of the mass, who must have been a priest, is clad only in his sacrificial vestments, of which the chasuble may bear the figure of a goat, while the scarlet biretta is held by a woman dressed in scarlet who serves as deacon. Upon the altar is an inverted cross. Incense is used during the mass, but is mingled with some foul-smelling substance. The Black Credo, which is a blasphemous antithesis of the Apostles' Creed, is then recited.

The form of the sacrifice of the mass itself has changed since the seventeenth century. In the medieval period and as late as the famous Black Masses performed by Abbé Guibourg on the persons of Mme. de Montespan and others, the altar

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